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MAGAZINE 



JANUARY 1901 

SOME OF THE ARTICLES IN THIS ISSUE ARE : 
Long Distance Touring By Automobile, 

W. H. STEMMERMAN, M.D. 

How Halliday's Prejudice Was Overcome, 

EUGENE WOOD. 

Motor Vehicles in Business, 

W. H. MAXWELL, JR.— A. H. CHADBOURNE. 

The Final Automobile, hugh dolnar. 

Letters from Our London and Boston Correspon- 
dents. 



LIBERTY ST., NEW YORK.U.SA 




AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 



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Clinton E. Woods 

Automobiles 



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are 'what you have been -waiting for if you have been -waiting for improvements that should result from 
a long experience and for a vehicle that looks its name. No more criticisms about having lost the 
horse I Not an exposed moving or running part of any kind. Every constructional feature of these 
AUTOMOBILES is simplified, strengthened and designed to meet -what experience has shovjn is de- 
manded to make an electric Automobile successful in every sense of the -word. TWENTY PER CENT. 
LESS current consumption than any other electric Automobile made in the -world and GUARANTEED to 
operate safely and surely up or do-wn a TWENTY PER CENT. GRADE. Provided with a frictionless 
ELECTRIC BRAKE for hill coasting, and also provided with two mechanically applied brakes for 
emergencies. FORTY MILES guaranteed on one charge of the batteries. Every constructional feature 
guaranteed in every particular and the PRICE is REDUCED. Before purchasing an Automobile it is 
well to consider the many improvements in the CLINTON E. WOODS AUTOMOBILES. 

ADDRESS ALL COMMUNICATIONS TO 

ClintOn E. Woods, 3255 Wabash Avenue, 

Chicago, 111., U.S.A. 

Agents Wanted Everywhere. 



TL/ t 



The Automobile 



magazine / 






.^-3: e^ 



HU. FEB : 1902 



i 



Index to Volume III, 1901 




A 

PAGE 

Accessories, New Automobile 1147 

Accident, Automobile, Assault in an. 791 

Automobile vs. Horse 930 

Danger of 938 

The Kind of, That Often Hap- 
pens 602 

Across France on a Racer 667, 717 

Amenities, International 315 

Among the Clubs 623, 703 

Analysis of Wear of Roads 950 

An Auto Ballad (poem) 967 

An Automobile Unbeliever 817 

An Invitation , 276 

Apperson Bros. Auto Co 1082 

Association, National Automobile 

Mfrs 173 

National Good Roads 454 

Astor Lodge 852 

At the Storage Station 484 

Automobiles Are Improving 1039 

Automobile, The (poem) 125 

The Modern 1135 

Automobile Control, Practical Dem- 
onstration of, in England... 815 

Automobile Sport in Spain 1112 

Automobiles, A Good Section for ... 40 

Alcohol in 462 

Certainty of 238 

for the Majority 7S4 

for the Medical Fraternity.... 581 
for Transporting Freight and 

Passengers 55(5 

Gasoline, Changes in 452 

Gasoline, The Operation of. . . . 370 

in Amsterdam 334 

in Our City 350 

Lane, Steam r>1S) 

Long Distance Touring by 3 

on the Installment Plan... 237, 437 

Rated Power of 1108 

Saint Louis 127 

Steam, Cost of Operating 317 

The Final 281, 560 

1'. S. Long Distance 526 

Wood's 90 

Automobilists, Amateur and Profes 

sional (;•_>:> 

Autoists Should Take Warning 1111 



B 

tagk 

Back Firing 715 

Bali-Bearing Automobile Jacks 1052 

Banquet, Manufacturer's 1073 

Battery, Insufficient, for Sparking. . 13S 

Bay Cbarley's Dream (poem) 316 

Bicycles, E. R. Thomas Motor 358 

Bill, Doughty 476 

New Automobile 491 

Boilers, Water and Steam 140 

Books, C. C. Bramwell's 855 

Two New Instruction 955 

Book Reviews 324 

Boston's New Automobile Buildings. 975 

Brake, Double Acting 528 

Brakes, Question of 1110 

Breakage, About 371 

Burners, The Stanley 353 

Busses. For Long Island 529 

c 

Cab, Service of Paris Electric 644 

Twenty-Four Horse-Power 402 

Car, Fournier's. Correct Figures of.. 710 

French Racing 231 

Knickerbocker 796 

Latest French 653 

Napier, in America 1097 

Peerless Motoi 1045 

Racing, Reaction Against Heavy. 739 

Hiker's Gasoline 740 

Touring, of the Autocar c>.... 597 

Carriage. A New Steam 321 

Duryea Steam •_' 1J 

Marly American Horseless L067 

Klectric, Operation o( 515 

l torse-Power oi' 135 

Kerosene Motor l driven i » l 

Latest Searchmonl 907 

New Steam 860 

steam, one Season's Experience 

with a 222 

Steam, Practical Operation of, 171 

Touring 592 

Casting by the Tropenas Process.., i * s i 

Changes In A. c. of A. Constitution. 759 

chains for Motor Carriages. :>07 



THE AUTGIvlORT.LS, MAGAZINE/ c 



l'AOE 

Chauffeurs vs. Coachmen 809 

of Ye Olden Tymes 1113 

Club House. New, for Automobile 

Club of New England 345 

Clubs, Among the 109 

A. of A., What It Has Done in 

Two Years 689 

Bridgeport's Automobile 249 

Chicago Automobile 45, 945 

Chicago Automobile, Loses Its 

President 805 

Long Island Automobile. . . .99, 846 

Rhode Island Automobile 47 

The National Capitol 211 

Westchester Automobile 43 

Column. Low Water Alarm 92 

Committees, A. C. of A 48 

National Good Roads Associa- 
tion . 56 

Constitution, Automobile 344 

Frame 477 

Contest. Nelson Hill. Rules of ,K38 

Convenience, A Steam Vehicle 908 

Correction by Mr. Baird 1079 

Coventry, A Recent Visit to 436 

Correspondence. That Automobile 

House 135 

Not How Cheap But How Good. 136 

Automobile Explosion 137 

Cup Race. Gordon-Bennett 469 

Cycles, Motor 474 

Cylinder, The Integral 608 

D 

Daimler Factory. A Visit to 640 

Deceived by Water Glass 857 

Design, Electric Vehicle 93 

Gas Engine, New Principle in.. 101 

Designing Carriage Bodies 181 

Engine, for Automobiles 537 

Desert, Across the 361 

Device, A New Transmission 80 

An Ingenious 79 

Dick Turpins A-wheel 151 

Dietz Headlight 1084 

Directory, Automobile Club. .65, 178, 
273, 365, 550, 737, 849, 941. 

1037. 1133 

Discussion, Frankness of 353 

Doings, A. C. of A.'s 176 

Donfs, A Few 232 

Dream of a Scorcher (poem) 167 

Drivers. Indiscreet 174 

Amateur, in New York 979 

Dust Problem 657 



E 

Election, Automobile Club of Amer- 
ica 1129 

Engines. A New Design of Automo- 
bile 142 

Compound 716 

Edward F. Birdsall's 858 

Fox Steam 647 

Gas, Professor Thurston on the. 460 

Hydro-Carbon. Cvlinders of.... 118 

England Coincides with France. ... 1136 

Enthusiasm of Beginners 543 

Enthusiast, A Youthful 680 

Events, Automobile, at Boston 721 

Great International 483 

Important Future 851 



« < ' cc PAGE 
Exhibition. Agricultural Hall, Lon- 
don 236 

Exhibits. Electric Vehicle Co.'s. at 

Pan-American 678 

Exide Battery, Good Performance of. 703 

Experiences, Paris-Berlin Race 801 

Some Automobile 600 

Two, Showing the Personal Fac- 
tor 434 

with First Machine in a Con- 
necticut Town 212 

Experiment, "Bus Line 260 

Explosives, Carriage of, on Ferry 

Boats 166 

Exposition, Automobile, at Glasgow. 

134. 675. 778 

F 

Ferry Edict, The (poem) 22 

Features, Essential, of Motor Car- 
riages 18 

Frontispiece. .78, 121, 202, 298, 386. 

482, 578, 674. 770, 862. 958, 1054 

Fuel. Foraging for 244 



Q 

Gash, W. D., Now with Searchmont . 1043 

Gasoline, Know Your 238 

Storing of 275, 408. 638 

Gears, Chainless Transmission 642 

Reachless Running 1048 

Transmission, of European Cars. 604 

Graphite for Engine Slides 414 



H 

Harvard, Stabling Automobiles 

Around 49 

Hill-Climbing Contest, Eagle Rock . . 1120 

Hill-Climbing Experience 398 

Hill-Climbing of Locosurrey 1106 

Home, New A. C. of A.'s 173 

Horns and Bells Encourage Speed . . 777 
Horse vs. Electrical Equipment.... 379 
Horseless Vehicles Prevent Cruelty. 1107 

Horse-Power, More About ~. . 536 

Hotel Guide 339 

House for My Carriage 41 

How Fournier Passes a Competitor. 859 
How Halliday's Prejudice Was Over- 
come 23 



Ideas of Inventors. . 170. 372, 448, 521 

I Make a Trial Run 257 

Index, Automobile .... l02. 198, 293, 

382, 478, 574. 671. 767 

It Might Have Been 494 



John's ()rter-Mo-Beel Cart (poem).. 254 



L'Allumage 946, 1049, 1147 

La Course des Grands Masques . . . . ~ 62 
Legal Decision Affecting Automo- 
biles 681 



THE AUTOMOBILE MAGAZINE 



PAGE 

Lemuel's Struggle with a New Car- 
riage 589 

Lights and Shades of Motoring. . . . 

299, 367, 387 

Locosurreys as Ambulances 748 

Looking Backward 181 

Lunkenheimer Oil Cups 730 

M 

Machine, A New Packard 337 

Know Your 139 

Napier, and Others 785 

Stringer Automobile Co . 1095 

Tractobile 1035 

Waywardness of One >.. 159 

Man with the Mileage (poem) 233 

Manufacturers and the Endurance 

Test 369 

Month's Leading Article 68 

Motor, Air-Cooled 502 

A New Petroleum 395 

Duryea 660 

Gasoline, Cooling of 511 

General Electric 634 

Incorrect Handling of 934 

Packard Carriage Single Cylin- 
der 981 

Tractobile 659 

Motor Manufacturing Co 531 

My First Road-Run Without a Me- 
chanic 312 



N 



Nelson Hill Views 839 

New Club Rooms, A. C. of A 310 

French Speed Law 935 

Locomobile Prices 795 

Motive Power and What Be- 
came of It 145 

Storage and Repair Station .... 956 

Tool-Set 272 

Notes. Automobile 743 

Foreign Automobile 844 

from Abroad. 163, 329, 420, 523, 664 

from London 15 

on Lubrication 527 

Pan-American 812 



Of Passing Interest. 161, 264. 361, 

439, 635 

Oils for Gasoline Motors 639 

Lubricating, for Explosive Mo- 
tors 415 

One Hundred Miles in the Rain .... 546 
One of America's Pioneer Autoists. . 1041 

One of a Famous Quartet 1126 

Over Driving 933 

P 

Pandora 32~> 

Parade, Bridgeport Automobile 4<i 

Worcester Automobile Club.... 9 

Paris-Berlin Race Reflections 974 

Pat's First Motor Car (poem) 343 

Pegasus up to Date (poem) 332 

Personal Mention 7. r >() 



PAGE 

Philadelphia to Baltimore 727 

Physician, The Automobile for the. . 107 
Pleasures of Hot Weather Automo- 

biling 937 

of Twenty Miles per Hour 1137 

Plug, A Crest Spark 539 

A New Sparking 438 

Porto-Rico a Paradise for Automo- 
biles 205 

Power of Automobiles, More About. 714 

What Shall Be the 109 

Prevent Disappointment and Misun- 
derstandings 368 

Problem, A Winter 170 

Progress in America 553 

Prudence's Automobile (poem) Ill 

Pump, A Handy Tire 216 

Purchase, Prospective, and Free 

Kides 253 



Q 

Quadrocycle, De-Dion 523 

Question, A Vexing 489 

The Battery 656 

Quick Repair Jobs 532 



Paces, Automobile, at Point Breeze. 587 

Buffalo-Erie Abandoned 840 

Detroit 945. 1022 

Fort Erie 1023 

Gordon-Bennett, New Move in. 930 

Newport 909 

Newport Automobile 853 

Paris-Bordeaux 648 

Paris-Berlin 753. 780 

Paris-Berlin, Women in 783 

Racing, Road, Benefits of 939 

Road, in Foreign Villages 1094 

Rules of the A. C. of A 706 

Remington Co.'s Generous Offer. . . . 807 
Resolutions, Alderman McEneaney's. 172 
Reverential Act in an Automobile. . . 943 
Road-Building, An Example of.... 728 
Road Description of Endurance 

Tests SIS 

Roads, Civilizing Influences of . . . . 37 

Good 197. 742 

of Our Countrv 234 

of the World 112 

Rubber, A Test for 344 

Runabout, An Electric 88 

Maltby 906 

Wood's Electric 169 

Huns, Anniversary. A. C. of G. P. . . 59 
Automobile Club of America . . 593 
Automobile Club, to Bridgeport.. 57 
Automobile Club, to the IV- 

Dion-Bouton Shops 372 

Cleveland to New York 121 

Long, by n Storage Battery.... 702 
260 Miles with Three Small 
Carriages 455 



Scenery, Fine [rish 849 

Seen and Heard I L30 

Serviceable Steam Tourist L035 

Shops. Ohio Automobile Co.'s 621 

Should the Motor Pe in From V 239 



THE AUTOMOBILE MAGAZINE 



PAGE 

Show, Automobile 1000, 1055 

Automobile Club's, Agricultural 

Hall, London 579 

Bicycle, Madison Square Gar- 
den 217 

Next French Automobile 1007 

No Track at uie Automobile. . . 740 

Tlie Boston 339 

The Chicago 400 

Shroud of Thought (poem) 944 

Side, The Other 67 

Sixty Miles for Sixty Cents, Over 

L. I. Roads 207 

So-Called Explosion 534 

Some English Road Racing 793 

Stopping, An Object Lesson in 396 

Speed, Great 927 

Heavy Penalty for 702 

of Club Runs , . 451 

Question of 453 

Speed-Law, in Connecticut 488 

in France, New 742 

Stage-Lines, New Electric 651 

Stations, Automobile Repair 368 



Test, Endurance, on Long Island . . . 252 
Endurance, Long Island Auto- 
mobile Club 331 

Endurance, Results of 959 

Five-Hundred-Mile Endurance... 504 
Five-Hundred-Mile Endurance 

(Buffalo) 684 

The Endurance 863 

The Late Mr. Tousey 487 

Three-Cornered Argument 1099 

Three Thousand Miles with a Steam 

Carriage 129 

Tires. A Question of 352 

Effects of, Bursting at Speed . . 929 
Valuable Non-Slipping 1003 

Tour, An Interesting 712 

A Pleasure, on a Gasmobile. . . . 749 

Chas. J. Glidden's Foreign 1042 

Madame Lockert's 771 

Preliminary, New York to Buf- 
falo 980 

The Irish 895 

Touring in California 996 

Long Distance, by Automobiles. 3 

Track Records, Empire Citv 1026 

Some New Automobile' 731 

Traction, Horse-Power of Automo- 
bile 760 

JNotes on Heavy Motor 148 



l'AGE 

Trials, French Alcohol 12 

Glasgow 1008, 1085 

Glasgow Automobile 898 

Heavy Motor Vehicle, 1901.... 119 

Liverpool, 1901 401 

Liverpool, Foreign Machines at. 333 

Long Island Speed 1139 

Results of Heavy Motor, Liver- 
pool, England 664 

Speed, After the 856 

Speed, Fast Foreign Automobile. 743 
Trip, Automobile, Across the Sahara. 442 

Truck, A Combination 466 

Trucking, Statistics of Steam 934 

U 

Uncle Jethroe's Will 120 

V 

Valve, Bown Tire 808 

.Liunkenheimer Generator 810 

Vehicles, Boston Automobile Ex- 
press Co.'s 791 

Electric, Interesting Use of ... . 206 

Electric, Private Charging of. . 540 

Electric, Status of, in France. . 256 

Motor, for Heavy Service 54o 

Motor, for Public Service 218 

Motor, in Business 71, 182 

Two Interesting 412 

Voiturette Did It (poem) 48 

Few Suggestions on the Opera- 
tion of a 203 

w 

Wagon, A Heavy Steam 335 

An Early Steam 359 

A New Delivery 269 

Motor, for Military Purposes. . 751 
Operation of Electric Delivery. 

277, 374 

Two English 757 

Wagonette, Searchmont 270 

Warren's First Auto. Ride 18 

Wheels, Large vs. Small 355 

Strength of 196 

Winton, The New 1 75 

Wintry Picture 490 

Wire vs. Wood Wheels 535 

World's Track Records, Alexander 

Winton's 1127 

Wrench, A Combination 165 

Sargent Co.'s 433 



THE AUTOMOBILE MAGAZINE 

The Automobile Magazine 



Vol. hi No. i JANUARY 1901 Price 25 Cents 


CONTENTS 


PAGE 


Cleanest Carriage in Anniversary Run {Frontispiece) . 2 


Long-Distance Touring BY Automobile. W. H. Stemmerman, M. D. 


3 


Parade of Worcester Automobile Club 




9 


Trials, French Alcohol 






12 


London, Notes from. Louis J. Oates 






15 


Essential Features of Motor Carriage . . ' . 






18 


Warren's First Auto Ride. Ned Galliday .... 






18 


Ferry Edict, The. (Poem) 






22 


How Halliday's Prejudice Was Overcome. Eugene Wood 






23 


Roads, Civilizing Influences of 






37 


Automobiles, A Good Section for 








40 


House for My Carriage, A 








4i 


Westchester Automobile Club 








43 


Chicago Automobile Club, About the 








45 


Parade at Bridgeport, Automobile 








4 ' 


Rhode Island Automobile Club 








47 


Voiturette Did It, The. (Poem) . 








48 


America, Committees of Automobile Club of 






48 


Harvard, Stabling Automobiles Around. O. L. Stevens . 






49 


Roads Association, Committee of National Good . 




* 


■ 5-6 


Run of Automobile Club to Bridgeport .... 






57 


Liquid Air Automobile, The 






53 


Great Britain, Anniversary Run of Automobile Club of 






[ 59 


La Course des Grands Masques. (Poem) .... 






. 62 


Directory, Automobile Club 






. 65 


Side, The Other 






67 


Article, The Month's Leading 






. 68 


Business, Motor Vehicles in. W. H. Maxwell, Jr. 






■ 7i 


Device, An Ingenious . • 






• 79 


Transmission Device, A New. A. H. Chadbourne 






. 80 


Runabout, An Electric 






. 88 


Automobiles, Woods . 






• 9^ 


Alarm Column, Low Water 






• 9- 1 


Electric Vehicle Design. H. M. Underwood 






• 93 


Long Island Automobile Club 






• 99 


Gas Engine Design, New Principle in 






to J 


Index, Automobile . 






102 



Agency for Foreign Subscriptions : 

INTERNATIONAL NEWS COMPANY, 

Breams Buildings, Chancery Lane Stephen Strasse, No. rS 



LONDON, e. c 



LEIPSIC 



Copyright, iqoi. All rights reserved. 
Entered at New York Post Office as second-class mail matter, 

Price 25 Cents a Number; $3.00 a Year 
Foreign Subscriprion $4.00, Post-paid 



THE AUTOMOBILE MAGAZINE 



CREST MFG. CO. 

Cambridgeport, Mass* 



3 and 5 H. P. Gasoline Motors 
Crest Unbreakable Sparking Plugs 






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ATLANTIC 

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Frames and Hollow Axles. 

Weldless Tubing, 

for Piston Rods and Cylinders. 

Send for Catalogue and Price List. 

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Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Branch Office: 36 La Salle Streeet, 
Chicago, III. 

10 Havcmcycr Building, New York, N. Y. 



Storage and Charging Stations 

AUTOMOBILE STORAGE AND REPAIR CO. 

57 W. 66th St. & Hotel Claremont, Riverside Drive, 
New York. 



ELECTRIC VEHICLE CO. 
1684 Broadway, New York. 



Gas, 

Gasoline and 
Oil Engines. 

Their Design, 
Construction, 
and Operation. 

Circular on 
application. 

International 

Correspondence 

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Scranton, Pa. 



INDEXES 

of all the numbers of 
The Automobile Magazine 
yet issued are now ready. Can 
be had for the asking. : : : 

The Automobile Press, 

95 Liberty Street, 

New York. 



THE AUTOMOBILE MAGAZINE 

The Automobile Magazine 



Vol. in No. 2 



FEBRUARY 1901 



Price 25 Cents 



CONTENTS 

Cleveland to New York, From {Frontispiece) . 
Physician, The Automobile for the. E. C. Chamberlin, M. D 
Power, What Shall Be the? .... 
Prudence's Automobile. (Poem) .... 
Roads of the World, The ..... 
Cylinders of Hydro-Carbon Engines . 
Trials of Heavy Motor Vehicles, 1901 
Cleveland to New York, From. Alexander Winton. 

Automobile, The. (Poem) 

St. Louis Automobile, The > .... 

Steam Carriage, Three Thousand Miles With a. Geo. E 

Exposition, Automobiles at the Glasgow . 

House, That Automobile. (Correspondence) 

Cheap But How Good, Not How. (Correspondence) . 

Explosion, That Automobile 

Battery for Sparking, Insufficient .... 

Machine, Know Your 

Boilers, Water in Steam .... 

Kerosene Motor Driven Carriage, A . . . 

Engine, A New Design of Automobile 

Power and What Became of It, A New. 1. B. Rich 

Traction, Notes on Heavy Motor .... 

Dick Turpins Awheel. (Story) Percie W. Hart . 

Waywardness of One Machine, The. W. E. S. . 

Interest, Of Passing 

Abroad, Notes From 

Casting by the Tropenas Process .... 

Wrench, A Combination 

Explosives on Ferryboats, Carriage of 
Scorcher, The Dream of the. (Poem) 

Runabout, Woods' Electric 

Ideas of Inventors . . 

Winter Problem, A 

Alderman McEneaney's Resolution .... 
National Association of Automobile Manufacturers 
America, New Home of Automobile Club of 
Drivers, Automobile Club of Great Britain and Indiscree 

Winton, The New 

America, Doings of Automobile Club of 
Directory Automobile Clubs . 
Looking Backward. (Editori.il) 
Bodies, Designing of Carriage 
Business, Motor Vehicles in. W 
Wheels, Strength of 
Roads, Good .... 
Index, Automobile 



H. Maxwell, Jr.— H. C 



Greenleaf 



Chj 



PAGE 

io5 
107 
109 
in 
112 
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119 
121 
125 
127 
129 
134 
135 
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137 
138 
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142 

H5 
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161- 

163 

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107 

r 9 8 



AGENCY FOR FOREIGN SUBSCRIPTIONS: 

INTERNATIONAL NEWS COMPANY. 
Breams Buildings, Chancery Lane Stephen Strassk. No. [8 

LONDON, E. C. LEIPSIC 



Copyright, 1901. All rights reserved. 

Entered at New York Post Office as second-class mail matti 



Price 25 Cents a Number; $3.00 a Year 
Foreign Subscription $4,00, Post-paid 



THE AUTOMOBILE MAGAZINE 



CREST MFG. CO. 

Cambridgeport, Mass* 



3 and 5 H. P. Gasoline Motors 
Crest Unbreakable Sparking Plugs 



u -* 




Filling 


I 


V 


Water Tanks 


% 


V 


By Hand 


3 
% 
% 


1 


Isn't any fun this weather. Mean 
job anyhow. 


8 
5 


S 


You can do it by steam 


1 


* 


with one of our little 


I 


1 


Tank Fillers. 


1 

1 

I 


* 

If 

K 
h 

§S 

H 
% 

% 


No carrying water — no trouble 
of any kind. 

$2.50 each. 

More comfort to the dollar than 
any other way. 




Rue Mfg. Co. 






215 Race Street, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 




^drf-m**********'*********** 



ATLANTIC 

Weldless Cold Drawn Steel Tubing, 

for Automobile Vehicle Construction in 

Frames and Hollow Axles. 

Weldless Tubing, 

for Piston Rods and Cylinders. 

Send for Catalogue and Price List. 

ATLANTIC TUBE CO., 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Branch Office : 36 La Salle Streeet, 
Chicago, 111. 

10 Havemeyer Building, New York, N. Y. 



Automobile Storage and 
Repair Company (Inc, 

57 West 66th St., New York. 

House, Charge, Care, Repair and Inspect. 
Transients Accommodated. 



Gas, 

Gasoline and 
Oil Engines. 

Their Design, 
Construction, 
and Operation. 

Circular on 
application. 

International 

Correspondence 

Schools, 

Box 828, Scranton, Pa. 



INDEXES 

of all the numbers of 
The Automobile Magazine 
yet issued are now ready. Can 
be had for the asking. : : : 

The Automobile Press, 

95 Liberty Street, 

New York. 



THE AUTOMOBILE MAGAZINE 



The Automobile Magazine 



Vol. hi No. 3 



MARCH 1901 



Price 25 Cents 



CONTENTS 

First Public Automobile, The. {Frontispiece) . 

voiturette, a few suggestions on the operation of a 

Porto Rico a Paradise for Automobiles 

Electric Vehicle, Interesting Use of 

Sixty Miles for Sixty Cents Oyer Long Island Roads. H. B. Fullerton 

Automobile Club, The National Capital 

Experiences with First Machine in a Connecticut Town. F.W. M 

Tire Pump, A Handy 

Bicycle Show at Madison Square Garden 

Public Service, Motor Vehicles for . 

Steam Carriage, One Season's Experience with a. P. T. Rees 

Racing Car, A French 

Dont's, A Few 

Mileage, The Man with the. (Poem) 
Roads of Our Country, The .... 
Exhibition at Agricultural Hall, London 
Installment Plan, Automobiles on the 

Gasoline, Know Your 

Certainty of Automobiles .... 

Motor be in Front? Should the 

Duryea Carriage, The . . . . 

Fuel, Foraging for. I. B. Rich 

Bridgeport's Automobile Club 

Endurance Test on Long Island . 

Rides, Prospective Purchasers and Free . 

John's Orter-mo-beel Cart. (Poem) . 

Electric Vehicle in France, Status of 

Trial Run, I Make a. R. E. Marks 

'Bus Line Experiment, A. O. L. Stevens 

Interest, Of Passing ..... 

Postal Delivery Wagon, A Winton 

Show, The Philadelphia . 

Wagon, A New Delivery 

Searchmont Wagonette, The 

Tool Set, A New 

Directory, Automobile Club . 

Gasoline, Storing of 

Invitation, An .... 

Wagons, Operation of Electric Deliver\ 

Automobile, The Final. Hugh Dolnar 

Index, Automobile 



PAGE 

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AGENCY FOR FOREIGN SUBSCRIPTIONS: 

INTERNATIONAL NEWS COMPANY, 
Breams Buildings, Chancery Lane Stephen Strasse. No. 18 



LONDON, e. c 



LEIPSIC 



Copyright, 1901. All rights reserved. 
Entered at New York Post Office as second-class mail mattci 



Price 25 Cents a Number ; $3.00 a 
Foreign Subscription $4.00, Post-paid 



Yea: 



THE AUTOMOBILE MAGAZINE. 



AN OPPORTUNITY 
UNEQUALLED.^ £ f 

The greatest name applied to any manufactured product is that of REMINGTON 
and REMINGTON STANDARD AUTOMOBILES will at all times be constructed in 
in the best possible manner and of the finest material, zo that this new product shall add to 
the confidence which the public have in anything bearing the name REMINGTON. 




This Style $750, Guaranteed. ^ Agents Wanted Everywhere* 

This Company was incorporated under the laws of New Jersey with $250,000,00 capi- 
tal stock divided into 2,500 shares. Up to the present time none of its capital stock has 
been offered to the public, and now it is intended to interest investors from all over the 
country in order that the organization may have the popular support of as large a number 
of people as possible* 

The Company has no bonded or mortgaged indebtedness and has passed all of the 
experimental stages, owns machinery, tools, fixtures, patents, etc*, and has a number of 
orders in hand for its complete vehicles for early spring delivery* It is bending all its efforts 
to the manufacture of Gasoline Automobiles, having a motor of its own design which is 
practical, safe, powerful, quiet and easy starting* 

It is conservatively estimated that the stock will earn from \2 to 15% the first year. 

For further particulars, address 

REMINGTON AUTOMOBILE 
AND MOTOR COMPANY. 

ILION, N.Y., U.S.A. 



THE AUTOMOBILE MAGAZINE 



The Automobile Magazine 



& 



Vol. hi No. 4 APRIL 1901 Price 25 Cents 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Mrs. Kennard Driving "Sir Charles" . . . . . {Frontispiece) 

Lights and Shades of Motoring, Mrs, Kennard 299 

Rooms of Automobile Club of America, New Club .... 310 

Mechanic, My First Road Run Without a. H. B. Barucb, M. D. . 312 

Amenities, International 315 

Dream, Bay Charley's. (Poem) 316 

Cost of Operating a Steam Automobile. Geo. E. Greenleaf . . . 317 

Steam Carriage, A New . . 321 

Book Reviews 324 

Pandora 325 

Abroad, Notes From 329. 

Pegasus Up to Date. (Poem) . . . - 332 

Liverpool Trials, Foreign Machines at . . . . . . 333 

Amsterdam, Automobiles in 334 

Wagon, A Heavy Steam 335 

Packard, A New 337 

Boston Show, The . . . . 339 

Hotel Guide . . . 339 

Test of Long Island Automobile Club, Endurance .... 341 

Motor Car, Pat's First. (Poem) . . . 343 

Construction, Automobile . . . 344. 

Rubber, A Test for 344 

Club House of the Automobile Club of New England, New. O. L. Stevens 345 

Tires, A Question of . . . . 352 

Burner, The Stanley . . . 353 

Discussion, Frankness of 353 

Wheels, Large vs. Small . . 355 

Cities, Automobiles In Our 356 

Bicycles, E. R. Thomas Motor 358 

Wagon, An Early Steam . -359 

Interest, Of Passing 361 

Desert, Across the 3^3 

Directory, Automobile Club 365 

Lights and Shades of Motoring. (Ed.) 367 

Repair Stations, Automobile 368 

Disappointment and Misunderstandings, Prevent 368 

Manufacturers and the Endurance Test, The 360 

Gasoline Automobiles, On the Operation of 370 

Breakages, About 371 

De Dion-Bouton Shops, Run of Automobile Club to ... 372 

Inventors, Ideas of 372 

Wagons, Operation of Electric Delivery. Wm. H. Maxwell, Jr. . . 374 

Horse vs. Electrical Equipment. H. M. Underwood .... 370 

Index, Automobile 382 

agency for foreign subscriptions : 

INTERNATIONAL NEWS COMPANY, 

Breams Buildings, Chancery Lane Stephen Strasse, No. i& 

london, e. c leipsic 

Copyright, 1901. All rights reserved. 
Entered at New York Post Office as second-class mail matter. 

Price 25 Cents a Number; $3.00 a Year 
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THE AUTOMOBILE MAGAZINE. 




Hydro Carbon System. 



PRICE, $750. 

First Auto Supply 
Co. in America."^ 

Send for New Catalogue Supplement* 

St. Louis Automobile 

& Supply Company, 

23d and St. Charles Streets, ST. LOUIS, MO. 



Long Island 

Automobilists' 

Arcadia. 



IDEAL TOURING TERRITORY 
Shaded Roads over Rolling Country on the 
North Shore, and Level Stretches along the 
Great South Bay and Ocean en the South Shore 

Trends East and West 

Cooled by Summer South Winds 

Supply Depots at frequent intervals for Steam, 
Gas or Electric Vehicles 

FINE HOTELS IN ALL SECTIONS 
FAST AND FREQUENT TRAIN SERVICE 

Telegraph and Telephones at all points 

For Illustrated Books, giving full information, apply to 

Long Island Railroad Company, 

L. I. CITY 

H M. SMITH, H.B. FULLERTON, 

Traffic Manager. Spec. Agt. Pass. Dept. 



INDEXES 



that include every number of 
the magazine issued, free for 
asking. This office. 



ATLANTIC 

Weldless Cold Drawn Steel Tubing, 

for Automobile Vehicle Construction in 

Frames and Hollow Axles. 

Weldless Tubing, 

for Piston Rods and Cylinders. 

Send for Catalogue and Price List. 

ATLANTIC TUBE CO., 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Branch Office : 36 La Salle Streeet, 
Chicago, 111. 

10 Havemeyer Building, New York, N. Y. 



THE OLDEST AUTOMOBILE JOURNAL IN THE WORLD. Established 1895 

THE AUTOCAR 

Edited by HENRY STURMEY, Hon. M. C. Eng. I. 

"The Autocar" is the recognized authority upon all matters connected witn 

the automobile movement in Europe. Its news and reports are reliable and correct. 

Its staff and correspondents are eminently practical and its circulation extends to all 

parts of the world. It is well printed and finely illustrated, and is acknowledged to be 

THE REST ADVERTISING MEDIUM IN THE AUTOMOBILE WORLD. 

.Published every Friday American Subscription $4.12 



ILIFFE, SONS & 



PUBLISH ERS 

STURMEY, Ltd., 



Coventry, Eng. 



THE AUTOMOBILE MAGAZINE 



The Automobile Magazine 



Vol. hi No. 5 



MAY 1901 



Price 25 Cents 



CONTENTS 



W. Bolande 



Sahara on an Automobile, Across the 

Motoring, Lights and Shades of. Mrs. M. E. Kennard 

Stopping, An Object Lesson in 

Petroleum Motor, A New 

Hill-Climbing Experience, A. F. 

Show, The Chicago . 

Liverpool Trials of 1901 

Car, A Twenty-four Horse-power. 

Gasoline, Storage of 

Clubs, Among the 

Vehicles, Two Interesting . 

Graphite for Engine Slides . 

Oils for Explosive Motors, Lubricating . 

Endurance Test on Long Island 

Uncle Jethro's Will. Joe Lincoln 

Abroad, Notes From . . . . 

Sargent Company's Wrenches .... 

Two Experiences Showing the Personal Factor 

Horse-power of Carriages 

Coventry, A Recent Visit to ... 
Installment Plan, Automobiles on the 

Plug, A New Sparking 

Interest, Of Passing ...... 

Sahara, Automobile Trip Across the . 

Pan-American Exposition, Automobile Plans for the 

Inventors, Ideas of . 

Speed of Club Runs 

Gasoline Automobiles, Changes in 

Speed Question, The . ' . 

National Good Roads Association 

Run of 260 Miles with Three Small Carriages. S. 

Gas Engine, Professor Thurston on the 

Alcohol in Automobiles 

Truck, A Combination .... 

Cup Race, The Gordon- Bennett . 
Steam Carriage, Practical Operation of 
Cycles, About Motor .... 

Doughty Bill, The 

Frame Construction .... 
Index, Automobile 



F. Edge 



( Fronti 



PAGE 

spiece ) 
387 
396 
397 
398 
400 
401 
402 

403 
409 
412 
414 

415 
417 
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43 2 
433 
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AGENCY FOR FOREIGN SUBSCRIPTIONS: 

INTERNATIONAL NEWS COMPANY, 

Breams Buildings, Chancery Lane Stephen Strasse, No. 18 

london, e. c. leipsic 



Copyright, iooi All rights reserved. 
Entered at New York Post Office as second-class mail matter, 



Price 25 Cents a Number; $3.00 a Year 
Foreign Subscription $4.00, Post-paid 



2 THE AUTOMOBILE MAGAZINE 

The most practical Automobile 
Is that operated by Gasoline^ 

Remington Automobiles 
Are Practical 

Price from $750.00 upwards* *s* 4, 6, 8 or even greater Horse 

Power, if ordered. 







WE CLAIM. 



Simplicity, Economy, Speed t 
Durability and Easy Starting. 

REMINGTON AUTOMOBILES are without complications. 

Write for further particulars to 

Remington Automobile and 
Motor Company, m™, n. y*> us. a. 



THE AUTOMOBILE MAGAZINE 



The Automobile Magazine 



Vol. hi No. 6 JUNE 1901 Price 25 Cents 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Hon. C. S. Rolls at the Steering Wheel . . . . {Frontispiece) 

The Great International Event 483 

At the Storage Station. By I. B. Rich 484 

The Late Mr. Tousey 487 

Speed Law in Connecticut 488 

A Vexing Question . . . 489 

A Wintry Picture 490 

New Automobile Bill 491 

It Might Have Been. By A. Lenalie 494 

Long Island Endurance Test 499 

Air-Cooled Motors. By C. G. Wridgway 502 

Five-Hundred-Mile Endurance Test 504 

Chains for Motor Carriages x . 507 

Cooling of Gasoline Motors . . 511 

Operation of Electric Carriages. By H. M. Underwood . . . 515 

Lane Steam Automobiles 519 

Ideas of Inventors 5 21 

De Dion Quadricycle . 523 

Notes from Abroad 5 2 3 

United States Long-Distance Automobile 526 

Notes on Lubrication . 5 2 7 

Double-Acting Brake 5 28 

'Buses for Long Island ... 5 2 9 

Motor Manufacturing Company. By Mary E. Kennard .... 531 

Quick Repair Job 53 2 

So-called Explosion 534 

Wire vs. Wood Wheels 535 

More About Horse-Power 53 6 

Engine Designing for Automobiles 537 

Crest Spark Plug . 539 

Private Charging of Electric Vehicles 54° 

Motor Vehicles for Heavy Service 54° 

The Enthusiasm of Beginners. By Robin Damon 543 

One Hundred Miles in the Rain 54 6 

Automobile Club Directory . . . . - 55° 

Progress in America 553 

Automobiles for Transporting Freight and Passengers . . . 55 6 

The Final Automobile. By Hugh Dolnar 5 6 ° 

Automobile Index 574 



agency for FOREIGN SUBSCRIPTIONS: 

INTERNATIONAL NEWS COMPANY, 

Breams Buildings, Chancery Lane Stephen Strasse, No, 18 

LONDON, E. C LEIPSIC 



Copyright, 1901. All rights reserved. 
Entered at New York Post Office as second-class mail matter. 



Price 25 Cents a Number; $3.00 a Year 



2 THE AUTOMOBILE MAGAZINE 

The most practical Automobile 
Is that operated by Gasoline.^ 

Remington Automobiles 
Are Practical 

Price from $750.00 upwards* & 4, 6, 8 or even greater Horse 

Power, if ordered. 



wife' 




WE CLAIM. 



Simplicity, Economy, Speed, 
Durability and Easy Starting, 

REMINGTON AUTOMOBILES are without complications. 

Write for further particulars to 

Remington Automobile and 
Motor Company, m™, n. y., u.s.a. 



THE AUTOMOBILE MAGAZINE. 



The Automobile Magazine 



Vol. hi No. 7 JULY 1901 Price 25 Cents 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Automobile Club's Show at Agricultural Hall, London. 

By Louis J. Oates . 579 

Automobiles for the Medical Fraternity 584 

Races at Point Breeze, Automobile 587 

Lemuel's Struggle with the New Carriage 589 

Carriage, A Touring 592 

Runs of the Automobile Club of America 593 

Touring Car of the Autocar Company 597 

Automobile Experiences, Some 600 

Cylinder, The Integral . . 608 

Transmission Gears of European Cars ....... 609 

Ohio Automobile Company's Shops . . .. . . . 62 l 

Among the Clubs - . 7 . . . 623 

Automobilists, About Amateur and Professional. By Malcolm VV. Ford 625 

General Electric Motors 634 

Of Passing Interest 635 

Gasoline, Storing of . . . . ... . . . . 638 

Oil for Gasoline Motors 639 

Daimler Factory, A Visit to . . . 640 

Gear, Chainless Transmission 64? 

Cab Service of Paris, Electric . . . . . . . 644 

Engine, The Fox Steam 647 

Race, Paris-Bordeaux 648 

Electric Stage Lines, New . . .' . . . . . .651 

Cars, Latest French . 653 

Battery Question, The 656 

Dust Problem, The 657 

" Tractobile," The 659 

Duryea Motor, The 660 

Accident that Often Happens, The Kind of 662 

Notes from Abroad 664 

Results of Recent Heavy Motor Trials at Liverpool, England . 664 

Across France on a Racer . . 667 

Altomobile Index 671 

AGENCY FOR FOREIGN SUBSCRIPTIONS: 

INTERNATIONAL NEWS COMPANY. 
BreamS Buildings, Chancery Lane Stephen Strasse, No. iS 

LONDON, E. C LEIPS1C 

Copyright, icjoi. All rights reserved. 
Entered at New York Post Office as second-class mail mailer. 



Price 25 Cents a Number; $3.00 a Year 



THE AUTOMOBILE MAGAZINE. 



Gas, 

Gasoline and 
Oil Engines. 

Their Design, 
Construction, 
and Operation, 



Circular on 
application. 



International 

Correspondence 

Schools, 



Box 



Scranton, Pa. 



INDEX TO ADVERTISERS. 



page; 

Desberon Motor Car Co 3 

United States Storage Battery Co . . 3 

Smith, Gray & Co 3 

Williams Typewriter Co. ... 3d Cover 

Niles Tool Works 3d Cover 

De Dion-Bouton Motoretle Co. . . . 

Back Cover 

General Electric Co 2 

International Correspondence School 2 

Mohler & DeGress 5 

Graphite Metal Co 5 

L' Automobile 5 

Pennsylvania Steam Vehicle Co. . . 5 

Lackawanna Railroad 4 

Sargent Company 4 

Autocar 6 

Motor Car Journal 6 

Romine, Fred 7 

Dixon Crucible Co 7 

Rogers, Peet & Co . 7 

Rue Mfg. Co 7 

"The Central" 8 

Reeves Machine Co 8 

Olds Motor Works 9 

Lancaster, Jas. H 9 

Ripans Tabules 10-ri 

Remington Automobile & Motor Co. 12 
The Mobile Co. of America .... 13-16 
U. S. Long Distance Auto. Co., 2d Cover 
Ostermoor & Co 6 



In ordering an 

ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILE 

be sure to specify 

GENERAL ELECTRIC CO/S 

NEW MOTORS. 



These motors challenge comparison 
in the high efficiency which they 
give at heavy overloads, thus pro- 
tecting the storage battery. 



General Office, SCHENECTADY, N. Y. 




New York Office, 44 Broad Street. 
Sales Offices in all Large Cities. 



THE AUTOMOBILE MAGAZINE 



The Automobile Magazine 



Vol. in No. 8 AUGUST 1901 Price 25 Cents 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Bostwick in his Winton Racer (Frontispiece) 

Glasgow Exposition, Autos at 675 

Electric Vehicle Company's Exhibit at Pan-American . . . 678 

Enthusiast, A Youthful / 680 

Legal Decision Affecting the Automobile 681 

Contest, the Five Hundred Mile Endurance 684 

Club of America has Done in Two Years, What the Automobile . 689 

Battery, A Long Run by a Storage 702 

Speed, Heavy Penalty for . . . 702 

Battery, Good Performance of Exide 703 

Clubs, Among the 703 

Racing Rules of the Automobile Club of America .... 706 

Tour, An Interesting . . . 712 

Power of Automobiles, More About . . ... . . . 714 

Firing, About Back 715 

Compound Engines 716 

Fournier's Car, Correct Figures of 716 

Across France on a Racer . . . . . . . . 717 

Automobile Events at Boston 721 

Philadelphia to Baltimore 727 

Road Building, An Example in . 728 

Lunkenheimer Oil Cups . . . 730 

Track Records, Some New Automobile 731 

Directory, Automobile Club ........ 737 

Racing Cars,- Reaction Against 739 

Automobile Show, No Track at the 740 

Speed Laws in France, New 742 

Roads, Edwin A. Bond on Good 742 

Speed Trial, Fast Foreign Automobile 743 

Notes, Automobile . . 743 

Riker's Gasoline Car 746 

Ambulances. Locosurreys as 748 

Tour on a Gasmobile, A Pleasure . . x 749 

Personal Mention 750 

Wagon for Military Purposes, Motor . . . 751 

Paris-Berlin Race 753 

Wagons, Two English 757 

Automobile Club of America Constitution, Changes in 759 

Automobile Traction, Horse-Power of 760 

Index, Automobile 767 

agency for foreign subscriptions : 

INTERNATIONAL NEWS COMPANY, 

Breams Buildings, Chancery Lane Stephen Strasse, No. 18 

LONDON, E. C LEIPSIC 



Copyright, iqoi. All rights reserved. 
Entered at New York Post Office as second-class mail matter. 



Price 25 Cents a Number; $3.00 a. Year 



THE AUTOMOBILE MAGAZINE 



Gas, 

Gasoline and 
Oil Engines. 

Their Design, 
Construction, 
and Operation. 



Circular on 
application. 



International 

Correspondence 

Schools, 

Box 828, Scranton, Pa. 



INDEX TO ADVERTISERS. 



Autocar 6 

Brooklyn Automobile Co ..... . 3 

De Dion-Bouton Motorette Co. . . . 

Back Cover 

Desberon Motor Car Co 5 

Dixon Crucible Co 7 

General Electric Co 2 

Graphite Metal Co 3 

International Correspondence School 2 

Lackawanna Railroad 3 

Miller's Sons, Wm. P 3 

Mohler & DeGress 5 

Motor Car Journal 6 

Ostermoor & Co 6 

Peerless Long Distance Steam Car- 
riage Co 12 

Reeves Machine Co 4 

Remington Automobile & Motor Co. 

3d Cover 

Rogers, Peet & Co 7 

Romine, Fred 7 

Rue Mfg. Co 7 

Sargent Company 5 

Smith, Gray & Co 3 

"The Central" 4 

The Mobile Co. of America . . . . 8-1 1 
U. S. Long Distance Auto. Co., 2d Cover 



In ordering an 

ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILE 

be sure to specify 

GENERAL ELECTRIC CO.'S 

NEW MOTORS. 



These motors challenge comparison 
in the high efficiency which they 
give at heavy overloads, thus pro- 
tecting the storage battery. 



General Office, SCHENECTADY, N. Y. 




New York Office, 44 Broad Street. 
Sales Offices in all Large Cities. 



THE AUTOMOBILE MAGAZINE 



The Automobile Magazine 



Vol. hi No. 9 



SEPTEMBER 1901 



Price 25 Cents 



CONTENTS 

Harlan W. Whipple's 16 Horse-Power Napier 

Madame Lockert's Tour 

Horns and Bells Encourage Speed . 

Glasgow Exposition, Automobiles at 

Paris-Berlin Race Experience, Hon. C. S. Rolls' 

Paris-Berlin Race, Women in ... 

Automobiles for the Majority .... 

Napier and Other Machines, Harlan W. Whipple 

Express Company's Vehicles, Boston Automobile 

Road Racing Ideas, Some English 

Automobile Accident, "'Assault" in an 

New Locomobile Prices .... 

Knickerbocker Car, The 

Race Experience, A Paris-Berlin 

Chicago A. C. Loses its President 

Remington Company's Generous Offer 

Bown Tire Valve, The .... 

Chauffeurs vs. Coachmen 

Generator Valves, Lunkenheimer 

Pan-American, Notes of the 

Automobile Control, Practical Demonstration in En 

An Automobile Unbeliever . 

Road Description of Endurance Test 

Nelson Hill Contest, Rules of . 

Nelson Hill, Views of . 

Buffalo-Erie Race Abandoned . 

Fine Irish Scenery 

Foreign Automobile Notes . 

Long Island Automobile Club 

Directory, Automobile Club 

Important Future Event 

Astor Lodge 

Newport Automobile Races 

C. C. Bramwell's New Book 

Speed Trial, After the 

Water Glass, Deceived by 

New Engine, Edward F. Birdsall's 

How Fournier Passes a Competitor 

Steam Carriage, A New 



page 
{Froiitispiece} 

771 

777 
778 
780 

783 

784 

785 
791 

793 
794 
795 
796 
801 
805 
807 
808 
809 
810 
812 

815 
817 
818 
838 

339 
840 

842 
S44 
846 

849 
851 

852 

to 
855 
856 

857 
858 
859 

S6C 



agency for foreign subscriptions : . 

INTERNATIONAL NEWS COMPANY. 

Breams Buildings, Chancery Lane Stephen Strasse, No. iS 



LONDON, e. c 



LE1PSIC 



Copyright, 1901. All rights reserved. 
Entered at New York Post Office as second-class mail matter, 



Price 25 Cents a Number; $3.00 a Year 
Ms* 4d. Sterling: 



THE AUTOMOBILE MAGAZINE 



Gas, 

Gasoline and 
Oil Engines. 

Their Design, 
Construction, 
and Operation. 

Circular on 
application. 

International 

Correspondence 

Schools, 

Box 828, Scranton, Pa. 



INDEX TO ADVERTISERS. 



PAGE 

Autocar 6 

Brooklyn Automobile Co 3 

De Dion-Bouton Motorette Co. . . . 

Back Cover 

Dietz & Co . . . 2d Cover 

Desberon Motor Car Co 5 

Dixon Crucible Co 7 

Graphite Metal Co 3 

International Correspondence School 2 

Lancaster & Co 4 

Lackawanna Railroad 3 

Miller's Sons, Wm. P 3 

Mohler & DeGress 5 

Motor Car Journal 6 

Ostermoor & Co 6 

Peerless Long Distance Steam Car- 
riage Co 12 

Pennsylvania Steam Vehicle Co . . . 2 

Reeves Machine Co 4 

Remington Automobile & Motor Co. 

3d Cover 

Rogers, Peet & Co 7 

Rue Mfg. Co 7 

Sargent Company 5 

Smith, Gray & Co 5 

"The Central" Storage Station ... 4 
The Mobile Co. of America .... 5-8 
U. S. Long Distance Auto. Co., 2d Cover 



THE TRACTOBILE. 



OIMPLE 
TTRUSTY 

ECONOMICAL 

AMPLE 
POWER 

MECHANICAL 




EFFICIENT 

■yOlSELESS 

gEARLESS 

INTER- 
CHANGEABLE 

COMPLI- 
CATIONS 

ENDURING 



N° 



Our Tracto-Surrey Price $625; orwith Rubber Tires on Rear Wheels, $650. 

Mk WlM 1 !^ Vehicle at present drawn by a Horse can be converted into an up-to-date Automobile— one pos- 
#A Wm sessing numerous patented improvements not found in any oilier make. The above illustration 

shows a '"CONVERTED" Surrey, formerly used as a Horse-drawn Vehicle. We have 
removed the neat shield or guard which is used to cover the Mechanism and the Battery oi Patent " Unit" 
Boilers, in order that the simplicity of design, strength of constiuction and accessibility of working paits may be 
appreciated. 

The Tractobile is the only motor built on correct mechanical lines. It DRAWS its load: it does not 
PUSH. No buckling strains are set up necessitating heavy, clumsy frame-work to counter balance them. The 
front wheels both draw and steer, and no "diffeiential "— that fruitful source of "skidding" — i? needed. The 
drive is direct from steam cylinders to road wheels — like a Railroad Locomotive. Noh.ssof power from geais 
and other complications. Legally protected everywhere. Full particulars furnished- by ihe makers. 

THE PENNSYLVANIA STEAM VEHICLE COMPANY, Inc. 

CARLISLE, PA. 



THE AUTOMOBILE MAGAZINE 



The Automobile Magazine 



Vol. in No. 10 OCTOBER 1901 Price 25 Cents 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

The Endurance Test 863 

The Irish Tour 895 

Automobile Trials at Glasgow ■ 898 

Runabout, The Maltby 906 

Searchmont Carriage, The Latest . . 907 

Steam Vehicle Convenience 908 

The Newport Races 909 

Great Speed, More About 927 

Tires Bursting at Speed, Effects of 929 

Gordon-Bennett Race, New Move in . . 930 

Glasgow Exhibition, Notes From the 931 

Over-Driving 933 

Handling of Motors, Incorrect 934 

Steam Trucking, Statistics of 934 

French Speed Law, New 935 

Automobile Accidents vs. Horse . . 936 

Hot Weather Automobiling, Pleasures of 937 

Accident, Danger of 938 

Road Racing, Benefits of ■. 939 

Automobile Club Directory 941 

Reverential Act in Automobile 943 

Shroud of Thought 944 

Detroit, Races at 945 

Chicago Automobile Club 945 

L'Allumage 946 

Wear of Roads, Analysis of 950 

Instruction Books, Two New 955 

Storage and Repairs Station, A New 956 



agency for foreign subscriptions.- 
INTERNATIONAL NEWS COMPANY. 

Breams Buildings, Chancery Lane Stephen Strasse, No. iS 

london, e. c leipsic 



Copyright, iqoi. All rights reserved. 
Entered at New York Post Office as second-class mail matter. 



Price 25 Cents a Number; $3.00 a Year 
\ 2s. 4cf. Sterling: 



THE AUTOMOBILE MAGAZINE 



Gas, 

Gasoline and 
Oil Engines. 

Their Design, 
Construction, 
and Operation 



Circular on 
application. 



International 

Correspondence 

Schools, 

Box 828, Scranton, Pa. 



INDEX TO ADVERTISERS. 

PAGE 

Autocar 11 

Brooklyn Automobile Co 3 

Brooks Bros 9 

De Dion-Bouton Motorette Co. . . . 
. . Back Cover 

Dietz & Co 2 

Desberon Motor Car Co 12 

Dixon Crucible Co 10 

Graphite Metal Co 3 

International Correspondence School 2 

Lancaster & Co 4 

Lackawanna Railroad 3 

Loughlin Mfg. Co 10 

Miller's Sons, Wm. P 3 

Motor Car Journal 11 

New York Automobile Repository. . 13 
New York Belting & Packing Co. 

. 2d Cover 

Reeves Machine Co 4 

Remington Automobile & Motor Co. 

3d Cover 

Sargent Company 12 

Smith, Gray & Co 12 

' ' The Central ' ' Storage Station ... 4 
The Mobile Co. of America .... 5-7 
U. S. Long Distance Auto. Co. . . . 13 
White Sewing Machine Co 8 



An automobile 
lamp must with- 
stand hard usage, 
or it is worthless 
and a poor lamp 
is a source of 
great annoyance. 

If you have not 
been able to test 
different makes, 
be guided by the 
experience of 
those who know. 

THE DIETZ LAMP 
was used by Mr. 
W i n t o n in his 
Cleveland - New 
York trip of 800 
miles in 38^ 
hours. 




Burns kerosene 
24 hours with one 
filling. 

Lights up the 
road perfectly for 
100 to 200 feet. 



3 DIETZ AUTOMOBILE LAMP, \ 

► 

t 

► 

i 

► 

i 

► 
> 

► 

► 

► 
► 

► 

► 
► 
► 
► 
► 



Will not 
or jar out. 



blow 



Will give satis- 
faction under all 
conditions. 

Write for 
prices and 
particulars. 



R.E. 



DIETZ COMPANY, 38 Laight St., New York 



THE AUTOMOBILE MAGAZINE 



The Automobile Magazine 



Vol. hi No. n NOVEMBER 1901 Price 25 Cents 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Endurance Test Results 959 

An Auto Ballad 967 

A Preliminary New York to Buffalo Tour 968 

Paris-Berlin Race Reflections 974 

Boston's New Automobile Buildings 975 

An Amateur Driver in New York 979 

The Packard Carriage Single Cylinder Motor 981 

Touring in California . 996 

Valuable Non-Slipping Tire Tests 1003 

The Automobile Show 1006 

Next French Automobile Show 1007 

Glasgow Trials 1008 

The Detroit Races 1022 

Races at Fort Erie 1023 

Empire City Track Records 1026 

Rhode Island Automobile Races 1029 

Serviceable Steam Tourist 1033 

The Tractobile 1035 

Automobile Club Directory 1037 

Automobiles Are Improving 1039 

One of America's Pioneer Autoists 1041 

Charles J. Glidden's Foreign Tour 1042 

W. D. Gash Now with Searchmont 1043 

Peerless Motor Car 1045 

Reachless Running Gear 1048 

Trials for One-Mile Records 104S 

L'Allumage 1049 

Ball-Bearing Automobile Jacks 1052 



AGENCY FOR FOREIGN SUBSCRIPTIONS: 

INTERNATIONAL NEWS COMPANY, 

Breams Buildings, Chancery Lane Stephen Strasse, No. iS 

london, e. c. leipsic 



Copyright, 1901. All rights reserved. 
Entered at New York Post Office as second-class mail nutu-i 



Price 25 Cents a Number; $3.00 a Year 
J2s. 4d. Sterling: 



THE AUTOMOBILE MAGAZINE 



Gas, 

Gasoline and 
Oil Engines. 

Their Design, 
Construction, 
and Operation, 



Circular on 
application. 



International 

Correspondence 

Schools, 



Box 828, 



Scranton, Pa. 



INDEX TO ADVERTISERS. 

PAGE 

Automobile Co. of America 12 

Automobile Exchange 5 

A%'ery & Jermess 6 

Brooklyn Automobile o. . 3 

Brooks Brothers q 

Central Storage Station 4 

Crest Manufacturing Co 6 

DeDion-Bouton Motorette Co . . Back Cover 

Desberon Motor Car Co 13 

Dietz ( R . E .) Company 2 

Dixon Crucible Co n 

Dyke, A. L 5 

Graphite Metal Co 3 

Haynes-Apperson Co 8 

International Correspondence School 2 

Lackawanna Railroad 3 

Lancaster, Jas. H 4 

Lane Motor Vehicle Co 14 

Laughlin Manufacturing Co 11 

Miller's Sons, Wm. P 3 

New York Repository 10 

New York Tire 2d Cover 

Ohio Automobile Co 16 

Overman Automobile Co 6 

Phelps Co 14 

Pennsylvania Steam Vehicle Co 8 

Peerless Manufacturing Co 3d Cover 

Reeves Machine Co 4 

Remington Automobile & Motor Co 7 

Sargent Company 13 

Searchmont Motor Co 5 

Smith, Gray & Co 13 

Spalding-Bidwell 5 

Storage, Repair and Charging Stations ... . . , . g 

U. S. Long Distance Auto. Co 10 

White Sewing Machine Co 15 




THE DIETZ 
AUTOMOBILE LAMP 

is the result of 60 years' ex- 
perience in finding the best 
way to make lamps. 

That's why they are used 
by leading automobile 
makers and drivers. 

They burn kerosene — 24 
hours at one filling. Will 
not blow out or jar out. Light 
up the road for 100 to 200 feet. 

They are the acme of lamp 
satisfaction. 



WRITE US FOR PRICES. 



R. E. DIETZ, 



38!LA10HT 
STREET, 



NEW YORK. 



THE AUTOMOBILE MAGAZINE 



The Automobile Magazine 



Vol. hi No. 12 DECEMBER 1901 Price 25 Cents 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Automobile Show 1055 

Early American Built Horseless Carriage K.67 

Manufacturers' Banquet 1073 

Correction by Mr. Baird . 1079 

New Wheel io Q o 

Apperson Brothers Automobile Company 1082 

Dietz Headlight * • . . 1084 

Glasgow Trials 1085 

Road Racing in Foreign Villages 1094 

Stringer Automobile Company's Machines 1095 

Napier Car in America 1097 

Three-Cornered Argument 1099 

Good Hill Climbing of Locosurrey 1106 

Horseless Vehicles Prevent Cruelty 1107 

Rated Power of Automobiles 1108 

Question of Brakes 11 10 

Autoists Should Take Warning 11 11 

Automobile Sport in Spain 11 12 

Chauffeurs of ye Olden Tymes 11 13 

Eagle Rock Hill-Climbing Contest 11 20 

One of a Famous Quartet 1126 

Alexander Winton's World's Track Records 11 27 

Automobile Club of America Election 1129 

Seen and Heard 113° 

Automobile Club Directory i'33 

The Modern Automobile 1135 

England Coincides with France 1136 

Pleasures of Twenty Miles per Hour 1137 

Speed Trials on Long Island 1139 

L'Allumage "44 

New Automobile Accessories 1147 

agency for foreign subscriptions : 

INTERNATIONAL NEWS COMPANY, 

Breams Buildings, Chancery Lane Stephen Strassb, No. iS 

london, e. c. leii»sic 



Copyright, iqoi. All rights reserved. 
Entered at New York Post Office as second-class mail matter. 



Price 25 Cents a Number; $3.00 a Year 
\ 2s. 4rJ. Sterling: 



THE AUTOMOBILE MAGAZINE 



Why not give your 
Customer what he 
wants, to wit, a «* 

Cdood 
Gibed 

for his Automobile 
g as made by *£«£«£ 

iPhineas Jones 

5 & Company, 

S 301 to 3X3 Market Street,^.* 
S Newark, N*J* 2 



INDEX TO ADVERTISERS. 

PAGE 

American Bicycle Co 3, 7 

Automobile Exchange 5 

Avery & Jenness 6 

Brooks Brothers 9 

Central Storage Station 6 

DeDion-Bouton Motorette Co Back Cover 

Desberon Motor Car Co 3 

Dietz(R. E.) Company :d Cover 

Dixon Crucible Co 11 

Graphite Metal Co 6 

Haynes-Apperson Co 12 

Horton, H . A 10 

International Correspondence School 7 

Jones, Phineas & Co 2 

Lackawanna Railroad 6 

Lancaster, Jas. H 4. 

Laughlin Manufacturing Co 11 

New Jersey Automobile Co 12 

New York Repository 5 

New York Tire 12 

Ohio Automobile Co 7 

Overman Automobile Co 2 

Reading Automobile and Gear Co q 

Reeves Machine Co 5 

Remington Automobile & Motor Co 3d Cover 

St. Louis Motor Carriage Co & 

Sargent Company 1152 

Smith, Gray & Co 3. 

Spalding- Bidwell 10 

Storage, Repair and Charging Stations 9 

White Sewing Machine Co 4. 

Whittlesey, Geo. P 11 




Victor Steam Air and 
Steam Water Pumps. 

Space required in carriage 9 inches 
in height by S inches in width. 
Weight 4^ pounds each. Steam 
piston l l / 2 inches in diameter by 2 
inch stroke. Water pump piston 1 
inch in diameter by 2 inch stroke. 
Capacity of water pump \y 2 gallons 
of water per minute against 200 
pounds boiler pressure. Air 
pump piston \ x / z inches in diameter 
by 2 inch stroke. Capacity of air 
pump 80 pounds pressure on fuel 
tanks or tires. Pipe connections y& 
inch. 

Overman Automobile 



Company, 



Room 98—83 Fulton Street, 

-New York* 







pq 



LI. 



A; 



The Automobile 
magazine 



Vol. in JANUARY, 1901 




Long-Distance Touring by Automol 

BY W. H. STEMMERMAN, M. D. 

THE writer of this article, accompanied by a companion, 
recently took an automobile trip of something more than 
600 miles. The route was from Passaic, N. J., to Phila- 
delphia, to Wilmington, Del., to Perryville, Md., where we 
boarded a flat car and were carried over the long bridge to Havre 
de Grace, there being no wagon bridge or ferry there. Thence 
to Baltimore. From Baltimore to Washington the worst roads 
were experienced on the whole trip. Thence to Frederick, Md., 
to Gettysburg, Pa., to York and Lancaster to Philadelphia and 
home. We were out thirteen days and averaged a little more 
than 70 miles a day, running time. No effort to " make time " 
was made. 

It is from experience gained in long-distance touring during 
the past season that the following suggestions are given out. The 
vehicle used on tour referred to was a " Mobile." 

In contemplating a long tour by automobile the first question 
which presents itself is that of suitable motive power. The 
average automobilist is, and will be, one who has no training in 
mechanics, therefore the carriage with the simplest, most easily 
mastered method of operation should appeal to him. provided 
that the carriage can travel over bad roads and can climb steep 
hills. The essential element which provides the power must bo 
one that can be procured everywhere at points not more than 
35 or 40 miles apart. The motor must also W oi such construc- 
tion that ordinary little repairs can be made by the talent procur- 
able in smaller cities and villages far away from the " experts' ' 
domain. There seems to be but one answer to this question. For 






4 LONG-DISTANCE TOURING BY AUTOMOBILE 

the purpose and conditions outlined above steam motive power 
seems to fulfil the requirements better than anything else at the 
present day. 

Those who are waiting for the carriage in which you " touch 
the button " will probably continue to wait until they are past 
their automobiling age. Nothing without labor, and for the 
immense amount of power exerted by a motor carriage some 
return in the way of care and fuel must be made. 

Before a tour in a steam carriage is attempted it must be 
assumed that the operator has had at least several months' experi- 
ence in running it, and knows the use and workings of every part 
of the mechanism. Many purchasers of automobiles refuse to 
learn any more about their motors than to fire up, fill the gasoline 
and water tanks and to start and stop. This is a mistake, and 
while they are not to be censured if they are not inclined to 
become machinists, they will soon find that it is absolutely neces- 
sary to master some details and soil the hands very often. Fre- 
quently some trifling derangement if seen and adjusted at once 
averts serious trouble. 

Some of the things it is absolutely necessary for the operator 
to know are as follows : He must know how to replace a broken 
water-glass. If the packing is not correctly done and the align- 
ment of the glass with the connections not perfect, leakage and 
frequent breakage will result. Slight leakage may occur from 
time to time. This can be remedied when the glass is cold by 
tightening the connections slightly. A number of extra glasses 
with packing should be provided. If the pump is not supplying 
the boiler with sufficient water the operator must know how to 
tighten up the packing. If this is not sufficient to produce the 
desired result he must know how to repack the pump. He must 
know how to clean the check valves and to know enough not to 
try to clean the one which holds back the steam while there is 
any pressure in the boiler. An extra pump-arm should be carried. 
It is easy to put in place if the one in use is broken. He must 
know how to tighten the piston packing and to replace the packing 
when necessary. 

Too much importance cannot be laid on the subject of oiling 
every part that needs it. Taking the oil can and blindly shower- 
ing the engine with oil is not the way to do it. Every oil hole 
should receive individual attention. For the smaller parts, such 
as the eccentric straps, in which the holes are very small, a bicycle 
oil can should be provided. With such a can the oil can be forced 
into the place intended for it. One part of the machinery which 



LONG-DISTANCE TOURING BY AUTOMOBILE 5 

is extremely important, and which is usually neglected, is the 
compensating gear on the rear axle. Each little cog should 
receive its share of oil at least once a clay, and the bevel gear as 
well. The chain should be kept moderately tight and lubricated 
with graphite paste. The supply of cylinder oil should be very 
carefully looked after. It is the wisest practise to oil up well on 
starting out and again every time a stop is made to fill the water 
tank. 

The simpler the outfit the less there is to get out of order, and 
on a long trip there is enough work to do without worrying about 
the numerous gimcracks which the manufacturers are daily 




Dr. W. H. Stemmerman in his " Mobile 



adding to their carriages. Automatic air pumps, automatic 
vaporizers, engines running in oil, and so on, are all very nice. 
comfortable and labor-saving devices. But the place to use a 
carriage provided with these things is within easy reach of The 
Man Who Can Fix It when something goes wrong. You will 
not find The Man 50 miles from home. He can be sent for. but 
that means delay and expense. Perhaps the word expense should 
not be mentioned in reference to automobiles. 

While multiplicity of parts should be avoided, the addition of 



6 LONG-DISTANCE TOURING BY AUTOMOBILE 

an auxiliary hand pump and an injector should be insisted upon, 
also a water-column with try-cocks. 

The absurd little foot pumps provided by some manufacturers 
are about as efficient as putty blowers. Get a " scissors " pump 
of good capacity — the size that retails for about $4 — and screw 
it to the bottom of the front of the carriage. If an extra piece 
of tubing is provided with connections it can also be used for 
inflating the tires. 

Water-glass connections . are provided with check valves to 
stop the escape of steam and water in the event of breakage. The 
upper valve does not always act and the steam continues to escape, 
rendering it difficult or impossible to replace the glass until all 
the steam is blown off, thereby causing delay. The upper one 
should be removed and a globe valve substituted by means of 
which the steam can be quickly turned off when the glass breaks. 
Many boilers are " burnt out " because the automatic valves 
sometimes stick and imprison some water in the glass, giving 
the operator the impression that there is a plentiful supply of 
water in the boiler, while in reality there is little or none. With 
the substitution of a globe valve for the upper check valve this 
will not happen. 

A carriage upon which the brake does not act when going 
backwards as well as forwards is dangerous and should not be 
used. 

Before starting out on each day's run see that the gasoline 
tank is completely filled, no matter how little of it may have been 
used the day before. Unknown roads are before the traveler, 
and ordinary calculations as to the amount likely to be consumed 
are very apt to be wrong. On good roads the writer can travel 
from 60 to 75 miles without refilling the gasoline tank, and from 
25 to 35 miles without refilling the water tank. On the other 
hand, while traveling through a bad section of " darkest " Mary- 
land, 12 miles of going over, or rather through, a sandy stretch 
of road was sufficient to empty the water tank. And on another 
occasion the gasoline gave out after running about 45 miles. No 
gasoline was procurable, the automobile manufacturers' statement 
that " gasoline can be procured at any little hamlet " to the con- 
trary notwithstanding. The services of the despised horse had 
to be called in and a five-mile tow to the nearest town was neces- 
sary. Therefore it should be put down as a rule to lay in a supply 
of gasoline whenever it can be had. A fact worth remembering 
is that where you find a plumber there you will find gasoline. 
And it is safe to figure on finding a plumber at least every 30 
miles. 



LONG-DISTANCE TOURING BY AUTOMOBILE 7 

A funnel with the sides slightly flattened to permit its being 
easily packed, and with a fine meshed strainer soldered in, should 
be carried and all gasoline carefully strained. It is better to use a 
piece of flannel in addition to the strainer, and every particle of 
foreign matter removed, which, if allowed to enter the vaporizing 
tubes will, by accumulation, clog them so that the flow of gasoline 
is impeded and the fire will burn imperfectly or not at all. 

It is good practice to blow out the boiler after each day's run. 
Particularly as the water supply during the day has come from 
so many sources, such as wells, brooks and the different kinds of 
" city " water. Even if the water is strained, as it should be 
before it enters the tank, many particles of solid matter will find 
their way in, and this, with the sediment produced by boiling the 
water, will soon foul the boiler if it is not blown off as suggested. 

Goggles made of plain mica with felt rims should be carried 
ready for use. In the cities they are necessary on windy days to 
keep out dust, and in the country because it is sometimes impossi- 
ble to see to guide the carriage on account of the myriads of 
winged pests that abound at certain hours of the day, and which 
are blown into the eyes unless they are protected. 

It is well to have a tin case made to protect the engine from 
dust and mud. This is simply a plain box, neatly made, the bot- 
tom at the front end being rounded, bolted to the carriage and 
painted black or some dark color. It is open at the top to permit 
inspection and oiling of the engine and should be readily remov- 
able to facilitate cleaning. Holes should be cut at the bottom 
to permit waste oil and water drainage. The differential gear 
should be similarly protected ; this not only keeps out dirt, but 
also the grease from the exhaust which often finds its way on 
the brake. A lubricated brake band is certainly not desirable. 
The illustration does not show the protective casing, it having 
been temporarily removed. 

In the matter of punctured tires, it is not desirable to carry 
much repair material even if the operator is willing to do such 
work. Bicycle repair shops abound, and if the injury is not too 
bad it can be plugged. The best plan is to carry an extra tire. 
This can be carried under the front of the carriage. Place the 
tire on the reaches and tie it securely in several places, as it is 
apt to shift. With a preparation of rubber in the form of a soft 
paste which comes in small tubes, and a syringe with which it is 
injected, small punctures, such as are made by tacks and small 
nails, can be readily repaired by any one, even on the road. 
although it is best to let it " set " to get the best results. 



8 LONG-DISTANCE TOURING BY AUTOMOBILE 

In putting the automobile away for the night when away 
from home it is well to see that it is either under lock and key or 
in the hands of a responsible party. There is always some one at 
hand either malicious or curious who may cause a mishap by 
meddling with things that should be sacred to him. A first-class 
man who is used to cleaning fine carriages may be allowed to 
clean the automobile, but no one should be permitted to touch the 
engine but the operator. With the protective casing" mentioned 
above and wiping it carefully very day with cotton waste the 
engine can easily be kept clean. 

Before a long trip is made the carriage should be thoroughly 
inspected by an expert. Thus any incipient trouble is avoided. 

The enjoyment of a tour is made or marred by the traveling 
companion. A congenial, helpful companion, if found, is a 
treasure. He, of course it ought to be a He, can look up the 
matter of roads and cross-examine the natives on the subject. 
Road maps are not very helpful, as they are usually made for 
wheelmen. A road may be good for bicycles, as they need only 
a narrow strip, but an automobile must have good wagon roads. 
While the operator concerns himself only about the machine and 
its needs, let his companion do all the questioning. It is well to 
get all the facts about the quality of the roads and distances every 
evening, getting the names of the intermediate towns between 
objective points. Usually the bicycle dealers can give accurate 
information, but the experienced tourist will always have his 
acquired information corroborated. This is extremely important. 

If the suggestions as here outlined are carried out and a sys- 
tem of work adopted an automobile trip will be found a unique, 
instructive and enjoyable way of spending a week or two. It is 
not well to try to " make time " or to formulate a schedule. Lay 
out a route and make no promises as to when the return will be 
made. This will permit lingering in pleasant places, and side 
trips that may present themselves. 




Parade of the Worcester Automobile Club 

THERE is something peculiarly attractive about a parade to the 
average person, and especially is this so when composed of so 
new and popular a means of conveyance as the automobile has 
proved and is proving itself to be. 




B. A. Robinson" and Wife 



The Worcester (Mass.) Automobile Club, an aggressive organi- 
zation about which we had something to say in our last issue, held a 
parade on Saturday, November 17. The weather was just what an 
automobilist likes for such an occasion, no wind to tear the decora- 
tions, no mud to bespatter the bunting, and practically no dust, as 



io PARADE OF THE WORCESTER AUTOMOBILE CLUB 

the parade was confined to the city proper. A start was made from 
671 Main street punctually at 2:15, and proceeded to the City Hall, 
where Gen. Fred W. Wellington, Col. H. C. Smith and A. S. Lowell 
acted as judges. Mr. W. H. S. Nourse, chief marshal of the club, 
was all about, and needless to say, managed the parade in a creditable 
manner. 




H. T. McKnight and Geo. Tryon 

Altogether there were fifteen carriages in the procession. B. A. 
Robinson led in his Stanhope, Mrs. Robinson being at his side. 
Next came J. E. Farwell in his surrey, which was decorated with 
yellow chrysanthemums and evergreen. 



PARADE OF THE WORCESTER AUTOMOBILE CLUB n 

H. T. McKnight, the genial secretary of the club, was next, in 
his runabout. He was accompanied by Mr, George Tryon. It was 
decorated with colors of white and lavender, and presented a very 
pretty appearance. 

J. W. Bigelow's surrey was decorated with chrysanthemums and 
bunting. Kenneth A. Skinner, the well known motocyclist, was also 
present. He rode in a motorette. 




J. W. Bigelow and W. J. H. Nourse 



For the finest decorated vehicle a prize was awarded to Mr. J. 
W. Bigelow, while Mr. Sumner, who operated a Victoria, gained second 
prize. The whole affair was a decided success, and great credit is due 
to the members who were responsible for the planning and subsequent 
carrying out of the parade. Great numbers of people turned out to 
witness the gay automobilists as they passed along. 



The French Alcohol Trials 

IN our December issue we gave some facts concerning the 
recent French trials of automobiles using alcohol instead 
of gasoline. The further additional particulars regarding 
these trials are taken from The Autocar: 

" As a manifestation for bringing to the fore the question of 
cheapening alcohol and educating the public up to the importance 
of this matter, the trials which were carried out on a recent 
Sunday from Paris to Rouen must be regarded as an un- 
qualified success. The fine weather attracted an enormous 
crowd to the Porte Maillot, where the start took place, and 
the avenues each side were lined with some thousands of 
spectators, who appeared to take the greatest interest in the 
competing vehicles. The presence of the Minister of Agri- 
culture showed that the Government was not overlooking the 
possibilities of alcohol from the point of view of the national 
industry, and, in fact, he was able to announce that his 
department had already taken an important step toward 
rendering alcohol more suitable for consumption in motors. 
When it is remembered that a twelvemonth ago there were only 
about half a dozen vehicles taking part in the first trial, it must 
be recognized that the question of alcohol since that time has 
made enormous headway, for in the Sunday trials there were no 
fewer than fifty-one starters, of whom thirty succeeded in cover- 
ing the full distance of 78 miles from Paris to Rouen within six 
hours. At the first trials only one car was able to go from Paris 
to Chantilly and back. It is true that at that time the motors 
were only able to use pure alcohol, and that on the present occa- 
sion they all, with the single exception of a Gobron-Brillie car, 
employed carbureted alcohol, usually consisting of alcohol and 
benzoline mixed in equal proportions. A good deal has been 
said about the absence of visible exhaust when using alcohol, and 
it was therefore rather surprising to see a cloud of white vapor 
hanging over the cars when viewed from a distance. But a 
close inspection of the vehicles did not reveal any visible exhaust, 
except in a very few cases. Again, it is said that there is no smell 
from burnt alcohol; but though it is not so conspicuous as the 
odor of petrol, it is yet distinctly more disagreeable, and it is 
doubtful whether one can ever get entirely accustomed to this 
acrid smell. 

" The results of the trials may be regarded as all the more 



THE FRENCH ALCOHOL TRIALS 13 

satisfactory since, with very few exceptions, none of the motors 
had been specially constructed for burning alcohol, and were 
merely ordinary petrol engines which had undergone no modifi- 
cation beyond regulating the proportion of air to spirit. Two 
very imposing cars were the Gobron-Brillie vehicles, one using 
pure alcohol and the other driven by Madame Gobron. It was 
impossible to get a good view of all the cars in such a large 
crowd, but we noticed that the Gladiator voiturette started off 
well, and a good impression was made by the three Henriod cars, 
which are fitted with the maker's well-known type of motor 
specially adapted for alcohol, and burning a spirit carbureted 
according to a formula invented by M. E. C. Henriod himself. 
In this connection it may be remarked that a large number of oil 
firms have brought out different kinds of carbureted alcohol 
which they are selling under various names, and these were mostly 
used by the competitors in the trials. Beside a little Clement- 
Panhard car we noticed a fine big racing vehicle by Rochet et 
Schneider, built something on the lines of the new Mors vehicle, 
but with a much longer wheel base. This was followed by a 
light Peugeot and a Decauville car, and then came a couple of 
strange looking vehicles bearing no name, but entered by a M. 
Vilain. These cars are propelled by a horizontal motor, and the 
ends of the motor shaft carry large loose pulleys which are con- 
nected with the driving wheels by wide belts. The motor is 
apparently put into gear by keying the pulleys on to the shaft in 
some way, but it was impossible to see from a cursory inspection 
how this was done. Another feature of the cars is a novel type 
of silencer, consisting of a couple of circular plates between 
which are interposed a thickness of fibrous material of, say, a 
quarter of an inch. The exhaust enters from a pipe brazed on 
to the centre of one of the plates, and escapes around the circum- 
ference through the porous material. The arrangement appears 
very effective in so far as it may entirely suppress the visible ex- 
haust, but it would seem to create a resistance that may be 
expected to lower the efficiency of the motor. Following these 
little cars were a Panhard and Levassor and a big Mors vehicle, 
and then came a Bolide car, in which some modification has 
recently been made in the transmission, for we noticed that the 
motor shaft in the forepart of the car is connected with the 
counter-shaft at the rear by a chain upon the same principle as the 
Amedee Bollee vehicle, in which, of course, the chain is replaced 
by a belt. One of the last to start was Baron Henri de Roths- 
child, who piloted his German Daimler with a motor o\ 28 horse- 



14 



THE FRENCH ALCOHOL TRIALS 



power. Each vehicle was accompanied by an observer, who had 
to take a sample of the spirit from the alcohol tank at the start, 
and the analysis of these samples will be taken into account when 
preparing the final results of these trials. 

"As the event was not a race, the competitors were required to 
keep within the legal limit of speed, and each car was timed at 
the start and finish, but this did not prevent one or two competi- 
tors making some really remarkable performances, the run of 
Giraud on his Panhard car being especially noteworthy. Start- 
ing among the last, he finished first at Rouen in 2 hours 15 min- 
utes, notwithstanding that he had to go carefully through the 
suburbs of Paris. He must thus have beaten the record between 
St. Germain and Rouen, and this must be regarded as a great 
triumph for the new spirit. His consumption was twenty-five 
and a half litres of carbureted alcohol, which cost in Paris 14 
francs 80, as compared with 17 francs 90 that would have had 
to be paid for petrol spirit. It is still a question, however, whether 
the consumption of petrol would not have been less, but, in any 
event, the difference could not have been so great as to give it 
an advantage in economy over alcohol. There were naturalh" a 
great many incidents on the road, and a large number of vehicles 
were stranded in the suburbs, mostly through trouble with the 
carbureters. The second arrival at Rouen was Girardot on his 
12 horse-power Panhard car, which took 2 hours 55 minutes to 
cover the distance, and consumed seventeen litres of carbureted 
alcohol. The Gobron-Brillie car, which used pure alcohol, ran 
over the course without incident in 3 hours 19 minutes.'' 




"3C 




Notes from London. 

BY LOUIS J. OATES. 

ROYALTY is evidently desirous of giving a good advertisement 
to automobilism. H. R. H., the Prince of Wales, himself 
has become an owner. No doubt in the near future the motor 
car will become a necessary adjunct to every Royal householder. 
The King of the Belgians is quite an enthusiast, and it is well known 
that the Kaiser takes a deep interest in automobilism from a purely 
military standpoint. 

From Royalty to racing is not a very far cry, and I was much 
interested to find the undermentioned paragrapher taking a leading 
position in the columns of the Sportsman, a paper which is well known 
in the United States. It appears that as a result of a conversation 
between Sam Darling, the trainer, and Lord Carnarvon, the other day, 
arrangements are in contemplation for a service of automobile vans to 
convey horses to meetings on the South Western and other railways. 
It is acknowledged on all hands that the attempt to transport horses 
by rail is fraught with the most uncertain consequences and the most 
exasperating delays, therefore it is anticipated that the new scheme 
will enable trainers to get their charges to the place of action much 
more satisfactorily. After all it will only be a further elaboration of 
the traveling van as first designed by Lord George Bentwick, and the 
fact that the automobile can be stopped at will, and the horse taken 
out and exercised, is always in its favor. If trainers will only support 
such a scheme on a purely co-operative basis they might become in a 
large measure independent of the railway companies, and I feel sure 
that it will not take long to convince the most conservative of trainers 
that the automobile van could be guaranteed to reach its destination 
sooner than an express train. 

I had something to say in my last letter on the subject of motor 
omnibuses in London. It is satisfactory to hear that before very 
long London will have a service of some 50 electric omnibuses, which 
will ply between Maiden Vale and the Marble Arch, and so act as a 
feeder to the underground electric railway. These omnibuses will of 
course not run on rails, and who knows but that in a year or so 
engineers will awake to the fact that tram lines are not at all indispen- 
sable in our large cities and towns. 

It is really difficult to convince some of our magistrates that a 



16 NOTES FROM LONDON 

user of a motor car has any rights whatever on the highways. The 
case of an excitable horse owner, who summoned an automobilist a 
few weeks ago, on the ground that an autocar is a nuisance, has 
been quite put in the shade by an incident which took place at Slea- 
ford. You would scarcely believe it, but nevertheless it is a fact, that 
a motorist here was summoned for not giving audible warning of his 
approach when meeting another vehicle. Now this was too much 
even for a magistrate to swallow, and the case was dismissed; but 
things are surely coming to a head when the careless driver of an un- 
manageable brute is allowed to entertain the idea that he can wreak 
his spite on an unoffending motorist who is complying with the law in 
every particular. The experience of the Hon. Leopold Cavviney is 
instructive. While motoring on a deserted road, and slowing down 
nearly to a crawl whenever a vehicle happened along, he and his com- 
panion were pelted with stones by a group of loafers, and were after- 
wards fined for furious driving to the extent of something like three 
guineas (about $15.00). At the same court, a drunken driver who 
had careered down a crowded street, endangering the lives of the 
community, and even driving on to the pavement, was mulcted in the 
extravagant fine of ten shillings ($2.50). I cannot leave this subject 
without mentioning that royalty has at times to submit to the vagaries 
of the law in its dealings with automobilism. King Leopold was re- 
cently stopped for ' ' scorching ' ' in the Bois du Boulogne, but a gentle 
hint to the ' ' guardian of the peace ' ' was sufficient in this case, and 
the Royal motorist was allowed to continue his enjoyment of the de- 
lights of pace. 

The 1,000 mile trial is now a thing of the past, but a fitting ter- 
mination was the meeting and dinner held in its celebration at the Tro- 
cadero, Picadilly, on October 31. The company present was widely 
representative of the automobile world. Owners of cars, manufac- 
turers and drivers made up an assembly which was certainly unique 
in the annals of automobilism. There were present members of Par- 
liament, lights of the law, men who have gained distinction in other 
fields, and the company may be described as typical of the national 
interest in the automobile. During the evening mention was made by 
the chairman, Mr. Roger Wallace, Q. C, of Lord Kingsburgh, who, 
since the trial, has been honored by his Queen in being made a K. 
C. B. This as a reward for his distinguished services to the country, 
and let us hope some recompense for his helpfulness to automobilism. 
Prizes and diplomas were distributed, and during this function the 



NOTES FROM LONDON 17 

chairman caused some amusement by his lamentations over the prize 
money which had to go to America, to the credit of the Locomobile 
Company. Diplomas were given to the representatives of the New 
Orleans victorette among others. 

In Section II. — that for privately owned vehicles — the success of 
the Hon. C. S. Rolls deserves special mention. He secured the gold 
medal for the most meritorious vehicle in the trial, the silver cup pre- 
sented by Mr. Owens, and a prize of £5 which had gone to the part 
purchase of a stop watch. In coming forward to receive his trophies, 
the Hon. C. S. Rolls was greeted with long continued applause, 
which, in the words of the chairman, showed how high he was held 
in the estimation of automobilists. He was a thorough sportsman, 
and had adhered strictly to the rules of the club — and had gained 93 
per cent, of marks. A warm tribute to the skill of the different 
drivers prefaced the distribution of the driving certificates; 60,000 
miles had been covered without accident, and the drivers deserved 
credit for their steady work. A pleasing feature of the meeting was 
the presentation of an illuminated address to Mr. C. Johnson, who had 
organized the trial, and who, in the opinion of the chairman, had ac- 
complished his object better than any other man in the country could 
have done. The address was signed by about 80 gentlemen. 

I am glad to learn, on good authority, that London will soon be 
on an equality with New York as regards the Fire Brigade. The 
London County Council is considering the question of adopting 
motors instead of horses. I believe not a few Continental cities have 
already committed themselves to a system of this nature, and it be- 
hooves the greatest city in the world not to be behind the times in this 
respect. In busy Lancashire, the Corporation of Eccles has decided 
to invest in a motor-vehicle for the use of the borough, and this ex- 
ample will no doubt be followed by other towns. 



The success of the motor vehicle in business depends mainly on 
the cost, as compared with horses, but the increased speed with which 
deliveries can be made is also a factor in the case. At present the 
advertising value of the motor vehicle for delivery purposes can be 
counted as a point in their favor, but as they become more widely used 
this feature will disappear and the question of dollars and cents be- 
come even more prominent. When it is proved conclusively that the 
motor delivery wagon will deliver as much merchandise tor a dollar as 
can be done by horses, their universal adoption is assured, and the 
horse will be released from one more of its toilsome occupations. 



Essential Features of a Motor Carriage 

WHILE one could enumerate many features which were desir- 
able for automobiles, the most essential ones, after the 
strength of running gear, is the motor itself. Too many 
have taken lightness as the one feature to be attained, and sacrificed 
everything to that end, while as a matter of fact this is not always de- 
sirable. When it comes to high-power motors, there are advantages 
in having weight or mass to absorb shock and vibration. 

Probably the most experienced drivers would first demand a 
motor of sufficient power for the work in hand; next a motor that was 
thoroughly reliable, and would leave the questions of weight and 
economy for after considerations. The saving of a few gallons of 
gasoline or ampere hours of current is of little consequence as com- 
pared with the question of getting home or laying up for repairs in 
some out of the way place. Not that a reliable motor cannot be as 
economical as the other kind, but the reliability is to be considered 
first. 

Warren's First Auto Ride 

BY NED GALLIDAY 

MRS. WARREN was one of those individuals who always try 
to cross the bridge before it is reached. She had imagined 
all kinds of mishaps would be the lot of her husband when 
he went in for the ' ' wheel. ' ' And now when Peter Warren had been 
bored almost to death by an automobile enthusiast to purchase a ma- 
chine he at first refused to think of doing any such thing, knowing as 
he did how his wife would look upon it, for he knew well that she 
would think he was absolutely crazy to have anything to do with such 
dangerous sports. Knowing these things, Peter was inclined to go 
slow, and when asked by the secretary of the local Automobile Club 
to accompany them on a run, he replied: 

' ' When the bicycle first came into popularity my wife almost 
fainted when I told her that I, an old joker of some sixty summers, 
intended to invest in one. She prophesied that as sure as my name 
was Peter Warren I would be brought home some day with a few 
broken limbs, and the outcome would be that she would be left to 
mourn me as the victim of a new-fangled notion. 

' ' However, after looking at a great many of the best make 



WARREN'S FIRST AUTO RIDE 19 

wheels I finally settled on one which suited me exactly, and after rid- 
ing it for nearly eight years I am still alive and kicking." 

Warren, however, had had, when he commenced riding the 
wheel, troubles of his own to pass through before his better half had 
become reconciled to it, but having wheels (in his head) he had his 
way, and now stood as a monument to the safety attending bicycle 
riding, when properly indulged in. 

So when the automobile craze struck the town of Eliza- 
ville, he was an apt pupil, having experienced the delights of the 
wheel. He was not the owner of a horseless carriage, but to hear him 
talk one would imagine he was. He looked upon the automobile, 
however, with much more skepticism than he had the familiar wheel. 
There was more to it he thought; then again it cost considerable more, 
and like a great many of us Peter was not just able to put money into 
a motor vehicle as readily as he did in a wheel. 

Gradually the automobile found converts in the town and a club 
was formed. The initial run was announced, and our friend Warren 
was there to see them start off. While standing around looking at the 
various machines, the Secretary, who was a genial fellow, invited him 
to go along. 

' ' I would like to go Sec, , but it is pretty cold, and I do not feel 
very good. Perhaps it would knock me out? " was his reply. 

" Oh! I guess you can stand it all right; we are going to have a 
jolly time," answered the Secretary. 

After a little persuasion he decided to accompany them, but he 
made the same mistake that many of us make, viz. , he entirely forgot 
to notify his wife, with the result that not only did he suffer remorse 
for such conduct, but Mrs. Warren also was in a very undesirable 
frame of mind when he failed to put in an appearance at luncheon 
or dinner. 

Warren, however, had enthused over the wheel, and now he had 
been given a chance for the first time to try an automobile in a practi- 
cal way. The club secretary had talked automobile to him several 
times before this, but Warren never seemed to bite. 

The morning of the run was cold and it looked as though snow 
would fall before the gay automobilists were far from the starting point. 
This, however, was not enough to daunt our hero. 1 [e meant business, 
and his whole soul was in the run before him. He dreamed that they 
were at the objective point, about seventeen miles distant, and had 
covered the distance in about as many minutes. And this without any 



20 WARREN'S FIRST AUTO RIDE 

mishap. Warren was like a great many others in that he was apt to 
forget that automobiles do sometimes fail to respond to the movement 
of a lever, or the turning of a wheel. 

Soon the jolly crowd of chauffeurs were outside of the confines of 
the city, and then it was a case of every man for himself, each trying 
to outdo the other — although, remember, it was understood before- 
hand that no racing should be indulged in. When they got out on 
the road, however, this order was forgotten. Warren was seated in a 
gasoline vehicle, smiling all over his face and half way down his back, 
just tickled to death by the peculiar fascination of his first automobile 
experience. Just as he was enjoying himself the vehicle crossed a 
network of trolley tracks, which shook the occupants quite a little. 

1 ' Great Caesar, what have we struck ? ' ' exclaimed Warren. 

The genial operator tried to explain to our friend Warren the 
cause of the jolting, but it was hard to convince him, and it was notice- 
able after that as trolley tracks loomed in sight he would place 
one hand on the back seat and the other on the front and raise him- 
self until the tracks were passed. 

Warren was tickled immensely by the manner in which the vehicle 
sped along, apparently on clouds of dust. Just after getting out of 
the city the Secretary's automobile was about eleventh in the proces- 
sion, and consequently received a good share of dust, which made 
Warren declare that he thought it would be a good scheme if some 
kind of a street sprinkler could be carried on the back for the benefit 
of those following behind. 

Everything was lovely, all hands were drinking in the good air, 
enjoying the surrounding scenery, when something went wrong with 
the works of the motor of the Sec. ' s carriage. A stop was made, the 
passengers alighted, covers were removed and search made for the 
seat of trouble. The Sec. threw off his goggles, donned a pair of 
gloves suitable for working about grease and oil, guards were removed, 
and finally he succeeded in locating the trouble. Warren stood by 
looking on for a while, then said : 

" Sorry, old chap, that I cannot assist you, but the fact is I do 
not know anything about such things." He realized how inconven- 
ient it would have been if Sec. had not been there. 

" I tell you, sir," he continued, " a fellow wants to know how to 
handle these things when not running as well as when skidding along 
at twenty or twenty-five miles an hour." 

After a delay of about twenty minutes the jolly party resumed its 



WARREN'S FIRST AUTO RIDE 21 

journey, feeling pretty blue over the fact that they would probably 
arrive last, but great was their joy, when about half a mile ahead of 
them they saw Mr. C.'s machine stalled, with a fellow lying under 
it on his back trying to locate the cause of breakdown. They would 
not be last in after all. The machine owned by Mr. C. was the crack 
one of the club. 

They were gliding along and came to the intersection of more 
trolley tracks, which had not been seen by Warren. He was shaken 
up considerably, and just as he was composing himself, a crowd of 
schoolboys standing on the corner yelled in unison: 

"Wouldn't that jar you?" This certainly was a striking ex- 
ample of the eternal fitness of things. 

When home was reached the three occupants presented woe-be- 
gone appearances. It of course is essential that an automobilist be 
proof against water, but said Warren: 

"There is a fortune in store for the man who can devise a dust 
proof style of clothing," for although they had taken every possible 
precaution, the dust had crawled into many corners which they imag- 
ined dust proof. 

Warren arrived home about 8:30 P. M., and found his wife in a 
great state of mind. He was, however, by this time an enthusiast on 
the automobile. He explained the cause of his abscence. 

" Oh ! Peter ! " were the first words of Mrs. W. after hearing his 
explanation, ' ' how could you do such a thing when you knew the 
danger attending such sport? " 

"My dear," he said, "to spin along at a twenty-five-mile gait 
makes one feel as though he were really living. You see, it was this 
way. I was asked to go by the Sec. At first I refused, as I am 
naturally skeptical about new f angled notions. Finally I consented. 
and, my dear, I started out skeptical and returned a faithful believer 
in the horseless carriage. ' ' 

Mrs. W., however, could not see it in just the same light as her 
husband. Not very long afterward, however, she was persuaded to 
try an automobile ride, and was won over also, Now you may see 
Mr. and Mrs. W. spinning along in an automobile, not the Secre- 
tary's, but their own. 

It is all very well for folks to stand off and declare they would not 
ride in an automobile on account of supposed danger attending their 
use, but it is a fact that "once tried, always used," is just as ap- 



22 WARREN'S FIRST AUTO RIDE 

plicable to the automobile as to a great many other things, and people 
who are all the time belittling the horseless carriage usually become 
its warmest friends after their first experience. 



The Ferry Edict 

There is wailing now in Gotham 

'Mongst the men with " automos " 
Who have friends in northern Jersey 
Where they often used to go. 

W T here the roads are all macadam 

And the scenery is grand, 
With its many hills and valleys 

And the streams on every hand. 

But a barrier has arisen 

Worse than any Chinese wall, 
And the friends across in Jersey 

Now no longer have a call. 

For their " auto " friends in Gotham 
Hear the gateman's words serene : 
"If you want to cross the ferry 
You must dump your gasoline/ ' 

R. E. Marks. 



" We veterinary surgeons in New York are in hard luck," 
said one of them. " With the cable cars, the trolley cars and 
now the automobiles, our business has gone to the dogs, meta- 
phorically speaking. Soon there will be as many surgeons as 
there are horses. It's nearly as bad as that now, and as automo- 
biles become cheaper and the likelihood of airships coming in to 
supplement them grows, the prospect for us isn't a bright one. 
Lots of New York veterinaries are giving up the attempt to make 
a living here and are going West." Other veterinaries said that 
this man was a croaker. " We haven't any cause to complain," 
said another, " and won't have while nearly everybody keeps a 
dog. My only grievance is against those mean-spirited flat- 
house owners who discourage dog keeping. But even they don't 
bar cats, and veterinary surgeons have lots of pet cat patients." 




AYS 

r— PREJUDICE 

WAS OVERCOME. 



BY EUGENE WOOD 

F course it made a great impression on 
all the people in Minuca Center, Ohio, 
when it was noised abroad that ' ' Doc 
Perry had bought him one o' these here what-you-may-callums, — 
funny I can't think of the name for 'em — oh, you know — one o' these 
here horseless carriages," but nobody took it quite so much to heart 
as old Jone Halliday, who has the Silver Spring stock farm, out there 
by the covered bridge, about three miles this side of Bellpoint. Old Dr. 
Perry, Dr. Alonzo B. , the present Dr. Perry's father, and Jonas Halli- 
day were great cronies and often used to talk about how it would be if, 
when they grew up, little Austin F. should marry little Eunice. But 
however the fond fathers might plan, the children did not seem to 
quite see it. Austin, like all right-minded boys, could not be bothered 
with little girls, especially a baby eight years younger than himself, and 
he used to feel kind of ashamed when anything was said about it. 
About the time when he was getting ready to go up to Cleveland to at- 
tend medical lectures, she was a long-legged, awkward bean-pole of a 
thing, as bossy and self-important as any other girl of fourteen. 
Austin F. rather fancied the mature type of women at the age he was 
then. When it came her turn to develop, she was at Smith College 
and he was diving into the practise his father had left to him and 
studying hard as any young physician must that expects to amount to 
anything, no matter if he is the honor man of his class. I think Eunice 
must have taken some kind of a post-graduate course. Anyhow I 
know that Dr. Perry did not see much of her until she was about three 
or four-and-twenty, and had come home to the Silver Spring farm to 
stay. Being himself about thirty-two, Dr. Perry was of a good mar- 
riageable age, and several persons in and about Minuca Center acted 
on that hypothesis. Among them was old Jone Halliday. Soon after 



24 HOW HALLIDAY'S PREJUDICE WAS OVERCOME 

his daughter's return he began to be sickly, and that was strange, for 
he was a red-faced man 200 pounds in weight, six-foot-two in his 
stockings, and a hearty eater. It got so that if he cut his finger it 
seemed that Dr. Perry had to be called to dress it. He was always de- 
veloping some little ailing or other. Along about 3 o' clock of a fine 
afternoon he would come into the sitting room and stretch out on the 
couch with a suffering sigh. 

"What's the matter, Pa?" Mrs. Halliday would ask. " Aint 
you feelun very well ? ' ' 

" Not very. I don't know what's the matter with me here lately. 
I got a kind of misery in my leg, and then it flies up to my arm and 
all over. ' ' 

At first Mrs. Halliday, who, all her married life long, had ineffec- 
tually sought a chance to doctor her husband, suggested boneset tea, 
and once she put some on the kitchen stove to stew, but when she 
brought it in, blowing on the saucerful to cool it, he astonished her by 
rising up and vowing that he would not swallow any such wash as that. 

" I want a reg'ler veterinary," he declared. " I aint a-goin' to 
be dosed with any stable remedies at such a time as this. If I'm 
a-goin' to be sick I'm a-goin' to be sick proper. That there boneset 
tea may be the very thing that ud set me off into a hard spell o' sick- 
ness. You don't know. "' 

" Why, Pa, it can't do you any harm." 

' ' Well then, it can't do me no good. What I want is active treat- 
ment. You call up Doc Perry and tell him to come out here and 
gimmy some condition powders or sumpun. Tell him they's no special 
hurry about it, but if he happens to be out this way in course of the 
afternoon, why drop in." 

He was always much improved before the doctor got there, and 
by the time dinner or supper was served (the same meal went by both 
names, according as the old folks remembered) his appetite was as 
good as ever, pulse and respiration normal. The doctor generally 
stayed well into the evening. Miss Halliday played quite nicely and 
sang beautifully, besides conversing most agreeably. Her father was a 
good talker too, when he got going on horses, and especially trotting 
horses, and the time passed so pleasantly that Dr. Perry often called 
when Mr. Halliday showed no symptoms of illness, but as soon as he 
began to sigh Mrs. Halliday always made extra preparations for the 
evening meal and brought up another jar of quince preserves from the 
cellar. He was very fond of quince preserves, Dr. Perry was. 



HOW HALLIDAY'S PREJUDICE WAS OVERCOME 25 

I said that Mr. Halliday especially talked trotting horse. This 
was so, although he bred draught horses and blooded cattle. The 
country was rapidly going to the dogs in Mr. Halliday' s estimation 
because it had lost interest in the trotter and now cared only for run- 
ning races, for which he had the finest contempt. He told all the old 
trotting-horse stories, such as how Lazarus and Defendum got their 
names. They were new to Dr. Perry and they may be new to you. 

" This here Lazarus horse, " said Mr. Halliday, " didn't get his 
name till after his first race. Then when somebody asked the owner 
what got into him to call a horse by that name, ' Why,' says the owner, 
' on account o' the way he finished. Lazarus come fourth. ' 

" Then this here Defendum, when his owner come to name him, 
says he to the stable man : ' What are they about this colt that' s 
different from other colts ? ' The stable-man studied awhile and then 
he says : ' I don't know, without it is that he's deef-and-dumb. ' So 
the man wrote it down that way, only, bein' a horse man, he couldn't 
spell as well as some and he got it down the easiest way : Def-en- 
dum, and there you are. ' ' 

Mr. Halliday was cut to the heart when bicycles became so popu- 
lar but life took on a more cheerful aspect when their vogue passed 
and he declared, with a total disregard of the fact, that he had always 
said the craze couldn't last, the fact being that he had been afraid it 
would. But his joy was tempered with the doleful recognition that 
automobiles were coming in and apparently were never going out. 

" Darn those auto— auto — " he began one evening. 

' ' Autobiographies ? ' ' suggested Dr. Perry, who was present. 

' ' Oh, you get out ! Aint you ever goin' to quit riggun me about 
that ? ' ' Mr. Halliday had once been taken in by one of these county 
history fellows and it teased him to have the subject mentioned. 
"Automobiles is what I'm talkun about. Ought-to-mob-'em is their 
name by good rights. Runnun about the country skeerun the horses so 
they won't be fit for nothun afterwards. I don't know what possesses 
folks to want 'em. I'd just as lives ride on the county road-roller or 
one o' these traction-engynes that hauls thrashun machines around." 

"I don't know," said Dr. Perry, "I was thinking of getting 
one." He hadn't thought of it at all, but he liked to get Mr. Halli- 
day going. 

"Why, look here, Doc, you don't want to get no such notion 
into your head. It's all foolishness. Look how much they cost 
Thousand dollars or so. ' ' 



26 HOW HALLIDAY'S PREJUDICE WAS OVERCOME 

1 ' Well, you know yourself, Mr. Halliday, how necessary it is 
that I should get to my patients as quickly as possible. I guess if I 
was to buy a span of horses that could go from 25 to 40 miles an hour 
and keep it up for 100 miles or so at a clip, I'd have to pay consider- 
able more than $1,000 for them." 

"Huh ! you couldn't get 'em if you was to pay a million. But 
sposun you was to get throwed out when you was goin' that fast, how 
about that ? ' ' 

" It couldn't any more than kill me, and any horse can do that. 
I don't know that a machine is any more dangerous than a nervous 
horse. What do you think about that, Eu — Miss Halliday? " 

It may be regarded as significant of new relationship that Miss 
Halliday, brought up as she had been, should have replied : ' ' Nobody 
can tell what is in a horse's mind and what he means to do next. 
Whereas a machine, tried and tested, will always do the same thing 
under the same conditions." It may have been Smith College that 
made her formulate her opinion so concisely but it was surely some- 
thing else that made her take sides with Dr. Perry against her father. 

The discovery of a heretic in his own home caused Mr. Halliday' s 
jaw to drop and his eyes to bulge. Then he shut his mouth firmly, got 
up and left the room. He was very much displeased but I don't 
know that his daughter and Dr. Perry were. What their sentiments 
were Mrs. Halliday seemed to have guessed for she said to her hus- 
band when he joined her in the sitting-room. 

" Well," said she, " I was wonderun if you'd ever take the hint. 
How would you ' a ' liked it if Pap had set around and set around 
when you was courtun me ? ' ' 

Mr. Halliday hadn't a word to say for himself. After taking all 
the pains he had to get Dr. Perry within the sphere of influence of 
Eunice and then to sit there and monopolize the evening himself. He 
pulled off his boots and went to bed. For a week after that he was 
in rugged health. But it is perhaps needless to say that at this stage 
of the proceedings this did not prevent Dr. Perry from calling. 

It must have been the inborn cantankerousness of the human 
creature that impelled the physician to send for catalogues, circulars 
and printed matter on the subject of automobiles, so that he could stir 
up Mr. Halliday with a skilled hand. It certainly was the inborn 
cantankerousness of the equine nature that got his mare Flora to begin 
acting up so that he never dared take her out on long night rides, and 
the discovery that she was thus favored was daily fixing the habit 



HOW HALLIDAY'S PREJUDICE WAS OVERCOME 27 

more and more firmly in her. It wouldn't do to put all the work on 
Dolly and his practise was so large that he really needed two horses. 
The natural result of both forces working together was a very serious 
interest in motor vehicles and the upshot of it all was that Dr. Austin 
Flint Perry bought the first automobile ever seen in Minuca Center. 
But he didn't say anything about it to Mr. Halliday. He meant to 
surprise him with it. 

The pitcher that goes often to the well gets broken at last, and 
from playing off sick Jonas Halliday actually got sick. About the 
time of the January thaw, which was about the time Dr. Perry got his 
voiturette, Mr. Halliday caught a cold which developed into such 
another case of quinsy sore throat as he had not had since he was a 
young man. Strangely enough, when a real ailing made its appear- 
ance he would have nothing to do with a doctor. It wasn't anything 
but quinsy anyhow, he said, and doctors aren't any good for that, 
which is true enough, but as inconsistent with his behavior as truths 
generally are. Also in that week there had come over the sunshine 
of the young people's life that cloud that often appears, that little 
cloud of a disagreement. Why is it that in those heavenly months, 
all too brief, when the young man says to himself with an exulting 
soul : ' ' She loves me. Me ! And she loves me ; ' ' and the young- 
woman dreams by the hour of the strong, noble nature that so won- 
derfully finds something in her to admire, why is it that they must 
now and again forsake those Elysian Fields of pure romance for the 
sordid earth ? I cannot understand unless it is that we cannot live in 
that upper air, but must feel the solid, if sordid, earth beneath our 
feet, at least to gather strength for another upward flight. So it was 
with these lovers. As if charged with the same electricity they had 
repelled, each the other, for a moment. But only for a moment, for 
each was longing for the other, though foolishly dreading to seem 
eager to make it up. 

Now quinsy sore throat is a most exasperating illness. The victim 
is not sick enough to go to bed and too sick to stay out of it. Books 
and papers lose their interest (they never had much for Jonas Halli- 
day). You can't smoke; it hurts too much to hold the cigar between 
the teeth. It is as much as the contract calls for to open the jaws 
enough to get a drink of water, and eating is simple torture. It seems 
to a man with the quinsy that he has to swallow every tour ticks of the 
watch, and every swallow is such pain that he is almost ready to take the 
pledge against it for life. Ordinarily when anything got on Mr. Haiti- 



28 



HOW HALLIDAY'S PREJUDICE WAS OVERCOME 



day's nerves, as this did, he could be remarkably fluent in expression, 
and that is a great relief, but quinsy won't let a man talk. Undoubt- 
edly the worst feature of it all is that it isn't dangerous. A person 
could stand it better if he knew his case was serious, but when a man 
can't read, can't eat, can't smoke, can't drink, can't talk and yet will 
be good as new in a few days, after all that suffering, it looks a good 




Hey, Doc ! Here's a Case for \ 



deal like imposition on patience. When on the eighth day the tonsil 
showed no signs of coming to its senses, Mr. Halliday at last consented 
to have Dr. Perry called with instructions to bring his lancet. 

The heart of his daughter leaped within her, though she would 
not have owned it if her mother had asked her, which, I am glad to 
say, the old lady was too wise to do. While the doctor was comine 



HOW HALLIDAY'S PREJUDICE WAS OVERCOME 29 

Mr. Halliday mumbled to Eunice that he wished she would look into 
his throat to see if she could detect a hopeful speck on the tonsil. She 
was trying to wedge the spoonhandle in between his teeth when, 
through the window at which they stood, they saw Dr. Perry open the 
gate at the end of the driveway that led from the Bellpoint pike to the 
house. Mr. Halliday looked hard. If he could have spoken, he 
would have said: " Where's his horse? " But when he saw the vehi- 
cle come up the drive,, self-propelled, his jaw fell in spite of the twinge 
it gave him. He rushed to the door and flung it open, and as the 
physician came up before the broad piazza, leisurely tack-tacking, Mr. 
Halliday bawled at him in a thick voice in rage inarticulate. A spasm 
of pain stabbed him, but in that moment his voice cleared and he was 
a well man. 

' ' Get out ! " he shouted. ' ' Get out o' here ! You and your 
damned old mowin' machine. I won't have you about the place. 
Home with you ! ' ' 

"Why, what's the matter?" asked the physician, smilingly pre- 
paring to alight. He thought Mr. Halliday was joking. 

"There's just this the matter, that I won't have you around my 
house with that box o' tricks. Git now ! Git, I tell you ! Damn 
horse-scarer ! " 

"Why, Papa," expostulated his daughter. " you must not talk 
so to Dr. Perry. He's our physician, our friend, my — 

" I know well enough who he is and what he is," shouted Mr. 
Halliday, throwing her hand off his arm. ' ' You go along into the 
house. That man knows what I think of them automobiles, and he 
comes here with one to insult me. Me, and I raise horses to sell. 
Don't you ever show yourself inside that gate again as long as you 
own that thing or you and me's goin' to have trouble. And I wouldn't 
let you marry my daughter if you was the last man on earth. Now 
you put for home before I get the shotgun. 

Mr. Halliday turned and went into the house, slamming the door 
viciously behind him. The automobile slowly went around the Loop- 
ing carriageway, leisurely tack-tacking. At the curve, Dr. Perry 
looked around once more, and at the window he caught the wave of a 
handkerchief. As he whizzed down to the highroad, in his anger he 
fancied it was a satirical farewell from Eunice, but as he remembered 
the expression of her face and the way she rebuked her hither tor his 
rudeness, it dawned upon him that she loved him as much as ever, and 
that she had forgiven him. She had forgiven him! He exulted at 



30 HOW HALLIDAY'S PREJUDICE WAS OVERCOME 

that. He forgot that he had dramatized how he would forgive her. 
He saw now that he must have been a brute or she would not have 
been offended by him. And yet she had forgiven him. Joy that so 
angelic a being loved unworthy him overtopped the anger of her father. 

Mrs. Halliday and Eunice recognized in the monologue that Jonas 
kept up for a day or so the ebullition of seven days' wrath and held 
their peace. They hoped for better things when he calmed down. 
But Mr. Halliday' s general and professional grievance against motor 
vehicles as an attack on his business took on a personal grudge against 
Dr. Perry, who he somehow managed to blame for his quinsy too. If 
he had loved the young man with all the fervor of his old comradeship 
with the father, and added thereto the admiration he felt for his learn- 
ing and the affection for him as a prospective son-in-law, he hated him 
now as intensely, with all the bitterness and contempt the losing side 
can feel for the winner. He vowed loudly and often that Dr. Perry 
shouldn't marry his daughter, if he had anything to say about it. 

Mistaking, as men will, a woman's silence for consent, he repeated 
that statement just once too often. On that occasion, Eunice spoke 
up: "It seems to me that you haven't anything to say about it." 

' ' Why, what do you mean, Miss ? ' ' 

' ' I mean this, that the doctor has the first say in the matter. 
Perhaps he doesn't want me for a wife." 

" Don't want you ! You're ten times too good for such an up- 
start, and I'll tell him so. Comun up to my house on his old road- 
roller ! I'll show him. If he didn't want you, what was he taggun 
around after you so much for ? ' ' 

" I thought he called on you when you were ill," breathed Miss 
Halliday demurely, looking down as she made the shot. Her father 
snorted angrily. 

" And then," resumed the young woman from Smith College (I 
think it must have been in Logic that she took that post-graduate 
course), " if he does want me for a wife he will probably find a way to 
say so in spite of you. ' ' 

" Not if I'm around, he won't." 

" Probably not. But you're not around all the time, and neither 
am I." 

" I'll — I'll lock you up in your room." 

' ' I think not, ' ' said Miss Halliday, ' ' I think not, at least not 
while there are courts in the State of Ohio. Even though I am a 
woman and can't vote, I am a citizen and cannot be imprisoned with- 



HOW HALLIDAY'S PREJUDICE WAS OVERCOME 31 

out due process of law. I am your daughter, but I am also my own 
self." 

He glared at her. 

" Well, then," proceeded the young woman from Smith College 
as coolly as if she were debating a matter of pure academic interest, 
' ' if, as I have shown, Dr. Perry has some say in the matter, let us 
suppose that he has said it. Then I have some say as to whether or 
not I'll accept him." 

" You sha'n't say it." 

' ' Not if I refuse him ? ' ' 

"Well, — 

" I can't tell till he asks me whether I'll have him or not — 

' ' You can tell whether you want him or not. ' ' 

' ' I was going to say that my freedom of speech is not to be 
abridged. That is a right guaranteed to the citizen under the Consti- 
tution. ' ' 

(Yes, I remember now. It was Constitutional Law and Logic 
that Miss Halliday took the post-graduate course in. ) 

" I'll put you out of the house if you marry that man ! " 

' ' I had expected when I got married, if I ever did, to live at my 
husband's home." 

During this passage at arms, Mrs. Halliday had been pleading: 
" Now Pa ! Now, Pa ! " all in vain, but when he said he'd put his 
daughter out of the house, Mrs. Halliday would not be restrained, but 
burst out with: "Why, Jonas Halliday! Are you plumb crazy? 
Wouldn't you look pretty putting your own daughter out of the 
house? Be a fine thing, wouldn't it now, for all the county to talk 
about? I just see you doin' it. I just see you doin' that very thing. 
And you talkun about who's got the say about this and that and t'other. 
Yes. Well. I'd have you know I've got something to say. This 
house is in my name, and Euny is my daughter as much as she is 
yours, and this will be her home as long as I'm alive and she wants to 
make it hers. Good land! What's got into you, Pa? Man that 
thinks as much of his daughter as you do, actun that way, I'm ashamed 
of you. Why, it's ridiculous. And furthermore, I won't have any 
more such talk. Now. Laws ! If folks was to hear us, they'd think 
we was quarrelin'. How much did Enright ask for that little bay 
mare o' his ? " 

This was the only pitched battle that was fought on this issue, but 
peace was still far from being declared. It somehow got into Jonas 



32 HOW HALLIDAY'S PREJUDICE WAS OVERCOME 

Halliday's head, that, after all, everybody else concerned had really 
more to say than he had, but he set his jaws firmly and resolved to 
balk the match if he could. Perhaps the truly emancipated woman 
will feel provoked at Eunice Halliday to learn that, after her bold 
stand for the right to live her own life, as soon as her father had left 
the house, she sat down and had as good a cry as any woman that has 
not had the advantage of a post-graduate course in Logic and Consti- 
tional Law. Her mother comforted her more with cooing, sympa- 
thetic tones than words, but she told her husband afterwards: " She's 
just you to the dot; just as bull-headed, every bit and stitch. And 
she's goin' to have her own way. Now, you mark. You might as 
well give in now, while you can. 

"Well, if he gets her and I'm bound he sha'n't," began Mr. 
Halliday and stopped for a moment as he realized that he had weakly 
confessed the possibility of defeat for him, " if he gets her, he'll have 
a lovely time of it with her. ' ' 

"Yes. Well." Mrs. Halliday tossed her head. "I don't 
know's it'll hurt him any to have a wife that can spunk up to him. It 
ud ' a ' been all the better for you if I hadn't been quite so poor- 
spirited. You know what I told you all the time about that county his- 
tory fellow, but you would have your way and you see what come of it. ' ' 

Mr. Halliday groaned. Was he never to hear the last of that ? 

" And I'll say this, I don't like the looks of that little bay mare 
you bought of Enright. You're goin' to have trouble with her, now 
see if you don't." 

Dr. Perry did not call at the house again, but they often saw him 
shooting by like a meteor. One day as Mr. Halliday and Eunice 
were out driving behind the little bay mare Jonas bought from Enright, 
the doctor passed them in his voiturette. Jonas seized the lines and 
prepared for a runaway, but the mare only moved her ears and kept 
up her gait without breaking. Jonas was so busy looking out for 
what did not happen that he missed the sight of his daughter's recog- 
nizing smile and the doctor's responding salutation. But he was just 
as vexed as if he had seen it, because the mare did not act up. He 
would have been still more vexed if he had known that she was 
thoroughly used to the sight of the automobile, for Eunice had her for 
a saddle-horse and, on her rides it was Miss Halliday's invariable 
good fortune to encounter the doctor making his calls. While a horse 
has as little sense as some human beings, it still has sense enough to 
lose its fear of a thing known to be harmless. 



HOW HALLIDAY'S PREJUDICE WAS OVERCOME 33 

Mrs. Halliday knew all about these meetings, even if her husband 
did not. After that one tiff of theirs the lovers seemed to have found 
out that the opposition of Eunice's father was about all that the course 
of true love needed to keep it from running too smooth. So by the 
time the apple-trees began to mimic the departed snows and the air 
was filled with the mysterious perfume of the wild-plum thickets and 
the long-drawn fluting notes of the turtle-dove, a certain question was 
asked and answered in a way that made two hearts beat deep and 
strong. (Even in that happy moment Dr. Perry noted the effect it 
had upon his pulse and respiration. ) 

' ' Dr. Perry has asked me to be his wife, ' ' said Eunice to her 
father, ' ' have you any objections to him ? ' ' 

" You know well enough I have," he thundered and was going 
on, but she stopped him with : 

" He says he wants me to marry him, and — Papa, I love him." 
She looked at her father through tears, but he avoided her gaze. 

" Now, Eunice, you know what I said. You sha'n't marry that 
man. ' ' 

" Is it because he isn't the right kind of a man for me to live 
with?" 

He was silent. 

" Is it because you think he can't provide for me? He has a 
good practice, but even if he hadn't, I'd be willing to share poverty 
with him." 

He was still silent. 

"Then it's only because he's got an automobile that you don't 
like him ? ' ' 

" Now, Eunice, I'm not goin' all over that again." This with a 
fine, lofty air of dismissing the whole subject. 

" That's all the objection you have to him, isn't it? " 

Mr. Halliday was apparently absorbed in The Horseman. 

' ' Do you give your consent then ? Mamma does. 

" No, I don't." 

The girl's eyes filled with tears. "Papa, don't you wish me 
to be happy with the man I love? " she asked and put her anus about 
him. He shook her off, but I will do Jone Halliday the justice of 
saying that he felt ashamed of himself. 

" Very well then," she said, " I'll take my own way and marry 
him anyhow." 

" Well, you won't." 



34 HOW HALLIDAY'S PREJUDICE WAS OVERCOME 

"Well, I will." 

Their eyes met now, flashing fire. Never before had father and 
daughter looked so much alike, though Eunice Halliday was acknow- 
ledged by all to be " the very spirit and image of her daddy. ' ' 

After that no more was said, but each watched the other like a 
hawk. To strike at her through her lover, Mr. Halliday tried to get 
the road commissioner to keep automobiles off the county roads, but 
Mr. Allbright, being a politician, did not see how he could do that 
without ruling out traction engines, and hemmed and hawed and dilly- 
dallied in the most shameful manner. 

I don't know if you ever tried it, but there is a lot to arrange 
about a wedding, and when it has to be solemnized under such 
circumstances as those attending that of Dr. Perry and Eunice Halli- 
day, it complicates matters extremely. Mrs. Halliday grieved greatly 
for she had planned all her life long to have Eunice married off in 
grand style at the Center Street M. E. Church, where there was a big 
organ and a high ceiling so that Mendelssohn's Wedding March could 
have all the room it wanted to spread itself as it came crashing down 
the scale from its initial chord. She had pictured how fine Jonas 
would look in a " dress suit ' ' and white kid gloves, stepping up when 
the preacher says : ' ' Who giveth this woman to be married to this 
man ? ' ' But all that had to go by the board now, and she was not to 
see her daughter arrayed in the glory of white satin, tulle and orange- 
blossoms, nor to feel the flutter of a mother over all those fine fixings. 
There was a grey traveling frock and some other things, but that was 
all. Still there was some fun in it; it was just like Christmas at the 
wrong time of the year, having to make things on the sly and whip- 
ping them out of sight whenever Mr. Halliday came in. But it was 
all done at last and on a day when everything was ready for the bride, 
the new home, the marriage-license, the preacher, the ring and all, 
Mrs. Halliday sent Jonas with a sample of Turkey red calico to Bell- 
point to get four yards more of exactly the same shade. When he 
was gone a little while she went down to the front gate with Eunice 
and when something came up the road, tuff-tuffing, the mother kissed 
the daughter with as many tears as if she were never to see her again 
in this world and went back to the house. She had not been there 
long when she heard Mr. Halliday call out : ' ' Euny ! Mother, where' s 
Eunice? " 

"Why," said Mrs. Halliday tremulously, " I thought you'd 
gone. 



HOW HALLIDAY'S PREJUDICE WAS OVERCOME 35 

' ' Yes, ' ' he said, ' ' but I turned back. I thought maybe Eunice 
would like to go for a drive. Where is she ? ' ' 

1 ' Why — why — ' ' stammered Mrs. Halliday guiltily, ' ' she was 
here a minute ago." 

Mr. Halliday snuffed the air. ' ' I smell gasoline. Has that fel- 
low with his polecat-trap been here ? ' ' 

Mrs. Halliday could not keep from reddening. Her husband did 
not need words from her. He took the hint. Leaning forward he 
gave the little bay mare the whip. She leaped and laid back her ears. 

"Oh, Pa! Do be careful," screamed Mrs. Halliday, but Jonas 
never heard her. The buggy just missed the gatepost by the fraction 
of an inch, but he did not heed that either. He was laying on the 
lash and following the scent of the gasoline along the road. 1* he auto- 
mobile could go fast, but the little bay mare could go fast too. He 
might not get to the preacher's in time to stop the ceremony, but he 
could have the satisfaction of horsewhipping the sneaking hound right 
before everybody. 

Now, of all days in the world, it happened that on that particular 
day the cigarmakers had their annual picnic in McLaughlin's woods. 
Old Mrs. Hofmuller, who had three sons working in the factory and 
who always attended the picnic, was a tidy old soul, and nothing must 
do her but she must shake the crumbs off the table cloth over the fence 
into the road just as Jonas Halliday went tearing by. The little bay 
mare, unused to the whip, was already running away, if the truth was 
known, but at the sight of that terrible white thing fluttering out at her 
she gave a wild lunge to the other side of the road, overturning the 
buggy and throwing Halliday out. He had the lines wrapped about 
his hands and could not cast them off. The crazy horse kept on in 
her flight, dragging him nearly half a mile before the stubbed splinters 
of the broken buggy stuck fast in the roadway and held her. When 
some of the cigarmakers caught up with her, she was kicking and 
screaming, and Halliday lay unconscious in the dust. The nun 
dragged him out of harm's way and laid him on the turf, while two or 
three ran back to the grove for a bucket of water. As the others stood 
staring, not knowing what else to do, an automobile came whizzing up 
the road. 

"That's Doc Perry," cried one of the men, waxing his hat. 
" Hey, Doc ! Here's a case for you ! " 

The physician stopped and sprang out. " It's your father ! " he 
called to his new-made bride. 



36 HOW HALLIDAY'S PREJUDICE WAS OVERCOME 

" Oh, I knew there was something that made me want to come 
right back home, } ' she cried. ' ' Don' t — don' t tell me he is dead. Oh 
Papa, Papa ! ' ' She knelt at his side in an agony of self-reproach. 

" Not, he's not dead. He's badly hurt though. Seems to be a 
fracture of the femur. Possibly of some ribs, too." The physician 
pressed on the man's chest. He groaned automatically though un- 
conscious. ' ' We must get him home at once. ' ' 

Dr. Perry blessed the day he had selected a vehicle with a front 
seat, for with the cushions and some boards torn from the fence, he was 
able to extemporize a sort of litter for the injured man, and from the 
broken lemon box of the picknickers he prepared temporary splints for 
the broken leg, to keep the parts in place till he could be got home. 

Jonas Halliday opened his eyes to find himself lying in his own 
bed, his daughter kneeling by him and his son-in-law holding his hand 
and noting the strengthening pulse. 

" Oh, Papa, you forgive us, don't you ? " 

"You haven't lost your daughter; you have gained a son," said 
Dr. Perry. 

Jonas turned his eyes to his wife. She nodded her head in an- 
swer to his unspoken query. Then the big fingers of the horseman's 
hand closed on those of the automobilist with a sympathetic squeeze. 

" I reckon," he said painfully, " that — if — ouch ! It hurts me to 
get my breath — if you hadn't — come along — just when you did — with 
your — old traction engyne — I mightn't have— " he smiled, but did 
not finish. 

"That's even so," said Mrs. Halliday, with firm conviction. 
' ' You know I told you to look out for that little bay mare. ' ' 



a S8£ 




The Civilizing Influences of Roads 

THE history of roads is a history of civilization. Good roads are 
unmistakably a sure index of the various grades of civilization.. 
This is a very live subject just now and it gives us pleasure to 
publish the following extracts from an address on the subject delivered 
recently by Henry M. Leland. He said : 

Lord Macauley declares that of all inventions, the alphabet and 
printing press alone excepted, those inventions which abridge distance 
have done most for the civilization of our species; and this applies to 
good roads, even in a greater degree than to the railroad and steam- 
boat. 

Every improvement of the means of locomotion benefits mankind 
morally and intellectually as well as materially. "The road," says 
Bushnell, "is that physical sign or symbol by which you will best 
understand any age of people. If they have no roads they are 
savages; for the road is the creation of man and a type of civilized 
society. As roads are the symbols of progress, when we trace back 
the history of the race to the dawn of civilization, we find that the first 
sponsors of art and science, commerce and manufacture, education and 
government, were the builders and supporters of public highways. ' ' 

The two most ancient civilizations, situated in the valley of the Nile 
and the Euphrates were connected by a commercial and military high- 
way leading from Babylon to Memphis, along which passed the armies 
of the great chieftains and military kings of ancient days, and over 
which were carried the gems, the gold, the spices, the ivories, the 
textile fabrics, and all the curious and unrivalled productions of the 
luxurious Orient. On the line of this roadway arose Nineveh, 
Palmyra, Damascus, Tyre, Antioch and other great commercial cities. 

On the southern shores of the Mediterranean the Carthaginians 
built up and consolidated an empire so prominent in military and naval 
achievements and in the arts and industries of civilized life, that for 
four hundred years it was able to hold its own against the preponder- 
ance of Greece and Rome. These Carthaginians were systematic and 
scientific road makers from whom the Romans learned the art of road 
building. The Romans were apt scholars, and possessed a wonderful 
capacity not only to utilize prior inventions, but also to develop them. 
They were beyond question the most successful and masterful road 
builders in the ancient world, and the perfection of their highways was 



3 8 THE CIVILIZING INFLUENCES OF ROADS 

one of the most potent causes of their superiority in progress and 
civilization. When their territory reached from the remote east to the 
farthest west, and a hundred millions of people acknowledged their 
military and political supremacy, their capital city was in the center of 
such a network of highways that it was then a common saying: " All 
roads lead to Rome. 

From the forum at Rome a broad and magnificent highway ran 
out towards every province of the empire. It was terraced up with 
sand, gravel and cement, and covered with stones and granite and 
followed in a direct line without regard to the configuration of the 
country, passing over or under mountains, and across streams and 
lakes on arches of solid masonry. 

The military roads were generally sixteen feet wide, and some- 
times they were double, with an elevated center. Stirrups were not 
then invented, and mounting stones or blocks were necessary accomo- 
dations ; hence the lines or roads were studded with mounting-blocks 
and also with milestones. Some of these roads could be traveled to 
the north and eastward for two thousand miles; and they were kept in 
such good repair that a traveler thereon by using relays of horses 
which were kept on the road, could easily make a hundred miles a 
day on horseback. 

Far as the eye could see stretched those symbols of her all- 
conquering and all-attaining influence, which made the most distant 
provinces a part of her dominions, and connected them with her im- 
perial capital by imperial highways. 

But to come back to our own country, the United States of 
America, the country which some of our friends on the other side of 
the water have been telling us for a quarter of a century, was a third- 
rate power; that she cut but little figure among the great nations of 
the earth because of her small standing army and an almost unknown 
navy. 

The world kept their eyes upon us the past two years and were 
surprised. They learned that it was the nation that ordered its 
admirals to go out and capture our navy at sight, that found out that 
they were the fellows that had no navy. Our admiral quietly said, 
" Gridley, when you are ready, fire." Gridley was ready; he fired 
and the other fellows' navy hasn't been heard of since. 

The United States is the grandest national realization that ever 
happened. This little country of ours has nearly as many miles of 
railroads^as all the balance of the globe. She raises more wheat than 



THE CIVILIZING INFLUENCES OF ROADS 39 

any other country by many millions of bushels. We have many 
millions more comfortable houses and homes than any nation on earth. 
We raise more cattle by millions on millions than any other country. 
We have in operation more steam power by millions of horse-power 
than any other people that the sun shines upon. 

And the last item that I will mention, though they could be mul- 
tiplied, is that the thirteen struggling, oppressed colonies of but little 
more than a century ago, to-day have more wealth by many, many 
millions than any other nation on the round globe, including the 
United Kingdom of Great Britain. 

And yet, fellow American citizens, while with honest pride we can 
state facts like these, we are forced to admit that we have the worst 
roads, as a whole, of any country on earth. Confession is good for 
the soul and we will not deny the fact, we have thousands of miles of 
the worst roads that lie out of doors, and a smaller percentage of our 
roads are modern, high-grade up-to-date roads than any other people 
on earth. Yet we are not discouraged. When America once arouses 
itself and realizes these things and decides that we will have the best 
roads, and the most miles of good roads; when American enthusiasm 
is once stirred to action in this matter, its skill and its push will pro- 
duce good roads so rapidly that in half a century we will have more 
miles of choice, superb roads than any of the old countries of Europe. 



The Long Island Automobile Club had an evening run Monday, 
December 3. Among those present were Mr. C. W. Spurr, secre- 
tary, in a gasoline vehicle; L. R. Adams, president, in a Winton; 
Mr. Robert Darling, vice-president, in an electric machine; F. G. 
Webb, treasurer, rode in a steam vehicle. The run ended at the 
Crescent Athletic Club, 27 Clinton Street, Brooklyn, where entertain- 
ment was provided by the president and vice-president of the club. 
Lectures have been arranged for and the club house is being made 
ready for the comfort of members. Storage for automobiles will be 
provided at actual cost to the club. 




( We desire those interested in both the manufacture and operation of Auto- 
mobiles to send in for use, in this department, whatever they think may be of 
interest to us or our readers. — Editors. ) 

A Good Section for Automobiles 

WE hear so much about the good roads round about New York, 
Long Island, New Jersey and Staten Island that their praises 
have become somewhat of household words with a great 
many, but there are other sections within easy reach of New York which 
offer charming facilities for automobilists. Permit me to call attention 
of your readers to the beautiful roads which are to be found in Dutchess 
County, New York. Some of the most picturesque scenery in the 
land is to be enjoyed there, as one travels along the beautiful roads. 
The Woods Road, for instance, from Tivoli, Dutchess County, to 
Germantown, in Columbia County, is a most delightful one, com- 
manding a view of the majestic Hudson River for the greater part of its 
length. 

The roads are well kept, and let it be said, to the credit of many 
of the farmers, there is more of a kindly disposition on their part to 
maintain them in good condition than is found usually. 

It is true that many hills are found, but none of them are so steep 
as not to be capable of ascension by the average automobilist. Most 
of the hills, however, are found when traveling in an East or West 
direction, while the roads running North and South are usually level. 

Being familiar with the roads up here, having traveled over them 
considerably, I thought it might do some good to call the attention of 
your readers to them. One can get a great amount of pleasure and 
enjoyment out of a few days' touring through Dutchess County. 

Say one started from Poughkeepsie, the Albany Post Road, upon 
which one sees the old English mile-stones, could be followed, paral- 
lelling the Hudson, passing through Hyde Park, then touching Staats- 
burg. Just after leaving Staatsburg the Post Road leaves the river 



A GOOD SECTION FOR AUTOMOBILES 



4i 



and passes through the pretty little town of Rhinebeck. The next 
town of any size is Red Hook, a picturesque place with 900 inhabitants. 

If, when Red Hook is reached, our automobile friends would turn 
directly west, to Barrytown Corners, and upon reaching the last- 
named point go north again, they would strike a veritable garden of 
beauty in the roads passing through the grounds of St. Stephen's Col- 
lege at Annandale. Tivoli would next be reached, when the Woods 
Road is next on the program. 

I refer to the roads of our county, as there may be automobilists 
in New York City desirous of knowing just where to go for a couple of 
days' delightful touring. You cannot do better than spend it up here 
in good old Dutchess. Joel Smith. 

POUGHKEEPSIE, N. Y. 



A House for My Carriage 

AS was said in a recent issue of this magazine, the question of 
housing an automobile is to be considered, as well as the buy- 
ing of it. My space is limited, and a house i2xt8 feet is about 
the limit, so I have drawn out the plans shown, and would like sug- 
gestions from those who have had more experience as to improving 
them. 




GROUND LINE 



END OR SIDE 



The plan view shows the general idea, and it will be noted that the 
door is on the side, and slides to right. The window in door and in 
the house are to come together when door is open, sc> as to admit light 
in either position. The dotted linos show where the carriage is to 
stand generally, and I have allowed 6x9 feet, room enough lor a large 
carriage, and also space to get around it to clean, oil or repair. The 



42 



A HOUSE FOR MY CARRIAGE 



floor I propose making of cement, and raised about a foot. This to 
give a floor that will stand water from washing — for I suppose the car- 
riage must be washed — and oil from the motor or tanks without being 
soaked full. 

The pit is on an angle in the corner, with steps down from the 
back end. It is 40x72 inches inside, has raised sides to prevent run- 
ning the wheels in the pit, and pointed front end to aid in getting in 
position. The idea of the angle is that the carriage can be backed on 
from the door, and can be run straight out the door without doing the 




SPACE COVERED BY 
CARRIAGE USUALLY. 

PIT ONLY USED 
OCCASIONALLY. 



J 



FOOT SLIDING DOOR 



CEMENT FLOOR 




— — 18- 
PLAN 



DRIVEWAY 



obstacle race act. The gasoline tank is in the corner, as shown, and 
the sketches make the plan clear. As I haven't any use for an upper 
story I have drawn a slant roof, although the house might be more 
artistic with a gable roof. 

If I had to economize space still more, I should put the pit under 
the carriage, in its main position, and have a sliding plank cover, which 
would be closed, normally, but could be rolled open at will. Having 
a separate pit, however, gives you the opportunity of housing your 
friend's machine, when he comes to spend the night, instead of hunting 
up a livery stable for him. Frank C. Hudson. 

New York, N. Y. 



Westchester Automobile Club 

THE first run of this club took place Saturday, December I. A 
start was made from the Waldorf-Astoria at 10 A. M. for 
Gedney Hall, Mr. Howard Willet's country place at White 
Plains, N. Y. , a run of about thirty miles. Upon arrival at Gedney 
Hall, Mr. Willets provided an excellent luncheon, after which a visit 
was made to his stables for the purpose of viewing his fine show horses, 
traps, etc. The return was made by way of Mamaroneck, through 
Larchmont, New Rochelle, Westchester, etc. 

The day was a fine one, and fifteen carriages were in line. Among 
the members present were Col. ]. J. Astor, Howard Willets, W. K. 
Vanderbilt, Jr., A. C. Bostwick, Percy Chubb, Paul G. Thebaud, O. 
Harriman, Jr., Harry C. Graef, Sidney Chubb, George Moore Smith, 
George Gould, E. H. Weatherly, Charles R. Flint, J. R. Walker, J. 
Scott McComb, Charles E. Warren, G. D. F. Leith, F. W. Geissen- 
hainer, Jr., George F. Chamberlain, J. Dunbar Wright, B. B. Mc- 
Gregor, J. S. Whitehouse, W. H. Russell, George Glaenyer, A. W. 
S. Cochrane and Amzi L. Barber. 

The whole affair was a decided success, and every one present en- 
joyed himself. If the first run is any indication of those which are to 
follow then we prophesy a very successful career for the Westchester 
Automobile Club. 



A French official report from Buenos Ay res says: 
' ' The use of electric and oil power motor cars is developing 
rapidly here. Not only heavy delivery wagons, but also luxurious 
carriages, driven by oil or electricity, are frequently to be met with. 
The roads are gradually being improved, and a ' touring club ' has 
been formed with a view of watching over the interests of automobil- 
ism. One of the first resolutions of this club, the members of which 
comprise many merchants and influential amateurs, has been to estab- 
lish throughout all the provinces of the republic, roads especially re- 
served for bicycles and light motor cars. These roads already radiate 
from Buenos Ayres for a distance of from sixty to ninety miles, and 
the work will be continued till a network oi similar roads exists all 
over the country." 




pq 



About the Chicago Automobile Club 

IT is with much pleasure that we present to our readers on page 
44, illustrations of three representative Western automobilists. 

They are, respectively: Mr. Arthur J. Eddy, of the law firm of 
Eddy, Haley Gilbert & Munroe of Chicago, who is President of the 
Chicago Automobile Club; Mr. H. M. Brinckerhoff, and D. Cottrell, 
M. D. , Secretary and Treasurer respectively. 

Mr. Eddy is an automobilist of considerable experience, both in 
touring and racing. He is a warm advocate of the sport and is of 
decided value to all its interests. 

Mr. Brinckerhoff is, in addition to being a devotee of the automo- 
bile, an experienced and capable engineer, being at the present time 
mechanical engineer and general manager of the Metropolitan West 
Side Elevated Railway, Chicago. 

The Treasurer, Dr. Cottrell, is one who has tested the value of 
the automobile from the standpoint of a physician. The popularity of 
self-propelled vehicles with doctors is growing very much and one club 
recently formed, not a hundred miles from New York, has an unusual 
number of the medical profession among its members. 

Other officers of the Chicago Club, and whose photos we were not 
not able to publish with this article, are: J. Ogden Armour, First Vice- 
President; Samuel Insull, Second Vice-President; F. C. Donald, Third 
Vice-President. The club was organized August 3, 1900, with forty 
charter members. Immediately after formation several short runs in 
and about the city were made, and on October 13 a run was made 
from Chicago to Milwaukee, returning the following day. The dis- 
tance covered was about 100 miles by road, the best running time 
being 7 hours 5 minutes. 

The club has held several meetings at which discussion of topics 
of interest to members have taken place. The members now have 
under consideration the question of holding an automobile exhibition 
under the auspices of the club early in June, 1901. The club is a 
vigorous one, and up to the present time has pursued an aggressive 
course. It is safe to assume that as a club it will wield a great influence 
upon automobiling in the West. 



Automobiles in Parade at Bridgeport, Conn. 

NOT the least important division of the Centennial Parade, held 
in Bridgeport, November 12, last, was that occupied by the 
automobile. In fact it proved one of the most attractive fea- 
tures of the whole affair. The Automobile Club of that city was in evi- 
dence. Every member of the club having his carriage in line. The 
Grand Marshal of the parade showed extremely good judgment in 
placing the Automobile Club of Bridgeport in the right of line, the 
club assisting very materially in clearing the streets for the rest of the 
paraders who were to follow. There were twenty-four carriages in 
line, headed by the Captain of the Automobile Club of Bridgeport, 
Mr. T. E. Griffin. Next came the Board of Governors, consisting of 
Mr. Jonathan Godfrey, Mr. Thomas P. Taylor, Mr. John C. Speirs 
and Mr. George W. Hills. The following members of the club were 
present: F. W. Bolande, Dr. C. L. Banks, F. C. Beach, J. N. Bulkeley, 
Louis Cassier, J. B. Cornwall, L. B. Curtis, H. M. Hills, Dr. C. C. 
Godfrey, W. F. Schweiger, C. Barnum Seeley, John C. Shelton, E. 
V. Sloan, A. N. Stanton, H. N. Sweet, Harry H. Taylor, A. K. L. 
Watson, H M. Wells, F. A. Wilmot, Frank Miller, two trumpeters 
bringing up the rear. Each carriage was equipped with a club pen- 
nant bearing the club design. 

Following the Automobile Club in the line of parade came the ex- 
hibit of the " Locomobile " Company of America, headed by Master 
Allen W. and Miss Hazel Speirs. This young man being but 15 
years of age, is the youngest operator of an automobile in Connecti- 
cut, which he handled with remarkable ease. The ' ' Locomobile ' ' 
exhibit comprised stanhopes, buggy top carriages, victoria top car- 
riages, "Locomobile" surreys, This company had twenty-six car- 
riages in line. 

The remainder of the parade consisted of the State militia, naval 
reserves, independent military companies of all the neighboring 
cities, fire companies in and around Bridgeport, exhibits by manu- 
facturers and business men in the city, some of the firms sending 
floats that were decidedly beautiful. 

The parade was pronounced by all a decided success, and was the 
greatest affair of its kind ever held in this part of the country. 

The officers of the Automobile Club of Bridgeport are as follows: 
Jonathan Godfrey, President; Louis Cassier, Vice-President; Frank 
W. Bolande, Secretary, and Thomas E. Griffin, Treasurer. 



Meeting of the Rhode Island Automobile 

Club 

A SPECIAL meeting of this club was held November 21, when 
the following active members were elected: 

Austin, E. A., Providence, R. I. ; Carleton, F. B., Provi- 
dence, R. I. ; Holmes, C. E. , Providence, R. I; Jackson, Daniel, Provi- 
dence, R. I. ; Knight, Prescott, Providence, R. I. ; MacWhinnie, Dr. A. 
Morgan, Pawtucket, R. I.; Manton, Joseph P., Providence, R. I.; 
Sweet, Dr. Charles F , Pawtucket, R. I.; Shaw, Frederick B., Provi- 
dence, R, I. 

Messrs. A. H. Bliss, Edwin C. Bliss and Frank H. Bliss, all of 
North Attleboro, Mass., were elected to associate membership. The 
following governors and trustees were elected: Joseph E. Fletcher and 
William G. Titcomb to serve until 1901, William B. Weeden and 
Henry F. Lippitt to serve until 1902, R. Lincoln Lippitt and Lowell 
Emerson to serve until 1903. 

The following committees were appointed by the Board of 
Governors : 

Membership Committee. — Mr. Henry A. DuVillard, Chairman; 
Mr. William G. Titcomb, Mr. R. Lincoln Lippitt. 

House Committee. — Dr. W. Edward Hibbard, Chairman; Mr. 
Jonathan Chase, Mr. John Shepard, Dr. J. A. Chase, Mr. Charles O. 
Read. 

Committee on Runs, Contests and Tours. — Mr. R. Lincoln Lip- 
pitt, Chairman; Mr. Frederick E. Perkins, Mr. Harry G. Martin. 

Committee on Laws and Ordinances. — Mr. John R. Bartlett, 
Chairman; Mr. Richard S. Howland, Mr. Daniel Case. 

As a special committee to secure suitable quarters for the club, 
the following were elected: Dr. J. A. Chase. Chairman; Mr. R. 
Lincoln Lippitt, Mr. Frederick C. Fletcher. 



NOT DECIDED 



" I had a mind to buy an electric." 

" You changed your mind?" 

" Yes; I have now half a mind to buy a steamer and half a 



mind to buy a gasoliner 



The Voiturette Did It 

Fast he held her hand in his'n, 

In a sort of love-locked prison, 
While he told the burning story of the love that rent his breast : 

And the maiden sat and listened, 

While her eyes with triumph glistened, 
As his all-consuming passion he in trembling tones confessed. 

But she tenderly repulsed him; 

How her words with pain convulsed him ! 
But he' d often heard that fainting heart ne' er won fair lady yet, 

And, with eyes upon that beacon, 

Hoping that she yet might weaken, 
Every point of her objection he with valiant vigor met. 

Yet the maid was unrelenting — 

Gave no token of repenting, 
Though the burning words he uttered seemed to almost singe her ears ! 

To his every plea emphatic 

She would shake her curl-topped attic, 
And his feelings overcame him till he almost burst in tears ! 

Then a thrill of hope ran through him 

As a happy thought came to him, 
And the feelings of joy within him burst forth in epithet. 

As she fell upon his bosom, 

Hugged him as in fear she'd lose him — 
He had promised that his bridal gift would be a brand new voiturette. 

—(Ex.) 



Committees of the Automobile Club of 

America 

THE standing committees for the year 1901 are as follows : Con- 
tests and Technical — C. J. Field, chairman, with power to 
appoint four associates. Laws and Ordinances — George F. 
Chamberlin, chairman; James C. Church. One to be appointed by 
Mr. Chamberlin. Runs and Tours — Albert C. Bostwick, chairman; 
Dr. J. Grant Lyman , J. C. McCoy, George Isham Scott, Harrison K. 
Bird, W. E. Scarritt, J. Dunbar Wright. House Committee — Charles 
P. Doelger, chairman; Malcolm W. Ford, S. T. Davis, Jr., J. M. Hill, 
Samuel H. Valentine. Library Committee — A. R. Shattuck, chair- 
man; E. E. Schwarzkopf, Frederick W. Tousey. Membership Com- 



COMMITTEES OF THE AUTOMOBILE CLUB OF AMERICA 49 

mittee — Gen. George Moore Smith, chairman; Sydney Dillon Ripley, 
J. M. Ceballos, V. Everit Macy. Auditing Committee — George W. 
Young, chairman; J. Talbot Taylor, Warner M. Van Norden. 
Albany Post Road Committee — J. M. Hill, chairman; Col. John Jacob 
Astor, Amzi L. Barber, Alexander Fabbri, Ernest G. Fabbri, S. T. 
Davis, Jr. Good Roads Committee — A. R. Shattuck, chairman; 
Hon. George R. Bidwell. Foreign Relations Committee — Clarence 
G. Dinsmore, chairman; David Wolfe Bishop, J. Dunbar Wright. 



Stabling Automobiles Around Harvard 

BY O. L. STEVENS 

EVERYTHING that could serve as a means of conveyance for 
Harvard students and the people who go to see them has always 
made Harvard Square a center, and now the automobile is 
taking its turn at it. Hardly more than two years ago there was no 
building specially devoted to " autos " anywhere about the square, and 
to see even a Locomobile in Cambridge streets was a matter of interest ; 
but now, within a stone's throw of the college yard, there are two well- 
equipped Automobile Stations, a livery stable which numbers one or 
two Locomobiles among its regular " boarders," and a tidy little club 
stable managed by Harvard students. 

This club stable antedates all the others, and it owes its existence 
to the fact that when the college men first began to get the automobile 
craze it was rather hard to find any suitable place in which to store 
motor vehicles near the college, and at the same time to have them 
properly cared for. A year ago this fall one or two of the students 
found a chance to use the present small building on Remington Street. 
Others joined them later, and after the first few weeks, in which each 
man bought his own supplies and paid for his repairing independently 
of the others, the present club plan was adopted, the expenses for rent. 
caretaking and supplies being figured in a lump sum, of which each 
man bears his proportionate share. The members have named them- 
selves, half as a joke, the Harvard Automobile Club, though they have 
never been very particular to have any organization. 

Their stable was intended originally to house the horse and car- 
riage of the physician who owns it. But it lent itself easily to the pur- 
poses of the automobilists. Its main door opened into a room about 



5o 



STABLING AUTOMOBILES AROUND HARVARD 



eighteen feet square, which had served at once as carriage house and 
wash room, for it had a concrete floor sloping toward a drain in the 
center. A passageway six feet wide led from this room to the horse 
stalls in the rear, and also to a small room where the harnesses were 
kept; while at the right of the passage, entered by a small door from 
the front room, was a small store room. There was a good loft up 
stairs, and a carriage elevator could be lowered just inside the main 
door of the stable. 




Photo by W. H. Tupper, Cambridge 

Exterior of Harvard Automobile Club Storage Station 



When the Harvard men took possession, all they did at first was 
to set in a row of lockers against the side wall at the right of the main 
door; put a bench, vise and a kit of repair tools in the small rooms at 
the right of the passageway; and hire a caretaker. There was room 
enough for a row of four carriages on the concrete in front of the 
lockers, and others could be kept — rather inconveniently, to be sure — 
in the space in front of the horse stalls or in the passageway; while the 
stalls themselves gave plenty of room for supplies, a hose attached to a 



STABLING AUTOMOBILES AROUND HARVARD 



5i 



faucet rising at the edge of the concrete made it easy to fill a water 
tank anywhere in the building, and the concrete itself made the best 
kind of a floor on which to stand a carriage while it was being repaired 
or overhauled. Several of the members have always done most of 
their overhauling for themselves, and they were not slow to find that 
an ingenious use of the elevator would save a deal of backache. They 
merely lowered the elevator until the forward wheels of the ' ' sick ' ' 
carriage could be run upon it, then raised it about four feet and fas- 
tened it, thus holding the carriage tilted up so that the repairer could 
get at all its mechanism by sitting comfortably in front of it, instead of 





!"' ' ' 

i 0* 

1 " " jSi' i 


Hi 


; mm 

fir"* J 

... 



Photo, by W. H. Tupper, Cambridge 

Interior of Harvard Automobile Club Storage Station 

lying flat on his back underneath it, as he would have had to do with 
the carriage on the floor. When the members returned to college 
after last summer's vacation they made several changes in their stable. 
They had the partitions in the old stalls pulled out, gaining room for 
four or five more Locomobiles where the stalls were, and by building an 
incline to overcome the six or eight inches difference between the Level 
of the stalls and the floor of the old harness room they made the latter 
room available for four more Locomobiles. They also sot up a minia- 
ture machine shop in a corner of the loft, and gave over the small room 
down stairs, where the tools had boon kept, to the uses oi an office, so 
far as the stable could be said to have any. 



52 STABLING AUTOMOBILES AROUND HARVARD 

Probably the Harvard automobilists get more real fun out of their 
machines than any other set of enthusiasts around Boston. They go 
speeding about in them at all hours of the day or night, rain or shine, 
to the delight of their friends and the distraction of their caretakers. 
A frequent sight on the asphalt and vitrified brick of Harvard Square 
is a Winton or a Locomobile with three or four students piled upon its 
single seat. And only a month or two ago one member nearly smashed 
himself and carriage into unrecognizable fragments by collision with a 
tree while racing in the dark on a crooked road. There have been 
man}* races in daylight since the club was started, however, — not all of 
them prearranged, but many of them none the less interesting on that 
account. When the club first started, some of the members took their 
time from point to point every time they went out, and the rivalry as 
to whose carriage was the swiftest was lively. Gradually it became ap- 
parent that the swiftest machines were those owned respectively by Mr. 
Warwick Greene, a New Yorker, and the son of General Francis Y. 
Greene, and Mr. Charles Boyden of Boston. Mr. Greene had one of 
the first twenty-five Locomobiles made at the Newton factory, and Mr. 
Boyden' s was the same type of carriage of a more recent build. They 
had several impromptu speed trials without reaching any satisfactory 
conclusion as to which carriage was the best, and at length it was ar- 
ranged that a grand trial should take place on a five-mile stretch of the 
Newton Boulevard, the machine which covered the ten miles out and 
return in the best time to be declared the victor. The Stanley 
Brothers of Newton were interested in the race, and the local agents for 
the De Dion and Orient tricycles heard of it and secured the permis- 
sion of the participants to try conclusions at the same time with tricy- 
cles. The only difficulty was the police regulation against speeding on 
the public roads, and it was supposed that this could be overcome by 
holding the race previous to 6 o'clock in the morning. The morning 
of June 1 6 of the present year was chosen, and at the appointed time, 
before the staid Newtonians were astir, automobilists from all around 
the city gathered near the Chestnut Hill Reservoir, and the two Har- 
vard men in their Locomobiles, Mr. C. H. Metz and Albert Cham- 
pion, on Orient tricycles, and John Robbins on a De Dion, were 
started in due form by Mr. F. E. Stanley, with Dr. G. B. Henshaw of 
Cambridge holding the watch. It was a beautiful start, but it came to 
nothing, so far as deciding the question at issue was concerned. 
About a mile down the boulevard, just around a sharp turn, a squad of 
Newton policemen had lined up across the roadwav with drawn clubs. 



STABLING AUTOMOBILES AROUND HARVARD 



53 



They flagged the race. Mr. Metz got by them, for he was in the lead, 
but Messrs. Boyden and Champion were caught in the meshes of the law 
and had to stand a wait of two hours at the police station before the 
Court allowed them their liberty through the payment of a fine. There 
have been no more attempts at arranging road races since, though the 
racing spirit in the club is dormant rather than extinct. 

The membership in the club for the opening season, besides the 
two men mentioned above, included Mr. William M. Crane of New 
York, who had the first Winton carriage in the club ; Mr. Arthur 




Cambridge Station of Electric Vehicle Company 



Iselin, son of the well-known New York yachtsman and owner of 
another Winton ; Mr. Walter A. Boal, who won one of the races at 
last summer's Chicago Inter-Ocean meet in his Locomobile. He made 
part of his trip from Cambridge to Chicago last summer over the road 
in his carriage. Mr. John T. Pratt, of Brooklyn, and Mr. F. T. Lutz, 
of Boston, also had Locomobiles. 

Most of the Harvard men outside the club who have automobiles 
keep them at the Automobile Station on Palmer Street, just in the 
rear of what is known as Harvard Row, forming one side of the 



54 



STABLING AUTOMOBILES AROUND HARVARD 



square. It was opened just before Class Day last summer. An en- 
terprising bicycle dealer, Mr. W. E. Furniss, thought he saw a chance 
to do a good business in storing and caring for the steam and gasoline 
carriages which could not gain admittance to the Harvard club stable 
or to the only other automobile station in the city, that of the New 
England Electric Vehicle Transportation Company, which at that 
time took in no carriages except its own cabs and leased vehicles. Mr. 
Furniss got control of the two-story brick building on Palmer Street, 
which had formerly been used as a carriage and blacksmith shop, re- 
constructed the entrance 
so that carriages could be 
run in easily from the 
street, fitted up an office 
in one corner, built in a 
wash-floor opposite the 
door, and hung out a 
sign. He got in two 
Locomobiles almost im- 
mediately, and before the 
end of the summer had 
several others. A room 
at the rear was also taken, 
and this will be fitted up 
as a repair shop if business 
warrants it in the spring. 
The floor of the main 
stable is about 25 x 70 
feet. Only the ground 
floor is used, though there 
is room for extension on 
the second floor when 
it is needed. Skilled 

workmen are on hand all the time to care for carriages ; vehicles of 
patrons are called for and delivered, and though the station does not 
make a pretentious appearance, it offers exactly the same advantages 
for automobile owners that a first-class livery stable offers to the own- 
ers of horses. 

The station of the New England Electric Vehicle Transportation 
Company has only within a short time been ready to undertake the 
general business of storing and caring for all kinds of automobiles. It 




Loading Table of the Electric Vehicle Station 



STABLING AUTOMOBILES AROUND HARVARD 55 

was started as a recharging station for the public carriages which began 
to make frequent runs out from Boston as soon as public automobiles 
made their appearance on Boston streets. This use has steadily in- 
creased, and on such days as Class Day, or on afternoons when big 
games are in progress on Soldiers' Field, practically every vehicle the 
company can muster is called on for one or more Cambridge trips. 
More recently the station has had a large number of electric delivery 
wagons to recharge, as its business for mercantile houses has developed. 

The station is in one section of the old brick car-houses of the 
Cambridge Railway, abandoned as a street railway center ever since 
trolleys displaced horses. On the main floor the office is at the right 
of the entrance ; behind it is the engine and dynamo of the type com- 
mon to all the company's sub-stations ; while against the rear wall is 
the apparatus for drawing the heavy batteries out of the carriages and 
replacing them with fresh cells. Racks for holding batteries while 
being recharged extend along the entire length of the wall at the left 
of the entrance, and in front of them is a pit to allow a repairer to get 
at the mechanism beneath a carriage. The station has had a man on 
duty all the time for its electric business alone, and there will proba- 
bly be an increase in the force as the new storage department develops. 
The development of the station to meet this new business will be the 
simplest thing in the world, for the room is limited only by the outer 
walls of what was the old stable for street cars, and which enclose sev- 
eral times the space now occupied by the Vehicle Company. 

It is worth while to mention that the livery stable which takes in 
automobiles drew the line at gasoline carriages. The proprietors said 
that horses could get along very well with a self-propeller that made 
no more noise than a steam carriage, but that they couldn't stand a 
thing that whirred, and purled and rattled while it was supposed to be 
merely waiting to start. 




Committee of the National Good Roads 

Association 

AT the recent gathering of good roads enthusiasts, held in Chi- 
cago, there was proposed and perfected a permanent organi- 
zation of the National Good Roads Association. This matter 
of urging the betterment of our roads ought to receive the hearty sup- 
port of farmers throughout the country instead of opposition on their 
part, as is too often the case. Perhaps in the future farmers generally 
will look back with gratitude upon the labors of these champions of good 
roads. It is a singular thing that our country, which stands for the 
best in so many things, should tolerate such a poor system of roads, 
and it is hoped that the conference just held gave a telling impetus to 
the great number of those fighting for a better condition of things. 

The headquarters of the organization will be in Chicago. The 
officers elected were : President, William H. Moore, Missouri; secre- 
tary, R. W. Richardson, Nebraska; treasurer, Edwin A. Potter, Illi- 
nois; vice-presidents, California, John Baruch; Colorado, William 
Wadley; Washington, J. A. James; Idaho, W. E. Pierce; Wyoming, 
A. L. Fallows; Montana, Samuel Fortier; Minnesota, S. W. Cooley; 
Wisconsin, G. W. Pratt; Michigan, A. E. Palmer; Kansas, William 
Bradbury; Iowa, G. H. Van Hooten; Illinois, G. M. Greenbau^ri; 
Ohio, J. W. Stewart; Utah, F. J. Richardson; South Carolina, E. S. 
Tessier, Jr.; New York, William B. Clark; North Carolina, J. A. 
Holmes; Kentucky, I. B. Noll; New Jersey, General E. G. Harrison; 
honorary, Andrew Pattullo, M. P., and A. W. Campbell of Canada. 

An address was made by W. H. Moore, in which he gave a 
description of the work of the Interstate Good Roads Association, of 
which he is also president. 

During one of the sessions Howard H. Gross, expert on good 
roads for Illinois, presented a paper on legislation. He said that the 
first proposition to be considered was the education of the public to a 
full realization of what good roads meant. He declared that every 
dollar spent for hard roads enhanced the value of the land fully $5. 
A 1 mill tax on the real estate in Illinois, Mr. Cross said, would raise 
$1,000,000 a year for the construction of hard roads. He figured 
that this would not mean over a tax of one-half a cent on a bushel of 
corn, while the producer would be able to get from 4 to 5 cents more 
per bushel if enabled to get his corn to the market at any season of 
the year. 



Run of the Automobile Club to Bridgeport, 

Conn. 

WHETHER it was pressure of business or the coldness of the 
weather which prevented a larger turnout on this occasion it 
is hard to say. However, when the time came to start there 
were comparatively few ready to take the ride. Even some of those 
who had thought of taking it in were inclined to change their mind. 

Mr. A. C. Bostwick led the way at 10 A. M. , in his 24-horse power 
Panhard, accompanied by his machinist. Others who participated in 
the run were: D. Wolfe Bishop with his chauffeur; Dr. Grant Lyman 
and chauffeur, with Messrs. H. H. Pease and W. H. Hall as guests; 
Winslow E. Buzby and R. H. Jones in a Locomobile; Frank Craven 
in a De Dion Motorette, with R. E. Jarrige as guest; Mr. G. B. Adams 
ran a 9-horse power Packard, having A. R. Hawley as guest; J. Dun- 
bar Wright operated his Winton, accompanied by his machinist; Mr. 
W. S. Ions ran another 9-horse power two-seated Packard, having as 
guests Messrs. F. W. Tousey, Fred H. Colvin and Jas. J. Salmond. 

All those who started were well wrapped up and in a condition to 
stand the long run. As the gay party sped along they were satisfied 
that it was a genuine ' ' winter run. ' ' Skaters were seen at intervals 
and the whole surroundings suggested winter. 

After leaving the confines of New York city, the route lay through 
the following places: Fordham, Bartow, New Rochelle, Larchmont, 
Mamaroneck, Rye, Port Chester, Greenwich, Cos Cob, Stamford, 
Darien, Rowayton and Norwalk. At the latter place it was expected 
that the Automobile Club of Bridgeport would meet the visitors, but 
as the latter had reached that point sooner than the Bridgeport club had 
expected it was deemed inadvisable and consequently those that started 
from New York rode into Bridgeport alone. 

When Bridgeport was reached, headquarters were made at the 
Arcade Hotel, on State Street, and vehicles were stored at several 
nearby livery stables. 

In the evening the Bridgeport automobilists entertained the 
visitors at dinner, after which two boxes in the Park City Theater were 
placed at their disposal to witness Grace George and her company in 
" Her Majesty." 

Sunday morning when the automobilists awoke it was snowing, and 
considerable had already fallen during the night, giving a decidedly 
wintry appearance. 

The various machines left Bridgeport at different hours. Those 



5 8 RUN OF THE AUTOMOBILE CLUB TO BRIDGEPORT, CONN. 

who took part in the run enjoyed it very much in spite of the cold 
weather. The hospitality of the Bridgeport Club was overwelming. 
It did all in its power to make all feel at home, and needless to say, 
succeeded. Great credit is due to the members for the manner in which 
they catered to the wants of their visitors, not only in the way of enter- 
tainment, but in the matter of furnishing gasoline, storage, and in 
other ways. 

The Liquid Air Automobile 

WE feel that such a decided innovation as the liquid air automo- 
bile will be much discussed, and that our readers who have 
not looked into the machine will expect an opinion on it. 
Without doubt one of the chief novelties at the Grand Central Palace 
show was the Tripler liquid air exhibit. The machine was a Locomo- 
bile, with the boiler and water tanks replaced by liquid air tanks, and 
it ran very smoothly, when in operation, as was to be expected. 

But in spite of this, and considering all the claims made by the 
exhibitors to be true, we fear the future of the machine is so very 
much in the future as to prevent its being feasible for years to come. 

Liquid air is a method of transmitting and storing power the same 
as electricity, and is, of course, simply air compressed to the point of 
liquefaction. It presents some of the most remarkable phenomena 
known to science, and interests every one who appreciates the 
wonderful in any form. But as a mechanical proposition for running 
automobiles it has several serious drawbacks. 

It cannot be stored in closed vessels, as it develops a tremendous 
pressure, which would burst any tank that it is practical to build. 
So a vent must be left which acts as a safety valve on a boiler, and re- 
lieves all pressure above the desired limit, say 200 pounds. This 
means that the air is constantly escaping when not being used, and if 
a machine stands in the carriage house, the motive power disappears, 
leaving it helpless. 

As it cannot be stored in a tank in the house, there is nothing to 
do but go to the liquid air plant with a jug, or hire a mule to tow the 
machine there to be filled, unless you invest in a compressing plant 
of your own. Even with a liquid air plant in every town this is not 
especially convenient, and at present it is practically prohibitive. 

This is another case where the actual cost of operation of the ma- 
chine is not a feature, but the inconvenience of recharging puts it out 
of the list of possibilities, for the present, at least. 



Anniversary Run of the Automobile Club of 
Great Britain 

THE London to Southsea run was an unqualified success, and 
will rank as the principal item of an eventful year to auto- 
mobilists. When one recalls the utter failure of the Brighton 
run some three years ago, the rapid advance of the autocar since then 
is simply marvellous. The distance from London to Southsea is about 
74 miles. Much of the road is hilly, especially between the towns of 
Guilford and Milford. The ride was certainly calculated to test the 
qualities of the machines which took part in the run. 

The procession started from Whitehall at 9:30 o'clock on the 
Saturday morning, and fortunately for all concerned the weather was 
fine and fairly clear, considering the time of year. Every class of 
motor was represented, and although the petrol driven car predom- 
inated there were representatives of steam and electricity. The long 
line extended from the Horse Guards to away on the Embankment, 
and the crowd of sightseers enjoyed a novel view. It was really 10 
o'clock before a move was made, and then things progressed very 
briskly. The club regulations as to pace were strictly adhered to and 
there was nothing to complain of on that score. Mr. C. Johnson, the 
Secretary of the club, led the way on Mr. Alfred Harmsworth's Pan- 
hard No. 24, and he was followed by over 100 cars, each bearing an 
official number. 

There were one or two stoppages between the starting point and 
Thames Dilton, but the unfortunate motorists put on a good face and 
were able to " follow on " as Miss Edna May used to sing. Mr. May- 
hew, of the London County Council, on his 16 horse-power Napier 
made the pace a little warmer and the gaps between the various cars 
increased. Lord Russell was mounted on an American car with an 
accompaniment which sounded very much like sleigh bells, while Mr. 
Henry Edmunds had a brave show of flowers in the shape of chrysan- 
themums as a decoration to his chariot. At Esher and Guilford there 
were additional arrivals and the procession was quite a triumphal one. 
Guilford was reached before 12 o'clock by the leaders, and they pur- 
sued their way to Godalmung, while their less fortunate comrades were 
still straggling into the former town. Lunch was taken here and main 
humorous notes passed between the tourists as they enjoyed a splen 
didly served meal. The Hon. C. S. Rolls, who, up to this point, had 



6o RUN OF THE AUTOMOBILE CLUB OF GREAT BRITAIN 

made the journey on a motor tricycle, abandoned his charge and 
joined his club companion, Mr. Hargreaves, in his motor car. Mr. 
W. J. Peall, the famous billiard player, was noticeable here, and looked 
like making a good " break " — into Portsmouth. 

I am afraid I should trespass too much on your space if I re- 
counted the journey in detail. Suffice it to say that Portsmouth was 
reached in good time, where a large crowd turned out to watch the 
arrivals. The Mayor (Alderman Emmanuel) was invited to take a 
seat in No. 78, the cleanest car in the opinion of the experts, and he 
succumbed to Mr. Edmunds' blandishments and joined the proces- 
sion. Illustration of this vehicle will be found as a frontispiece. In the 
evening dinner was held at the Esplanade Hotel, Southsea, presided 
over by Hon. J. Scott Montagu, M. P. , supported by the Committee 
of the Automobile Club, and nearly every participant in the tour. The 
Mayor in replying to the toast of ' ' the Mayor and Reception Com- 
mittee," expressed his pleasure in welcoming the automobilists to 
Portsmouth, and incidentally mentioned that if they would similaily 
honor the town in the summer he would give a 10 guinea cup and a sec- 
ond prize of 5 guineas for whatever the club should decide. 

The chairman, during the course of his speech, reminded the 
gathering that he himself had started Mr. Arthur Balfour, the leader 
of the House of Commons, on his career as an automobilist. Mr. 
Balfour was now the proud possessor of three cars, and his enthusiasm 
for automobilism was a good omen for the success of the cause. Peers 
and Members of Parliament were taking more and more to the sport, 
and even allowing for the prejudices of some individuals, there was 
nothing to complain of in the progress already made. At the conclu- 
sion of the proceedings much amusement was created by the reading 
of an anonymous telegram, which ran " May your oil cans blow you 
to Patagonia !" 

The bulk of the party returned to London on the Sunday, but a 
few stayed overnight and made the return journey on the Monday. 
The conditions were much changed. The hard, dry roads were a 
thing of the past, and rain fell in torrents from early morn until, with 
the exception of a few intervals of fair weather, far into the night. 
Considering the treacherous condition of the street car lines and pav- 
ing blocks of Portsmouth, the steering was excellent, and good prog- 
ress was made. Although the weather was very disagreeable every- 
body took it in good part, and the many ladies who formed the party 
deserved the highest praise for their pluck. 



RUN OF THE AUTOMOBILE CLUB OF GREAT BRITAIN 61 

In town, another dinner was held at the Whitehall Rooms, on the 
anniversary of the date when the Light Locomotives Act of 1896 
came into force. Roger Wallace, Q. C. , was in the chair, and the 
company, which was a distinguished one, included the Right Hon. C. 
B. Stuart- Wortley, Q. C. , U. P., Sir R. Harrison (Inspector General 
of Fortifications), Lord Benthwick, Hon. J. S. Montagu, M. P., 
Professor Boverton Redwood, Baron de Broyne, Col. R. E. Oving- 
ton, Mark Mayhew, S. F. Edge, etc., etc. The toast of the evening, 
" Success to the Automobile Club," was given by the Rt. Hon. C. B. 
Stuart Wortley, M. P. , and during the course of his speech that gen- 
tleman gave some excellent advice to users of motor cars in general, 
and showed by the tenor of his remarks that he was a keen observer 
of automobilism. Altogether the assembly was a great success, and 
shows what a hold on the metropolis the pursuit of automobilism has 
taken. L. J. O. 

London, December 1, 1900. 



KINDRED SPIRITS 

She — And did you light the fire with kerosene, too ? 
He — No ; I smoked while I was putting gasoline in the auto- 
mobile. — Chicago News. 



" Dat's a queer hoss-shoe over your door, Mr. Johnsing. 
" Hoss-shoes is out of style; dat's a automobile tire." 







LA COURSE DES GRANDS MASQUES 

Prize Automobile Poem from the Auto- Velo 

Translated by A. Lenali6. 

the start — Le Depart. 

The starter's watch proclaims the crucial time at hand: 
Attention! Both! Together! Go! At the command 
The masked expert, with iron grip on steering gear, 
Leaps forth, superb and supple like an unleashed deer, 
With labored breathings, that applause, and eager shout 
Of masses, gathered from the byways round about, — 
Combine to render unobserved. On, swiftly, flies 
The chaufeur towards the goal where promised glory lies ! 

along the road — Sur La Rotde. 
The highway, dreamily wending on 

afar 
Is straight and white. Sunbeams the dawn 
unbar. 
A dawn so sharp — so raw and misty — 

must prick 
Our chauffeur's muzzled nose. Sapristi! 
He's chic! 
The motor roars. By mode erratic, 

upheld 
We seem, as though by force pneumatic 
propelled. 
The motor roars. By ways unknown 

we flee. 
The fray once on, chiselled from stone 
are we. 
The motor roars! Attention! whiles 

we run 
The steep descent. Temptation's wiles 
we shun. 
What! faster yet? 'Tis madness wakes! 

Who cares! 
To win the race, hair-breadth escapes 
one dares. 
The chauffeur plunges downward; reappears 

to gain 
The slope; fain would Olympic spheres 
attain ! 



LA COURSE DES GRANDS MASQUES 63 

Sinuous our course, at times, and fraught, 

at least, 
With incident. Between the wheels is caught 

some beast. 
Just now, upon the ragged edge 

we pause; 
An aged frump — as we allege — 

the cause. 
Capsized are pigs and fowl galore — 

some slain. 
Eh! Chick! Too bad! Your fault. Once more 

we gain 

THE CONTEST — La Lutte. 

Hark! from the rear a clarion call resounding. 
Now, by the Gods! 'tis our opponent, rounding 

Up apace! We've scarcely half a minute's start! 

Wrapped in a cloud he comes; like arrow's dart 
He covers space! Relentlessly he overtakes — 
" But no! — He'll not so easily win the stakes! " 

Sings out th' assistant, watchful, as we glide, alert. 

" More speed, patron! The motor sleeps. She seems inert. 
We scarcely travel at the rate specific! " 
He nods assent; the pace becomes terrific. 

How thrilling these coeval contests of our day! 

Arena-wise, yet in unmediaeval way, 
The wheel firmly clenching with grasp vitalized 
Whizzing swift o'er a land sadly demoralized! .... 

the onlookers by the wayside — Cenx Qui Attende?it Le Passage. 

' ' The leader is not far away ! — Across the route 

Let no one pass! " They come! The warning blast — Look out! 

" Now both are here! The signal sounds to clear the way! 

'Tis Girardot! No Charron! Or is't Levegh ? " 
But then — how recognize a flying cannon ball ? 
And what import are names when glory levels all ? 

Applause the racers greet. — They're sporty, these suburbans' 

Our peaceful peasants, roused by this disturbance, 
Cease from their labors, and, standing, hand on haunch, 
Dumbfounded, watch the passing of this avalanche! .... 

THE FINISH — V Arrivcr. 

Upon their autos, that have answered all commands, 

These champions have traversed unto many lands; 

Grown hearty on the dust they swallowed in these sallies. 
They've climbed mountain sides and plunged into valleys; 

Have travelled through cities, and dark forests' shade. 



64 LA COURSE DES GRANDS MASQUES 

Have skirted the coast, the torrent o'er-leaped — unstayed! 

And if wearied their loins, yet the spirit takes birth 

In these difficult lessons derived from the earth. 
Meantime, we must finish this fabulous run: 
(It cannot forever endure — and soon must be won!) 

There, just beyond! A large, white streamer marks the goal. 

Afar off may be read the magic word: " Controle." 
'Twixt two tall flag-staffs may be readily discerned, 
Controle! most hoped for goal, repose well earned! 

With one final effort, this chauffeur expert, • 

For a finish sensational braces alert. 
With solemn mien, a man, within the road midway, 
Signals with bright-hued handkerchief; — this is to say: 

' ' Stop ! Your number ? ' ' Grinds the brake. They write — O bliss ! 

His signature upon a blank .... 

Apotheosis ! 
M. Gaetan de Meaulne. 



The Automobile Club of Brooklyn moved into their new quarters 
at the Hotel Clarendon, December 10, when they held their first 
annual election. The following officers and board of governors were 
unanimously elected : President, Edward J. Bergen ; First Vice- 
President, R. Holcomb Jones ; Second Vice-President, Dr. W. M. 
Hutchinson ; Secretary, C. Benton Dix ; Treasurer, C. H. Tangeman ; 
Consulting Counsel, Joseph J. Robinson ; Board of Governors, Edward 
J. Bergen, R. Holcomb Jones, Benj. F. Tyler, Dr. Clinton B. Parker, 
Frank D. Maltby, C. H. Tangeman, Dr. Wm. M. Hutchinson, Edgar 
W. Mersereau, C. Benton Dix. 

After the election, champagne, etc. The rooms were handsomely 
decorated with roses, etc. 

The new Board of Governors met December 12, and appointed the 
following committees : Membership Committee, Dr. Dewitt L. Parker, 
Dr. J. O. Polak, Joseph Gardom ; House Committee, Dr. Clinton B. 
Parker, Chairman, John F. Oltrogge, D. Irving Mead, J. I. Bergen, 
Willis M. Follmer ; Tours, Runs and Exhibitions, Frank D. Maltby, 
Chairman, C. H. Tangeman, DeWitt L. Parker, Theodore Heilbron, 
Edward J. Bradbury, Eugene La Grove, Henry Hyatt ; Laws and 
Ordinances, James C. Church, Edgar J. Bergen, Joseph J. Robinson ; 
Auditing Committee, Clarence S. Smith, Edward C. Boyce, Edward 
H. Bancker. 



Automobile Club Directory 



Under this heading we shall keep a record of the motor vehicle 
dubs both of this and other countries, and we hope to have the 
co-operation of club officers in making it accurate and complete. 

_ Corresponding clubs of the Automobile Club of America are 
designated thus * 

Rhode Island Automobile Club, Sec- 
retary, Frederick C. Fletcher, P. O. 
Box 1314, Providence, R. I. 

San Francisco Automobile Club, 
B. L. Ryder, Secretary, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 

Columbia College Automobile Club, 
Lewis Iselin, Secretary, Columbia Col- 
lege, New York, N. Y. 

^Buffalo Automobile Club, Secretary, 
Ellicott Evans, The Lenox, Buffalo, 
N. Y. 



Automobile Club of America, Mal- 
colm W. Ford, Secretary, 203 Broad- 
way, New York ; representative on In- 
ternational Racing Board, Clarence 
Grey Dinsmore ; Substitute, John H. 
Flagler. 

Automobile Club of New Jersey, 
President, Kirk Brown ; Vice-Presi- 
dent, W. J. Stewart ; Treasurer, H. W. 
Whipple ; Secretary, Dr. H. Power. 

Automobile Club of Baltimore, W. 
W. Donaldson, Secretary, 872 Park 
Avenue, Baltimore. 

Automobile Club of Brooklyn, Sec- 
retary, C. Benton Dix, Hotel Claren- 
don, Brooklyn. 

^Automobile Club of Columbus, O., 
C. M. Chittenden, Secretary, Broad 
.Street. 

Chicago Automobile Club, Secre- 
tary, H. M. Brinkerhoff, Monadnock 
Block, Chicago. 

Long Island Automobile Club, 
Secretary, Charles W. Spurr, Jr., 552 
State Street, Brooklyn. 

Automobile Club of New England, 
Secretary, Geo. E. McQuesten, Brook- 
line, Mass. 

^Cleveland Automobile Club, L. H. 
Rogers, 357 Amesbury Avenue, Sec- 
retary, Cleveland, O. 

*North Jersey Automobile Club, E. 

T. Bell. Jr., Secretary, Paterson, N. J. 

^Automobile Club of Rochester, 

Frederick Sager, Secretary, 66 East 

Avenue, Rochester, N. Y. 

Massachusetts Automobile Club, 
President, J. Ransome Bridge ; Treas- 
urer, Conrad J. Rueter ; Secretary, L. 
E. Knott, 16 Ashburton Place, Bos- 
ton, Mass. 

Pennsylvania Automobile Club, Sec- 
retary, Henry J. Johnson, 138 No. 
Broad Street, Philadelphia. 

^Philadelphia Automobile Club, 
Frank C. Lewin, Secretary, 250 No. 
Broad Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 



Worcester Automobile Club, Wor- 
cester, Mass., President, J. E. Far- 
well ; Vice-President, J. W. Bigelovv ; 
Marshal, W. J. H. Nourse ; Secretary- 
Treasurer, H. T. McKnight. 

AUSTRIA. 

Budapest — Magyar Automobil Club, 
31 Musem Koriil. 

Innesbruck — Tiroles Automobil 
Club, Rudolph-Strasse 3. 

Prague — Prager Automobil Club. 

BELGIUM. 

Antwerp— Automobile Club Anver- 
soir, 34 r. Longue de 1'Hopital ; Presi- 
dent, Baron de Bieberstein. 

^Brussels — Automobile Club de Bel- 
gique, 14 PI. Royale ; Moto-Club de 
Belgique, 152 Boul. du Nord ; Touring 
Club de Belgique, n r. des Vauniers. 

Charleroi — Automobile Club de 
Charleroi, Hotel de Esperance. 

Ghent — Automobile Club de Flan- 
dres. 

Liege — Automobile Club, Liegeois, 
2 r. 1 iamal 

FRANCE. 

Amiens — Automobile Club de Picar- 
die, 36 r. de La 1 [otoie. 

Avignon — Automobile Club de 
Avignon. 

Bordeaux — 1 .'Automobile Bordelais. 



66 



AUTOMOBILE CLUB DIRECTORY 



Dijon — Automobile Club. Bourguig- 
nors Cafe Americanie. 

Lyon — Bicycle et Automobile Club 
de Lyon ; Motor Club de Lyon, 3 pi. 
de laBouise. 

Marseilles— Automobile Club de 
Marseilles, 61 r. St. Fereol. 

Nance— Automobile Club, Lorrain, 
Thiers pi. 

Nice— Automobile Yelo, Club de 
Nice, 16 r. Chauvain. 

^"Paris— Automobile Club of France, 
6 pi. de la Concorde ; Motr-Club de 
France ; Touring Club de France, 5 r. 
Coq-Heron. 

Pau — Automobile Club. Bearnais 
Ave. de la Pau, President, M. W. K. 
Thorn. 

Perigueux — Yeloce Club, Perigour- 
din, Hotel de Commerce. 

Toulouse — Automobile Club, Tou- 
lousain Cafe Riche, pi. St. Etienne 
Societe des Chaffeurs du Midi, 25 r. 
Roquelaine. President, M. Gay. 

GERMANY. 

Aachen (Aix la Chapelle) — West- 
deutscher Automobile Club, Hotel 
Grand Monarque. 

Berlin — Mitteleuropaischer Motor 
Wagen Verein, I. Universitatstrasst, 
Herr A. Klose ; Deutscher Automobil 
Club, Liusenstrasse, 43-44. 

^Deutscher Automobil Club, Lius- 
enstrasse, 43-44. President, S. D. 
Herzog, Victor von Ratilin. 

Dresden — Radfahrer-und Automobi- 
listen Yereinigung: Dresdener Touren 
Club. 

Eisenach — Mitteldeutscher Automo- 
bil Club ; Motorfahrer Club, Eisenach. 

Frankfort am Main — Frankfurter 
Automobil Club, Restaurant Kaiserhof . 

Munich— Bayer. Automobil Club, 33 
Findling Strasse. 

Stettin — Erster Stettiner Bicycle und 
Automobil Club. 



Strassburg — Strassburger Automo- 
bil Club. 

Stuttgart — Sud deutscher Automobil 
Club ; \Yurtembergischer Motor Wag- 
en Yerein. 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

Birmingham — Motor and Cycle 
Trades Club, Corporation street. 

Edinburgh — Scottish Automobile 
Club. 

Liverpool — Liverpool Self-propelled 
Traffic Association, Colquitt street. 
Secretary, E. Shrapnel 1 Smith. 

^London — Automobile Club of Great 
Britain and Ireland, 4 Whitehall Court, 
S. W. Hon. Secretary, C. Harrington 
Moore. 

Nottingham Automobile Club, Sec- 
retary, A. R. Atkey, Nottingham, 
England. 

HOLLAND. 

Nimegue — Nederlandsche Automo- 
bile Club. 

ITALY. 

Milan — Club Automobilisti Italiani 
6 via Guilini. 

*Turin — Automobile Club d'ltalie 
Yia Yittorio Amedeo II, 26. 

RUSSIA. 

Moscow — Moskauer Automobile 
Club, Petrowka, Hauschnow. 

St. Petersburg — Automobile Club 
de Russe, President, M. Delorme. 

SPAIN. 

Madrid — Automobile Club de Mad- 
rid. 

SWITZERLAND. 

^Geneva — Automobile Club de 
Suisse, 9 boul. de Theatre. 



The Automobile 
magazine 

A Live Journal for all interested in Motor Vehicles 
Vol. Ill No. i NEW YORK, JANUARY, 1901 Price 25 Cents 



Published Monthly by 

THE AUTOMOBILE PRESS, 

95 Liberty Street, New York. 

Telephone : 984 Cortlandt. Cable Address : " Loceng," N.Y. 

Angus Sinclair, President. Jas. R. Paterson, Secretary. 

Fred H. Colvin, Vice-President and Editor. Jas. J. Salmond, Associate Editor. 



Boston Office, 170 Summer Street. Philadelphia, The Bourse. 

Subscription Price, $3.00 a year in the United States, Canada and Mexico. Foreign Countries 
the Postal Union, $4.00 (gold). Advertising Rates on application. 



Copyrighted, 1901. 
Entered at New York Post Office as second-class matter. 



For Sale by Nexvsdealers everywhe 



The Index 

WITH this number we are sending out a complete index to the 
Automobile Magazine, beginning with the issue of Octo- 
ber, T899, up to and including December, 1900. Those 
desirous of obtaining a copy for reference may do so free of charge 
by addressing this office. 



The Other Side 

A GREAT many automobilists were probably surprised a tew 
weeks ago when they read the remarks credited to Mr. A. C. 
Bostwick, for use in the " Book of Sport." While the article 
contains a number of very decided opinions, some of which might dis- 
courage those about to enter the ranks of automobilists. they undoubt- 
edly embody many valuable suggestions. They also serve to warn us 
against the weak points and annoyances which he has encountered and 
serve to prevent one being too sanguine as to the cost of maintenance. 
On the other hand the average man would probably not subject 
his carriage to such severe service as Mr. Bostwick does and would 



68 THE OTHER SIDE 

probably get along with fewer repairs on this account. Nevertheless, 
the warning to those who imagine the first cost is the only one is not 
out of place, especially in cities where the cost of storage is such an 
important factor. 

Most of the adverse criticism of Mr. Bostwick, however, comes 
from a desire to gloss over the defects of machines under the impres- 
sion that such statements hurt the industry. On the contrary, we be- 
lieve it will prove an ultimate benefit by preventing disappointed 
buyers, who do more to discourage the use of carriages than anything 
else. 

Mr. Bostwick has done, is doing and will probably continue to do 
as much or more for the development of the industry than any other 
one man, and if machines are built so that the points he makes are no 
longer true, he will have done still more for its ultimate success. 

While we wish it were true that all machines ran without these 
difficulties and hope the time will come when they will do so, we know 
of no one better qualified to write from actual experience than Mr. 
Bostwick. 



The Month's Leading Article 

WE wish to call the attention of our readers to Dr. Stemmer- 
man's article, which appears as a leader in this issue. In it 
the author gives us a frank, honest account of what he met 
on the journey in question. 

He states with exact detail just the points which should be watched 
in the contemplation and carrying out of such a trip. He warns of 
difficulties likely to be met, and like a wise practitioner tells us how 
they may be overcome. There seems to be on the part of a great 
many people an idea that automobiling is all sunshine, and consists 
largely in handling a few levers certain ways. There is, however, a 
practical side to the pleasure, as is wisely pointed out by Mr. A. C. 
Bostwick in a contribution he recently made to the ' ' Book of Sports. ' ' 

It is by the record of actual experience that we can make the 
Automobile Magazine of the greatest value to automobilists and 
those contemplating the purchase of vehicles, and it is hoped that any 
readers who can add to its attractiveness and interest by giving us facts 
connected with any trips they may take will do so. If readers will help 
us in this matter we will go to all necessary expense in the way of 
making illustrations and other incidentals to make the publication an 
earnest exponent of automobilism in all its phases. 



The Commercial Vehicle 

The heavy wagon and also delivery wagon will, we feel, come 
to be used more and more just as soon as one is put on the market 
which meets the requirements called for by such services. Sev- 
eral attempts have been made in this country to build a satisfac- 
tory vehicle of this kind, but none have as yet been found to 
exactly come up to the mark. Over in England the development 
of heavy trucks has been greater than here. 

The field of the delivery wagon is a large one, and has not 
been followed up as closely as one would imagine it would have 
been in a country like America, where so much of the commercial 
spirit prevails. We feel that unprejudiced and exhaustive infor- 
mation concerning the development along the lines referred to 
would be of inestimable value to prospective purchasers. We 
believe that there are many firms now halting between two 
opinions on the matter, and if our readers would help us in pre- 
senting the matter from all points of view it would be beneficial 
not only to merchants who are contemplating the investment of 
money in such articles, but also the manufacturers. It is to be 
hoped that this branch of the motor vehicle industry will not be 
lost sight of. 

There are many points in which the delivery wagon and 
heavy truck must differ from the pleasure vehicle, owing to the 
greater loads to be carried. There is the question of tires suffi- 
ciently strong to stand up under the extra weight, not only of 
the load carried, but of the wagon itself found necessary to carry 
the needed weight of motor and running parts. 

We ask the co-operation of all those interested in the devel- 
opment of the auto-truck in this matter. Articles from those 
engaged in this field of work are requested. 



A great many people are apparent!)- surprised when they see 
a motor vehicle for the first time. This surprise is caused by the 
noise which is created by them while in motion and sometimes 
even when standing. They seem to expect that automobiles 
should not only be horseless but noiseless. To a very great 
extent this objection is mere twaddle, for as a matter of fact there 
are to-day hundreds of motor vehicles running around our city 
streets which do not begin to make the noise usually bund in a 
large majority of horse-drawn vehicles. 



Housing the Automobile 

Having purchased the automobile of our choice — the best, of 
course — the next problem is where to keep it. If we have a stable 
or carriage-house this question does not arise, but to the person 
who must build a house for the vehicle of his choice it becomes 
a live subject. 

The main requirement is room to house the machine, leaving 
ample space around it for washing, inspection and repairs. 1 hen 
a pit to allow getting under the machine comfortably for repairs 
or closer inspection is a desirable feature, though not an abso- 
lute necessity. This can, of course, be under the carriage when 
in its normal position, but it is generally more convenient to have 
it in a separate corner of the house. Where it is under the car- 
riage it is best to have a cover for it which can slide on rollers so 
as to easily cover or uncover the pit when desired. 

The floor is preferably of cement, both on account of washing 
and of not absorbing any oil that may drip from the carriage, 
but this is a matter of individual choice, according to circum- 
stances. 

When it comes to the design and the question of a second 
story, the architect comes into play and the problem becomes 
interesting. There is no need for stalls or hay loft, but at the 
same time storage room or a little shop is often very handy. 

We believe it would be of A^alue to our readers if those having 
experience in this line would send us photographs and plans of 
their houses and also give the cost, together with any suggestions 
for changes that would be improvements. 



The Winton Motor Carriage Co. , of Cleveland, has just opened a 
branch in New York city, with a salesroom for carriages and parts 
and a storage depot for Winton carriages exclusively. In connection 
with this a repair department with competent mechanics will be run. 
Mr. Percy Owen will have charge, and all Eastern business will be 
handled through the New York office. It is located at 150 E. 58th 
Street, New York, and is admirably adapted for the work. There is 
a glass roof, and all carriages can be stored on the ground floor. Mr. 
Owen is admirably suited for the work, and we bespeak for the estab- 
lishment a very successful career. Telephone, 4421 38th Street 




- — > 

bwVehicles 

IN ft 



Early Developments 

BY WILLIAM H. MAXWELL, JR. 

FEW realize the importance of the part played by the commercial 
wagon and truck in the affairs of life. Little is used by man 
which is not brought him by a more or less extensively organ- 
ized system of transportation. The horse, wagon and truck have very 
important roles in such a system. We have but to look over the 
amount of capital invested in building these vehicles, and we get some 
idea of how essential they are to the proper conduct of modern busi- 
ness — such an amount of money is never risked because of the mere 
pleasure derived from the operation, but because there is a constant 
demand for a better and easier mode of freight carriage in our large 
cities and country towns. The horse light delivery wagon, and the 
horse truck for heavy traffic are, after all, nothing new. From time 
immemorial, such vehicles have been used, and the wagons now run- 
ning are but highly developed forms of the crude and ancient product. 

With the advent of the automobile, we are enabled to look with 
hope for the time when the necessaries of life, to say nothing of the 
luxuries, will be brought to us more quickly, more cheaply, and in a 
more cleanly way than under the present system. The motor vehicle 
is so infinitely much cheaper to maintain and operate for business pur- 
poses than the horse, that this reason alone would be sufficient to make 
it meet with approval and adoption. Added to this great argument 
is the total absence of fear of overtaxing the strength of the machine. 
It takes up but little room, is under perfect control, and moves around 
most expeditiously. 

Figures give a better idea than can be done by any other method 
of illustration, of the extent of the field of the commercial wagon. The 
late Colonel Waring, the Street Cleaning Commissioner of the old 
City of New York, estimated the number of trucks in use in the city 



72 EARLY DEVELOPMENTS 

at 10,000; Boston uses 3,000, and Philadelphia at least as many more. 
The number of light delivery wagons is, of course, greatly in excess 
of the number of trucks, and an estimate of 15,000 such vehicles now 
in use in New York City alone is very conservative. When we come 
to consider the other great cities, together with the suburban districts, 
where delivery wagons are necessities, the opportunity for the automo- 
bile seems unlimited. 

In addition to the freight delivery vehicle, there is a constantly 
growing demand for the motor omnibus, and for the cab for use in 
public service. The automobile ' ' bus ' ' has a very extensive field in 
such places where the traffic is not sufficient to pay the interest on the 
investment necessary to construct a trolley road. 

Many of the large railroads are actively engaged in examining the 
vehicles now on the market with a view to using them as feeders in 
both freight and passenger service at points where the facilities are 
now inadequate for bringing the people and produce to the points of 
embarkation. 

For many years past numerous inventors all over the world have 
been struggling to perfect the motor vehicle. France has been pre- 
eminent in this movement, and as a result we now have such machines 
as the Panhard-Levassor, and others of equal note and excellence. At 
the same time the development of the commercial vehicle has not been 
neglected, and in Paris to-day, a very large proportion of the freight 
transportation of the city is done by means of the automobile. In 
England we find that the commercial vehicle has been developed 
along extremely broad lines, and there are at least three manufactur- 
ers who have proved conclusively that their product will do all they 
claim. While J;he pleasure vehicle has not been neglected in Britain, 
the Englishman, ever on the alert for what is practical, has betrayed a 
very keen interest in all that pertains to the light and heavy delivery 
van. 

In the United States, we find a very different state of affairs. The 
actual beginning of the present automobile movement may be said to 
have begun about ten years ago. Until very recently those who en- 
deavored to place the industry on a working basis had a very hard 
time. Almost without any adequate reason, capital and the public 
suddenly changed their attitude and plunged into the sea of exploita- 
tion. A number of violent deaths by drowning have resulted, and 
several more are predicted for the near future. Such is only the nat- 
ural result of the methods pursued by a great number of those who 



EARLY DEVELOPMENTS 73 

have entered the business. Companies have been incorporated by 
irresponsible boomers who have been able to impose on a few wealthy 
men, and whose main object was and is to foist a valueless stock on the 
1 ' dear public. ' ' Very few have understood even the first rudiments of 
the business, and poor judgment, to say nothing of actual dishonesty, 
has marked many concerns for early failure. 

It is difficult to say just what has been the means of doing the 
greatest amount of good to the development of the automobile in the 
United States. The pleasure vehicle has been rushed to the front, and 
developed along fairly successful lines. With true American vigor our 
manufacturers have grasped all that has been good in foreign motor 
car construction, and have endeavored to perfect those parts which 
have hitherto been found to be impracticable. As a result the steam 
vehicle has been vastly improved over the similar product of foreign 
manufacturers, and we lead in the production of the electric vehicle. 
It must be said, however, that we are not so far advanced when the 
gasoline motor is considered. 

Until recently, little was done in this country looking toward the 
development of the commercial wagon and truck. The electric vehi- 
cle, because of its simplicity in operation, immediately jumped to the 
front in this field, and undoubtedly, has to-day the greatest hold on 
this line of work. Some gasoline and steam delivery wagons have 
been projected and put on the market, but not on nearly so extensive 
a scale as the electric vehicle. In regard to truck construction, a careful 
examination of the field shows that there are but four legitimate manu- 
facturers who are turning out an honest product. The others claim to 
be entering the field on such terms, but their efforts have apparently 
been devoted, up to the present time, to selling worthless stock. 

In considering this broad topic of the commercial vehicle, which 
is to be the theme of this department, many vital questions will have to 
be dealt with from time to time, but the aim throughout will be to 
demonstrate to all, beyond the shadow of a doubt, the fact that the 
motor car is practical for commercial uses, and cheaper than the horse. 
In order to show this conclusively, it will be necessary to demonstrate 
that the automobile will do either more work for the same expenditure, 
or that it will do the same work for a smaller expenditure, and as a pos- 
sible third alternative, do the same work for the same expenditure for 
a greater number of years than the system it is attempting to supplant. 

How can the proof of the three foregoing propositions be placed 
before the prospective users of the motor delivery wagon ov truck in 



74 EARLY DEVELOPMENTS 

such a manner as to carry conviction and leave no doubt in any one's 
mind as to the real value of the commercial automobile ? The actual 
experience of others who have used motor deliveries in their business, 
and who have found that they can and will do the work in a highly 
satisfactory manner is the best evidence that can be laid before the con- 
servative business men whose interests and means will not allow of their 
making expenditures for experimental purposes. The tabulation of 
the results obtained should show not the experience of one day, a week, 
or a month, but should represent the work done under ordinary con- 
ditions on each and all of the three hundred working days in the year. 

The time has passed when the commercial motor vehicle can be 
offered to the business man on any other than a dollars-and-cents 
basis. If the automobile is not cheaper to operate than a horse de- 
livery, no great future is open to that vehicle. From a purely com- 
mercial point of view the motor delivery wagon and truck will be, and 
even now are, the mainstays of the automobile industry. To receive 
popular support they must be offered as an economy, and solely on 
such a ground. The saving must relate to the operating and mainten- 
ance charges, and such a result can only be reached by a close under- 
standing between, and the co-operation of, the consumer and the manu- 
facturer. The former must use a reasonable amount of common sense 
in operating his vehicles, and the other must bend all his energies to 
bringing the maintenance charges down to the lowest possible level. 

The merits of the three systems, steam, electric and gasoline, are 
not such as can be canvassed in a moment. Each possesses many ad- 
vantages not shown by the others. The use to which the vehicle is to 
be put will decide in every case the advisability of using a certain kind 
of motor. Where a great positive force is necessary to move say five 
or six tons, steam seems to have given the best results. An offset to 
the use of steam is the necessity of having a more experienced and in- 
telligent operator than is the case of the electric vehicle. For light de- 
livery ranging from 1,500 to 2,000 pounds, there is no question but 
that the electric vehicle renders extremely efficient service, and is the 
most popular. We have not had much opportunity in this country to 
observe the practical workings of gasoline delivery wagons, but in one 
case at least, perfect satisfaction seems to have resulted from their use. 

It is a true saying that in every family there are some black sheep, 
and the automobile industry is no exception to the rule. It is neces- 
sary that the prospective purchaser of an automobile should be on his 
guard against the persons who are attempting to make capital of the 



EARLY DEVELOPMENTS 



75 



present desire of over-ardent enthusiasts. Their vehicles present rather 
a good appearance, but how soon the mechanism lies down and re- 
fuses to render the service contracted for, can only be adequately and 
fittingly described by those who have suffered from the misrepresenta- 
tions of those who sold the vehicles. Every purchaser should insist, 
and he will find no difficulty in getting the legitimate interests to do so, 
that the manufacturer stand back of his product at all times, and live 
up to his guarantee. When the experiences of the buncoed business 
men are published, the light-weights of the industry will find them- 
selves driven to the wall, not by any combination of capital at which 




The Thornycroft Steam Wagon 
they can rail, but because of their own dishonesty and short-sighted 
policy. 

With this article are shown three types of steam trucks, one built 
under the Thornycroft patents by the Cooke Locomotive Works. 
Paterson, N. J., and the other two by T. Coulthard cS: Company, Lim- 
ited, of Preston, England. As is shown by the illustrations, all three 
vehicles are of purely English design. 

The Thornycroft truck is 17 feet 6 inches long, by 6 feet 6 inches 
extreme width across the platform. The wheel base is 9 feet 1 1 inches 
in length, and 5 feet 6% inches (center to center of tires) transversely. 
The platform is 12 feet l / 2 inch long by 5 feet 7 V- inches wide, m\k\ 
has 68 square feet for carrying goods. The height of the plat tor. n : - 3 



76 EARLY DEVELOPMENTS 

feet ii inches when light, and 3 feet 9^2 inches when loaded with three 
tons. The frame is of channel steel, and is supported upon the axles 
by regular bearing springs. Attached to the under side of the rear 
axle are boxes built on the locomotive type, in which the driving axle 
turns. 

The driving axle is made from heavy forged steel shafting, and 
affords a good example of the great strength of the vital parts of the 
mechanism. Although required to transmit but 35 horse-power as a 
maximum, it is the same size as a shaft transmitting some 120 horse- 
power. 

The wheels are of the artillery type with metal hubs, and ash 
spokes and felloes, with broad steel tires. The front steering wheels 
are 2 feet 10 inches in diameter, with tires 4^8 inches wide, and are 
pivoted on the Ackermann system. The driving wheels are 3 feet 3 
inches in diameter, with tires of 5^ -inch steel. 

The boiler is of the water-tube type, annular design, centrally 
tired from the top and having the fire completely surrounded by tubes 
which connect the upper annulus with the bottom vessel. The fire is 
carried in the hollow of the lower annulus in such a manner that the 
tubes are preserved from contact with the burning coal. The neces- 
sary draught is created by the exhaust blast. The working pressure 
is 115 pounds per square inch. The fuel giving the best results is a 
steam coal or coke, but provision is made for the substitution of a 
liquid fuel burner. 

The engine, which is suspended from the channel steel under-frame 
from three points in such a manner as to be relieved from strains due to 
any distortion undergone by the frame, is of the horizontal compound, 
reversing type, with cylinders 4 inches and 7 inches diameter, by 
5-inch stroke. It is enclosed entirely in a dustproof and oil-tight casing, 
and runs in an oil bath. The engine can be disconnected from the 
countershaft, and, running freely, without propelling the vehicle, may 
be employed in hoisting the load on the platform. 

A condenser is done away with, the exhaust steam passing through 
a simple form of feed heater. 

The transmission gear is chainless. Two pinions are loose upon 
the engine shaft, either of which engages with and locks into one of 
two machine cut tooth wheels upon a section of the countershaft. 

The rear axle is fitted with a differential gear. Powerful brakes 
are applied, which act on the tires of the driving wheels, while of 
course the simple reversing of the engine provides another brake. 



EARLY DEVELOPMENTS 



77 



Two types of vehicle are now being turned out by the American 
holders of the Thornycroft patents, one capable of transporting three 
tons, and another with a capacity of five. 

The Coulthard vehicles are made to carry the same weights as the 
Thornycroft, and are manufactured in similar sizes. Forty have been 
recently ordered for use in Portugal. In the five-ton truck the engine 
used is the Coulthard improved enclosed compound link reversing 
gear type, and develops 25 brake horse-power. The transmission of 
power from the compensating gear shaft to the road wheels is by 
means of patent chains, which are so designed that each chain is capa- 





' ' ' ** 






4 


■Hi mr4k -? 


1 - 'a*1 / 





The Coulthard Four to Five Ton Lorry 

ble of transmitting the whole of the power, and has a factor of 
safety not less than ten. 

The wheels are of the gun-carriage pattern with hubs of steel, 
having spokes of oak, and felloes of ash. The diameter of the front 
wheels is 2 feet 9 inches by 5 inches face, and the driving wheels arc 
3 feet by 6 inches face. 

The boiler is of the lire-tube type, hydraulically tested to 400 
pounds per square inch, and can be tired by coal, coke or oil. The 
vehicle is guaranteed to take a load of four tons up a grade of io ,: () . 
and if a trailer is used to carry the additional weight it will transport 
two tons more. 



7 8 EARLY DEVELOPMENTS 

The Coulthard three-ton lorry is much the same as the five-ton, 
except that the use of oil is recommended as the fuel in this case. 
Spur gearing- is used to transmit the power from the engine shaft to 
the first motion shaft. In the engine the piston valves are so arranged 
as to provide only a very thin wall between the bore of each cylinder, 
the piston valves being arranged at the back. By this system the 
usual central bearings are dispensed with, and by using a slightly 
larger shaft, carefully balanced, uniform pressure is secured on the 
two main bearings. 

THE ELECTRIC DELIVERY WAGON. 

The advance the electric light delivery wagon has made in 
public favor has been something phenomenal. When the heads of 




Two to Three Ton Lorry of T. Coulthard & Co., Ltd., Preston, England 

some of the larger houses which have adopted motor vehicles are ques- 
tioned their answers are food for much reflection. Some are dissatis- 
fied because they have been duped by the manufacturers, but it is 
evident that their feeling is more of personal anger than of any quarrel 
with the electric vehicle as such. Made to believe that their equip- 
ment would do much more than it was really built to accomplish, these 
houses soon came to grief by trying to make forty-mile runs on a 
twenty-five-mile battery. Little need be said here of the course of the 
manufacturers who pursue such dishonest tactics, for swift retribution 



EARLY DEVELOPMENTS 79 

will come of its own accord. You can only fool the average business 
man once on a certain commodity. 

Even those managers and proprietors of stores who have been 
most badly sold have a perfect belief in the capability of a well made 
electric delivery wagon. One well known concern in the city of New 
York, employing about ioo delivery wagons of one kind or another is 
about to order twenty-five motor vehicles to be placed in service on 
February i, next. The manager in this case made a very specific 
reply when questioned in regard to the matter. " Yes," he said, " we 
have had all the troubles that can, I believe, possibly come as inci- 
dents to the use of the electric . delivery wagon. Our batteries have 
given out; our motors have been defective; and our patience has at 
times been severely tried. Still they are cheaper to operate than a 
horse system, because one electric wagon has done, will do, and is 
doing every day two and one-half times the work of one of our horse 
equipments. I have learned one thing, and that is, more than half 
our troubles were occasioned by our own neglect and carelessness. In 
a service the size of ours it is necessary that we employ competent help 
to look out for our vehicles, and since they have been receiving such 
care they have rendered excellent service. 

Such a statement of the exact facts speaks volumes for the future 
of the motor delivery wagon. It is not a statement a manufacturer 
could possibly make without laying himself open to a good deal of 
adverse criticism. That such an opinion given by a man who has had 
actual experience will have much weight with his fellows there can be 
no doubt. The results obtained by the house in question have been 
narrowly watched by the other firms in the same line, and the initial 
order for twenty-five vehicles is only a harbinger of what will happen 
in the automobile delivery wagon business next spring. 





The Motor Wagon For Business And a New 
Power Transmission Device 

BY A. H. CHADBOURNE 

THE subject of The Motor Vehicle for Business purposes is so 
broad and far reaching that one should hesitate to enter upon 
it, except with the determination to confine himself to outlin- 
ing the various fields in which the motor wagon is destined to play an 
important part, or, better yet, to take up some particular type or de- 
sign and attempt by describing that to give some information or help 
to those who are interested in the subject, either as designers, builders 
or possible users. 

The first and all-important requisite of any motor vehicle designed 
for business purposes, is that it shall perform at least the same amount 
of work as a similar horse-drawn vehicle, and do it at less cost to its 
owner. The man of means may use for his personal pleasure a motor 
vehicle to operate which he spends more money than his coachman 
ever dared expect to see expended on the finest road horse in his 
stable, but the large express and transfer companies, or the man- 
agers of our great department stores, must be shown a very consider- 
able saving before they will authorize the outlay necessary to change 
their system from horses to mechanically propelled vehicles, and, all 
things being equal, the type of vehicle which shows the highest ratio 
of economy and reliability in operation, will be the foremost in the race 
for supremacy. The first cost will enter into the calculation only so 
far as the interest on the additional capital invested figures as an expense 
in operation. It may be possible to produce a commercially success- 
ful motor wagon at a cost that will compare favorably with a similar 
horse-drawn vehicle, but it will not be for many years to come, except, 
possibly, as compared with the investment of the larger express com- 
panies, where, for each two-horse wagon, they have to keep an 
average of about four and one-half horses. 



THE MOTOR WAGON FOR BUSINESS 81 

In such a case, taking into consideration the saving of floor space 
in the stable, usually located on valuable ground, and considering fur- 
ther, the greater mileage capacity of the motor wagon, which makes 
it possible to perform the same service with a less number of vehicles, 
it is not unlikely that an express company could be equipped outright 
with a complete motor vehicle plant at a cash outlay no greater than 
that represented by their present equipment, and the saving in operat- 
ing expense would doubtless be enormous. 

It is not within the scope of this article to take up the relative 
cost of operation of horse-drawn vehicles with any particular type of 
mechanical vehicle, but more particularly to speak of the requirements 
of the successful motor wagon, and describe some new and interesting 
mechanical devices which have been perfected during the past two 
years while working out the problem of commercially successful vehi- 
cles for business purposes. How near the inventor and designers have 
come to that long sought goal is left to the reader and general public 
to decide. 

Everyone will agree that the cost of operation per day, or per 
ton mile of paying load carried, is the one all important factor, and 
the items, wear, tear and depreciation go to make up a large portion 
of the operating expenses. 

From all data obtainable, the internal combustion engine, using 
gasoline or any similar hydro-carbon oil, is by far the most economi- 
cal prime mover for any class of vehicle, and, were it a flexible power, 
like its would-be-competitor, the electric motor, the horse would long 
since have been withdrawn from the heavy truck and dray, just as he 
was from the old-fashioned street car, for, as Mr. Frank J. Sprague, 
the ' ' Father of the Electric Street Railway, ' ' once said in one of his 
after-dinner speeches, ' ' The hum of the electric motor is the 
song of the emancipation of the horse." Unfortunately, however, 
the gas engine is far from flexible, and, while it stands head and 
shoulders above all its competitors on the score of economy in fuel 
consumption, it absolutely refuses to run backward, or to slow down 
from its normal speed without sacrificing the larger part of its original 
power, and when overloaded, it gives one despairing gasp and stops. 

On a light runabout these otherwise objectionable features arc not 
of so much consequence and the great economy of the gas engine and 
its perfect safety more than overbalance the annoyance and expense of 
the belts, chains and gears necessary to harness this intractable power. 

With a regular business vehicle, from a light delivery wagon to 



82 THE MOTOR WAGON FOR BUSINESS 

the heaviest trucks capable of hauling tons of freight, the conditions are 
very different. As the loads are to be heavy and usually carried either 
for a profit, as in the case of the express and baggage transfer compa- 
nies, or as a gratuity, as in free delivery systems of department stores, 
economy and certainty of operation are a ' ' sine qua non , ' ' and hence 
the gasoline engine was chosen as the cheapest known prime mover in 
the experiments and work referred to before in this article. 

Once having a suitable practicable gas engine, simple in detail, 
carefully designed as to its wearing parts, that all such parts may be 
easily inspected and repaired, or replaced if worn, and with a sufficient 
number of cylinders to insure freedom from vibration and shock, the 
next question that confronts the designer is what means of transmission 
shall be used between the crank shaft of the engine and the driven axle 
of the wagon. 

There is little choice between the methods in common use to-day ; 
none of them are desirable even on a light vehicle, while it would be 
entirely out of the question to try and handle commercially a heavy 
truck by any of the arrangements of belts, chains, gears or combina- 
tions thereof, common to the present motor vehicle employing the in- 
ternal combustion engine. It must be remembered that while this 
engine is itself a most economical source of power, yet the losses in 
transmission may be so great as to render the complete vehicle com- 
mercially valueless. 

Mr. Hugh Dolnar, in his very interesting article, ' ' The Final 
Automobile," says, in the September issue of this magazine: "With 
the non-reversing internal combustion motor a reversing gear must be 
added, and clutches must be introduced, and it is still deemed desir- 
able by most automobile designers to include in the transmission ele- 
ments an ideal speed and direction change mechanism, which may be 
actuated by a single hand lever, so as to cause the wagon to run either 
backward or forward at any rate of speed from zero to the maximum, 
without varying the speed of the motor shaft. ' ' He adds, however — 
" No such speed-changing mechanism is known, nor has any near ap- 
proach to it been made. ' ' Continuing further this same talented writer, 
in his chapter on clutches, says: "It is very clear that if suitable 
change gearing and clutches can be had the hitherto intractable Otto 
cycle internal combustion motor becomes an ideal agent for road wagon 
driving, if a sufficient number of cylinders are introduced to give a con- 
stant motor shaft torque. ' ' 

It is apparent then from the foregoing that it is well recognized 



THE MOTOR WAGON FOR BUSINESS 



83 



that the "link" between the power shaft of the engine and the driven 
axle of the wagon is the " missing one," and the success of the motor 
wagon for business depends on the proper solution of that problem. 

The accompanying illustration, Fig. 1, is the side view of an ex- 
press motor vehicle of the same general carrying capacity as the ordi- 
nary two-horse express wagon. This is the latest type of motor wagon 
built to demonstrate the practicability of the new transmission device 
and speed changing mechanism before referred to, and this design, 
with one or two minor changes in detail, has been adopted as standard. 

Dimensions of body inside are 9 x 4' 2". 

Carrying capacity 5,000 pounds. 

Rear wheels, 52"; front wheels, 38". 




Running gear built up of channel iron, which carries as the motor 
a two-cylinder internal combustion engine, using ordinary gasoline. 
The engine is designed so that all moving parts are cither in sight or 
easily gotten at for inspection or renewal. It has copper water jackets, 
giving great water capacity, and rapid radiating surfaces, so that it 
may be run under full load continuously without undue heating. 

The fly-wheel is 26 inches in diameter and makes 400 revolutions 
per minute when engine is running at full speed, and developing [2 
horse-power. This fly-wheel plays an important part in the "missing 
link" power transmission device between it and the driven axle of tin 
wagon. 



8 4 



THE MOTOR WAGON FOR BUSINESS 



Fig. 2 is a plan view of the running gear and shows the connect- 
ing rods, from the crank pin of the fly-wheel (which is, as shown, con- 
centric therewith) to the arms of a "silent reversible roller ratchet" 
keyed to the driving sleeve on the rear axle and actuating both rear 
wheels through an ordinary compensating gear as shown. 

Fig. 3 is a section of the ratchet showing ends of rollers, and 

Fig. 4 shows a longitudinal section through the same ratchet. 

It will be noticed that each steel roller is at rest on a neutral plane, 
with inclines at either side and that the rollers are separated or spaced 
by a cage. Means are provided, by keys with a spiral feather, to shift 
this cage so that the rollers may be forced to engage on either incline 




The Automobile Magazine 



Fig. 2 



at the will of the operator. The cage having been set to cause the 
rolls to engage on the right incline to go ahead, it must be obvious that, 
if a reciprocating movement be imparted to the arm on the upper side 
of the ratchet, that, on the forward pull, the rolls will attempt to climb 
the incline and failing so to do must and do wedge, thus taking the 
steel center and axle forward with them a portion of a revolution. It 
should be noticed in Fig. 4 that there are two sets of rollers working 
on the same steel center, each set actuated by a different connecting 
rod, so that while one set of rollers are pulling the other set are being 
brought into position to push, and hence as this action takes place 
alternately, a turning motion is imparted to the rear axle. In practice, 
it is noticed that, since the reciprocating movement is obtained by 



THE MOTOR WAGON FOR BUSINESS 



equal rods, actuated by the same crank pin, there is a lap or lead of 
one impulse over the other to such a degree as to make the turning 
movement of the rear axle constant, and there is no step-by-step move- 
ment, as might at first glance be expected. All moving parts of this 
ratchet are tool-steel hardened and running in oil. There is no ap- 
preciable lost motion, and the wear after two years' experimentation is 
not worthy of notice. 

Having explained in a general way the action of the roller ratchet, 




The Automobile .VajazinB 



Fig- 3 

the next point to be considered is the fly-wheel with movable crank 
pin from which comes the variable reciprocations of the connecting 
rods. 

The fly-wheel is of cast iron, with a cylinder 3 inches in diameter, 
cast through it. In this cylinder is fitted a brass piston, in which is 
screwed the crank pin. A sliding shoe to prevent the piston from tinn- 
ing and to keep out the dirt, a stiff compression spring at one end and 
a leather cup at the other, with an oil passage through the crank shaft 



86 THE MOTOR WAGON FOR BUSINESS 

to a small pump running from the side shaft of the engine, completes 
this simple device. 

Two connecting rods of equal length connect the upper and 
lower ratchet arms to the crank pin. 

A suitable connection to the hand lever in front of the driver, on 
which is also connected the band brake, makes it possible for a man 
to control the vehicle with as much precision as the engineer of a loco- 
motive does his engine. 

If this rather tedious explanation has been reasonably clear, it 
will be observed that, with the gasoline engine running at full speed 
and the ' ' silent reversible roller ratchet ' ' set to go ahead, there would 
be no motion imparted to ratchet or wagon so long as the crank pin 
of the fly-wheel remained at center. If, however, the pin becomes 
eccentric to the fly-wheel in the slightest degree, a movement is at 
once set up in the connecting rods which again would be imparted to 
the arms on the roller ratchet, and as, in fact, there is practically no 
lost motion, and the ' ' bite ' ' of rollers is instantaneous, it follows that, 
when the pin is off center only one-quarter or one-half of an inch, a 
slow starting torque of stupendous power is developed at the driven 
axle. 

As the pin moves further and further from center, the vehicle 
accelerates until the desired speed is obtained. The movement of this 
pin is obtained by the action of the small plunger pump carried on the 
frame-work and operated through a friction clutch on the side shaft of 
the engine. 

It is a slow moving pump, and each stroke forces oil through a 
check valve into the cylinder of the fly-wheel against the piston which 
carries the crank pin. 

The functionating of these parts is such that this pin may be moved 
out slowly or rapidly, as the occasion may demand. In slowing down 
or stopping the wagon, the pin may be dropped back toward the 
center by degrees, or it may be thrown back in a fraction of a second, 
and a powerful band brake applied, all by the movement of the same 
lever. 

The forward position of the hand lever throws in the friction clutch, 
which starts the pump, forcing oil against the piston in the fly-wheel, 
and like an hydraulic jack, the pin begins to move off of center, and 
the vehicle starts. So long as the hand lever is pushed forward and 
the friction clutch held in engagement the pump works, and forces the 
piston and crank pin further and further from center, until the maxi- 



THE MOTOR WAGON FOR BUSINESS 



87 



mum throw is reached, after which the oil is by-passed. When suffi- 
cient wagon speed has been obtained, the hand lever is brought back 
to the normal position, the pin remains oil-locked, and a constant wagon 
speed is maintained. A slight pull on the lever opens a small valve, 
which allows a very little oil to escape, and the pin begins to return 
towards center; the stroke of the connecting rods becomes less and less, 
and the vehicle gradually slows down. 

A further pull opens a larger valve, and, as before stated, the pin 
rushes back to its central position before the band brake can begin to 
act. To run the wagon backward, the reversing lever is thrown over; 
this action forces the two straight keys with spiral feathers into the 

steel center. These spiral feathers 
sliding in the keyways in the 
bronze cage cause it to recede, so 
that the rollers engage on the op- 
posite side of incline, allowing them 
to wedge on the back stroke, thus 

f -■ — \-hB=i fT g th u rev !T e "7 ement to 

- '--- both ratchet and vehicle. 

It is evident, then, that with this 
device, the heaviest motor wagon 
can be run backward or forward at 
any desired speed from zero to 
maximum without interfering in 
any way with the prime mover, 
whether that be steam, gasoline, 
electric, compressed air, or what 
not, but it is particularly adapted for the non-flexible, non-reversible, 
but most economical internal combustion motor. 

No matter how heavy the load or how steep the grade 1 within 
reasonable commercial limits) the wagon equipped with this device 
can not be stalled. If the engine be not powerful enough to take the 
load and grade at six miles an hour, but can at three, the driver has 
only to drop his crank pin back toward center and sacrifice speed for 
power. 

Should an engine stop from any 
can be set and the 
The crank pin of course being on center no work is being done. The 
driver can then throw off his brake and simultaneously move the pin, 
say one-fourth inch, off of center, giving a half inch stroke at full en- 




Tl,- Anli,nin',;Jr Mmjn-Ane. 



Fig. 4. 



cause on a hill, the brakes 
engine started and allowed to inn at full speed. 



88 THE MOTOR WAGON FOR BUSINESS 

gine speed. At this short stroke the leverage is enormously in favor 
of the engine, and the wagon would at once get under way. 

Not only does this device seem to answer every possible demand 
from a purely mechanical standpoint, but commercially it has the great 
advantage of high efficiency and economy of operation. There are 
no gears, belts or chains. The fly-wheel and two connecting rods will 
wear a lifetime, and the wear on the silent reversible roller ratchet has 
not been enough in the two years of intermittent use to determine how 
many years it would wear under normal conditions, but it will last 
many years, and the wearing parts are very few and easily replaced. 

This principle has been worked on for more than three years and 
for the past two years it has been tested under various and most trying 
conditions. The writer having had an almost daily opportunity to 
watch its development, cannot but feel that this New Year will see in 
this device a great step toward the solution of the problem of the suc- 
cessful motor vehicle for business purposes. 



An Electric Runabout 

IN the early stages of automobile development considerable dis- 
cussion arose as to whether coachmakers or bicycle builders 

would show most interest in that development. There can be 
no doubt that from the lessons taught by bicycle manufacture, auto- 
mobilism has received its greatest stimulus. 

E. C. Stearns & Co., of Syracuse, the well known bicycle manu- 
facturers, have completed and thoroughly tested a new motor vehicle 
which possesses a number of interesting features. 

In design the carriage, which is illustrated herewith, is unique, 
being of the lighter order of ' ' runabout ' ' of the Stanhope type, with 
sidebars and cross-body springs. The sidebars are rigidly attached 
to the rear axle sleeve by forged steel through braces, and to the 
front axle by fore-and-aft quarter springs, held to the sidebars about 
mid-length by clips, and to the under side of the axle by links and 
bolts. The sidebars are clipped to a front crossbar with a half spring 
attached to the front axle by goosenecks and links, this form of con- 
struction affording great elasticity in accommodating wheels to road- 
bed. The steering mechanism consists of an improved form of ball- 
bearing knuckle joint close to the hubs of the forward wheels, which 
are so connected with a center triangle, actuated by a vertical hand 



AN ELECTRIC RUNABOUT 



89 



lever with fore-and-aft movement, that each of the two forward wheels 
is brought to a true radial position with regard to the common center, 
around which the carriage may be made to turn. 

Wire wheels, with 3-inch pneumatic tires, of 32 and 36 inches 
diameter respectively, are used, of regular Stearns bicycle construc- 
tion, with wooden rims. The rear wheels are driven by means of a 
compensating gear placed upon the rear axle at the right side of the 
carriage. This is a positive drive upon the two wheels connected by 
it; at the same time it allows either to turn faster or slower than its 
mate, according to whether the wheels run in a straight line, or curve 




The Stearns Electric Runabout 



to the right or left. The shaft carrying the rear wheels and compen- 
sating gear runs upon ball bearings at four points, and has a clutch 
joint in its middle which admits of setting the wheels slightly nearer 
together at the bottom than at the top. This feature is peculiar to 
the Stearns carriage. By its use, the sagging apart of the driving 
wheels at the bottom, is avoided, and the wheels are given just the 
proper undercut to bring an equal distribution of strain upon both the 
inner and outer rows of spokes. The carriage is fitted with a :' : 



9 o AN ELECTRIC RUNABOUT 

horse-power series-wound motor. There is a special form of series- 
parallel controller with three speed positions, of 5, 8 and 12 miles per 
hour, forward and backward, and a charging position; also a power- 
ful drum brake upon the motor, all actuated by one lever at the left of 
the operator. 

The carriage body is properly of the stanhope model, with deep 
seat upholstered in ecru broadcloth. The rear end board of the body 
swings outward and downward, as a footboard with chain supports, 
and the back top hinges up to form the back of a dos-a-dos seat over 
the battery box. The total weight of the vehicle, with two passen- 
gers, 900 pounds of battery and 200 pounds of motor and controller, 
is about 2,200 pounds, but there is a remarkable stability and sub- 
stantiality about the whole construction, guaranteeing endurance, but 
which would give heaviness to the general appearance were it not for 
the exceptionally fine sweeping lines of the whole. 



Clinton E. Woods Automobiles 

SIMPLICITY in the motive power and protection in its transmis- 
sion are two very necessary things in the make-up of an auto- 
mobile. These points are obtained in the Clinton E. Woods 
automobiles by the use of a solid rear axle and one motor, in which 
all gearing is incased, thus being made an integral part of the motor 
and giving absolute protection from dust and water. 

An automatic controller handle operates all the varying speeds, 
as well as both the electrical and mechanical brakes, the mechanical 
brakes being applied directly to the wheels by a very powerful friction 
device. The electrical brake is an electrical arrangement which oper- 
ates without friction, and by means of which the longest hills can be 
coasted at a moderate speed without the wear, tear, and trouble inci- 
dent to friction brakes, the two mechanical brakes being supplied, how- 
ever, for emergencies. The narrow front wheel tread enables the 
steering to be accomplished by a new combination that makes the 
vehicle respond instantly to the slightest pressure of the steering lever, 
and also gives the genuine automobile appearance so long looked for. 

The actual current consumption in these automobiles, it is claimed, 
is 20 per cent, less than in any other make of electric vehicles of the 
same weight, and 30 per cent, in hill climbing, the motor having been 



CLINTON E. WOODS AUTOMOBILES 



9i 




;s0 



designed after a long series of tests with this purpose in view. These 
vehicles have been designed with a longer wheel base than anything 
heretofore built, to make them ride easier and give more foot room in 
getting in and out. 

The even distribution of weight on the wheels and the extremely 

low center of gravity per- 
mit quick manipulation 
with safety and comfort- 
able riding even on rough 
roads. The carriages have 
been designed after a long 
experience that has point- 
ed out every possible im- 
provement in style, opera- 
tion, convenience and com- 
fort. 

The top road buggy 
built by this concern is as 
beautiful as it is original. 
It has every comfort of a 
full size stanhope, inas- 
much as it is provided with 
a 37 -inch seat, which easily 
accommodates two people. 
Its racy, rakish appearance 
will appeal to all true lov- 
ers of automobile sports, 
business or pleasure, as it 
is designed for all three 
purposes. The total weight 
is 1,100 pounds complete. 
The Victoria stanhope is 
designed to carry as many 
as five people, the carriage 
seat proper being wide 




Low Water Alarm Column 



enough to seat three, while 



the drop seat provided in front will comfortably seat two people. Tack oi 
this drop seat, the front of the vehicle is upholstered the same as the 
interior of the vehicle. In short, it is an automobile made for one, 
two, three, four or five people, and looks perfectly proper and stylish. 



92 CLINTON E. WOODS AUTOMOBILES 

whatever of this number of occupants it may have. This is a point of 
utility not noticeable in many motor vehicles. 

The brougham cab has an equipment identical with the Victoria 
stanhope, and carries the same number of people. The front seat, 
however is fixed, being 14 inches in width and 34 inches long. This 
automobile has all the closeness and privacy of a brougham, and when 
open in front, all the coolness and comfort of a hansom. In fact, its 
utility extends to any purpose demanded of a closed or covered car- 
riage, and can be made to carry one or two passengers up. 

All delivery wagons made by this company are built with the 
same floor line, front, and running gear, but designs can be varied in 
the body, its decorations, and in the hood and sides of seat above floor 
level to suit the taste of the individual purchaser. The cut under and 
narrow front wheels allow a much quicker and shorter radius of turn- 
ing. The whole wagon is so designed that one man can do all the 
work called for. 



A Low-Water Alarm 

ANY device which may be invented with a view to making the 
automobile more satisfactory, as well as facilitating its man- 
ipulation, ought to be welcome. On this account it gives us 
pleasure to present to our readers on page 91, illustration, together 
with description of what is known as a low-water alarm column, de- 
signed for use on Locomobile boilers. 

The object of the device is simply to warn the operator when his 
water is so low as to need attention. The column can easily be con- 
nected up to the boiler. It is quite simple in its operation, yet of great 
value to those who desire to avoid the trouble sometimes caused by 
working the boiler when carrying an insufficient supply of water. 

The column is 9 inches high, and 3^ inches in diameter, and is 
made to stand 275 pounds pressure. Its weight is about 10 pounds. 
These columns have been in successful operation for some time past. 

There is considerable objection to the use of a whistle as an 
alarm, owing to the effect it has on passing horses, and, in order to 
overcome this, a small device is used which answers the same purpose. 

The device is made by Paul B. Huyette, 1225 Betz Building, 
Philadelphia. 



Electric Vehicle Design 

BY H. M. UNDERWOOD 

IF the question be asked ' ' What is the greatest advance made in 
the construction of pleasure and business vehicles during the past 

century?" there is but one answer possible. The introduction 
of the automobile. 

No sooner did the idea of horseless carriages begin to assume its 
position in the field, than it appealed to the minds of a highly civilized 
and cultivated people, it gave to its users a more satisfactory method of 
transacting their business, it opened a new field of engineering, both 
electrical and mechanical, and gave employment to skilled and expert 
labor and saved a large percentage of the cost of merchandise delivery. 

While all this is true, and there is no reason to further enlarge on 
this part of the subject, still the fact remains, that until a very recent 
date the methods heretofore employed in the general construction of 
electrical vehicles have been crude and barbarous in the matter of effic- 
iency and practical operation. There have been many defects in the 
motors, batteries and running gears, as well as in the transmission of 
the power to the wheels. 

The constant stalling of the vehicles and the unreliability of bat- 
teries, burning out of the motors, breaking of the perch or reach and 
the stripping of the pinions, have been such that one and all wonder 
why these faults exist and have not been overcome, when the electrical 
and mechanical minds of to-day have invented and perfected many 
much more complicated appliances other than those used in the con- 
struction of automobiles. 

Compensating gears are employed whenever a single motor equip- 
ment is used, but the most satisfactory electrical vehicles of to-day are 
those using the two-motor construction geared to the wheels, one on 
each side of the vehicle. 

Must this state of affairs still continue to exist ? Must we be com- 
pelled to stand the inconvenience of being sidetracked after starting 
out for a ride or in the delivery of merchandise and await the arrival 
of another vehicle or horses to finish the trip? Must our business affairs 
be jeopardized to this extent, to say nothing of the expense incurred 
for repairs? Cannot some system and equipment be introduced that 
will obviate all these difficulties and bring the electric automobile to 



94 



ELECTRIC VEHICLE DESIGN 



the high and technical standard already attained in the other branches 
of the engineering field ? Or, must we be obliged to take a step back- 
wards and revert to the old method of travel and the transaction of 
that part of our business dependent on the rapid delivery of general 
merchandise, thereby losing time, which we must all acknowledge, 
means money? 

We go out on the street to-day, and what do we find ? Vehicles 
stalled, caused by too light construction, batteries emptied, motors 
burned out caused by overload, and a general wave of discontent hov- 
ering around us ; we see business appointments broken and many 





Omnibus of the Hewett-Lindstrom Motor Co. 



trains just leaving the station, causing hours of delay; all on account of 
faulty construction. 

That such instances abound and exist is a well-known and ac- 
knowledged fact among all those who are in any way interested in the 
advancement and manufacture of automobiles. 

Necessity is said to be the mother of invention, and with this fact 
already established, we are in a position to give a few suggestions and 
prove the assertions as set forth in this article that will bring to a high 
state of perfection an automobile, both durable and of high efficiency. 

Let us stop for a few moments and consider what course to take 



ELECTRIC VEHICLE DESIGN 95 

in the building of an automobile. The accompanying illustration is of 
a 'bus capable of carrying twenty-two passengers. It was built in 
Chicago under the instructions of Mr. Charles A. Lindstrom, an emi- 
nent electrical and mechanical engineer, a graduate of the University 
of Lund, in Sweden. His ability being recognized by the Swedish 
Government, he was placed in charge of some works where a new 
time-fuse was under construction. From this he drifted into the elec- 
trical field and secured his first practical training from Lieutenant J. B. 
Cahoon, now President of the National Electric Light Association. 
Several large and important installations for lighting were designed by 
him and installed. He then obtained several letters patent in this 
and other countries, and as a result of his genius and ability has pro- 
duced one of the best automobiles ever placed before the public. The 
construction of the 'bus here shown is more than worthy of attention. 

In the building of these vehicles four cardinal points have been 
kept in mind. These four points are: first, safety; second, durability; 
third, efficiency, and fourth, simplicity of construction ; without any 
one of which automobiles are far from practical. 

Safety being essential as the first step towards success, all parts of 
this bus have been figured to carry at least 35 per cent, greater load 
than required, i. e. , over and above the safe carrying capacity shown 
in the standard tables of metals. So well has this point been adhered 
to that in two years operation of this style of equipment not a single 
flaw or break has occurred, and when one realizes that all kinds of 
roads have been traveled by this make of vehicle, it shows how well the 
point of safety has been carried out. 

* There is also provided in connection with this ' bus a special cir- 
cuit breaker which protects motors and batteries, thereby increasing 
the safety while in use, in case of sudden overloads and danger of col- 
lisions, etc. 

It may be stated that a feasible solution of many, if not all, of the 
difficulties presenting themselves has been that it will be found not 
only in having a thoroughly constructed motor with a battery of high 
potential, but in obtaining a perfect motor suspension with a flexible 
"perch" or reach. The importance of these points will be readily 
conceded. The object, -therefore, has been to provide a simple and 

* Durability may be defined as the union of two essential points, viz., fine workmanship and the best 
material. After all parts of these vehicles were finished and assembled, not a single change was made, 
not even a file being used, and every part going together without the slightest trouble. The work was 
done in four distinct shops, and at no time during the construction were parts taken from one place to the 
other for comparison. 



9 6 



ELECTRIC VEHICLE DESIGN 



economically constructed running gear in which the utmost freedom 
of the several parts is obtained in such a manner as to obviate or min- 
imize the disastrous shocks and jars encountered in using vehicles of 
the more ordinary rigid construction. 

Ball bearings are used not only on the wheels, but in the construc- 
tion of the motors. Efficiency in the construction of the motors and 
batteries is the main factor to be kept in mind. A battery of higher 
potential than that in ordinary use is to be strongly favored. 




Hewett-Lind strom Delivery Wagon 

In this omnibus the voltage employed is as high as 120, at which, 
with 25 amperes, a speed of nine miles per hour is obtained. This 'bus 
weighs 5,600 pounds, and has a seating capacity of from 20 to 22 
persons, with a radius of 5.- miles on one charge of the batteries, which 
have a capacity of 19 kilowatts. There are two 4^ horse-power mul- 
tipolar type motors, having 6 poles each, and constructed so as to 
stand an overload of at least 100 per cent. 



ELECTRIC VEHICLE DESIGN 97 

The braking of this 'bus is done in two ways, one brake is lo- 
cated inside the motor casing, while the other is applied on the outside 
of an internal gear which engages the raw-hide pinion on the end of 
the armature shaft. This last-mentioned brake is used as an auxiliary, 
the motor brake being ample on all ordinary roads and grades. 

When carrying its full quota of passengers a grade of 16 per 
cent, has been made with ease, and with a load over and above the 
weight of 'bus of 7,600 pounds. In a recent test for the efficiency of 
two 2^ horse-power motors, which occupied from five to six hours, a 
percentage of 93 was shown and a draw-bar pull of 9 kilowatts, or 
about 11 horse-power, while for a period of 10 minutes an overload 
of 300 per cent. , without the slightest injury to the motors, was ob- 
tained. 

Simplicity of construction is also a very important factor to be 
taken into consideration. The motors, brakes, etc., are put together 
with an idea of securing the utmost strength, with the fewest number 
of minor parts, bolts, etc. , and with a minimum risk of burning out 
the motors or damaging the batteries. The method employed in the 
running gear construction is to connect the front and rear axles by two 
bars or "reaches," each of which has such a connection to the rear 
axle as to swing vertically thereon, and each reach bar also has a sepa- 
rate universal connection with the forward axle. These reaches are 
also connected intermediately between the axles by a pivoted bar, and 
altogether the construction is such, that while the reaches substantially 
maintain the alignment between the front and rear axles, they will, 
nevertheless, permit the axles, independently, to oscillate or vibrate 
vertically with relation to each other with such freedom that the gear 
accommodates itself readily to uneven and rough-surfaced roads with- 
out jolting the riders. This is of great and vital importance when the 
motors are suspended on the running gear. 

The next object was to provide such support for the motors as 
will sustain each motor in its proper relative position with the driving 
wheels of the 'bus, and prevents longitudinal or lateral displacement 
of the motors. This support will cushion the motors on the running 
gear in such a manner that it prevents the severe jars or concussions 
incident to the travel of the vehicle, as it would if it wore rigidly at- 
tached to a rigid frame. This particular suspension of the motors also 
reduces the shocks incident to the starting of the motors, or the appli- 
cation of the brake, and prevents crystallization and breaking of the 
running gear and its connecting parts. It will be well to remember that 



98 ELECTRIC VEHICLE DESIGN 

another very important feature in the running gear construction is the 
absence of welded joints or parts, as all connections are made by means 
of universal joints. 

In the providing of an effective and simple brake for this equip- 
ment the utmost care has been exercised in its construction and the 
brake-shoe arms and devices for actuating the same are so made that 
dust, dirt and water are effectively excluded from the casing of the mo- 
tors and brake, while the simultaneous and quick action of the brake- 
shoe arms is assured. 

The best test of any theories or materials of construction is to be 
found in practical results only. The ease with which this 'bus is han- 
dled can be realized when we take into consideration that only a simple 
horizontal bar or steering handle is used, the same as on the lighter 
class of vehicles, though of necessity heavier in construction. As to 
the batteries, these are located under the interior seats of the vehicle, 
easy of access at all times. 

This omnibus has been referred to as a very striking example of 
adaptation to the conditions of heavy work, for it is universally admitted 
that in the ' ' stage business ' ' the electric automobile of to-day meets 
its most serious difficulties. 

As to the interior of the omnibus, this particular part, while not 
of absolute necessity, has been laid out on the same conservative lines 
as the mechanical electrical parts. 

The upholstering is of the best leather, and located between each 
window are to be found push buttons for bell connection to the oper- 
ator. Nine miniature incandescent lights of 3 candle power each are 
used for lighting the interior and controlled from the driver's seat. All 
in all, there is yet to be found an electric omnibus which, in general 
construction and design, sui passes the one here illustrated. 

On the first trip made with this 'bus 42 miles were covered, and 
upon its return showed a drop in E. M. F. of 8 volts. If more atten- 
tion was paid to the minor details in the construction of electric vehicles 
there is no reason why they should not take the lead in all of our large 
cities, as cleanliness and superiority of design must be conceded to 
this make of vehicle. 



Long Island Automobile Club 

THIS club held a meeting on the evening of December 12 at its 
headquarters, 552 State Street, Brooklyn. 

Mr. Louis R. Adams occupied the chair, and the meeting 
was called to order about 8 : 30 P. M. The constitution and by-laws 
were read and adopted. 

This club has since its beginning pursued and intends to con- 
tinue to pursue an aggressive policy. A large number of its members 
are owners of motor vehicles. So far as facilities are concerned it must 
be considered a leader. The headquarters are nicely situated, and 
ample room is provided for the storing of members' machines at low 
rates. 

Runs and parades will not be forgotten. A committee has been 
appointed to take charge of lectures which it is hoped will be given 
every alternate Wednesday. Among the lectures which have already 
been scheduled for are those by William J. Hammer on "Electric 
Automobiles," Professor Sohn on "Gasoline," Francis R. Upton on 
" My experiences with different types of automobiles," and a number 
of others. This feature of the club ought to be of great value and 
interest. Every activity of the club bespeaks that this addition to the 
list of automobile clubs will be quite a vigorous one. 



Automobile Show at Philadelphia 

THE first automobile show to be held in Philadelphia will take 
place February 4 to 9 (inclusive), 1901, under the joint 
sanction of the Pennsylvania and Philadelphia Automobile 
Clubs. The show that was held in New York city, at the Madison 
Square Garden, was a success in every sense of the word. The sales 
made by some of the manufacturers were greater than they ever hoped 
for, while all the sundry dealers did a good business. Philadelphia, 
us t at this time, is enthusiastic over automobiling in every sense of the 
word, as it is an ideal city for the horseless carriage, there being more 
asphalted streets in the city of Philadelphia than in any other city in 
the world. The hall in which the show will be held is the Second 
Regiment Armory, which , has over 32,000 square feet oi space. 
There will be a large band in attendance every day, and there will also 



ioo AUTOMOBILE SHOW AT PHILADELPHIA 

be a number of other features for interesting the manufacturers and 
agents and drawing a large attendance of the public in general. The 
price of admission will be 25 cents. 

The facilities for handling automobiles and storage are perfect. 
There will be a track 18 feet wide, with 7-foot aisles for spectators on 
each side, to try any and all makes of automobiles and auto-bicycles. 



Liverpool Cycle Show 

ON Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday and Saturday, Feb. 
5, 6, 7, 8 and 9, 1901, an exhibition of cycles, accessories, 
motor cycles and motor carriages will be held in St. George's 
Hall, Liverpool, England. The hall selected for this exhibition is a 
fine, spacious one, and the main hall is admirably adapted to the hold- 
ing of such a show. 

The show will be open every day from 12 M. until 10 P. M. 
It is explicitly announced in the circular sent, that the decision of 
judges with regard to trials of motor cars and motor cycles must be 
accepted as final. No machine is to be ridden in the gangways lead- 
ing to the main hall, which would indicate that vehicles are not to be 
shown in motion inside the building. 

It seems to us that the open space directly in front of the hall 
would be an excellent place for showing the various machines in mo- 
tion, and the steps in front of and leading up to the hall would serve 
finely as a reviewing stand. 

All makers of horseless vehicles who wish more definite informa- 
tion as to rules, together with cost of space, etc., would do well to 
communicate with Thomas Price, Secretary, 77a Lord Street, Liverpool. 




Wk§) 



A New Principle in Gas Engine Design 

UNDER this heading Mr. C. E. Sargent, of Chicago, described 
his plan before the American Society of Mechanical Engineers 
last month. Hydro-carbon engines for automobile use are 
governed by throttling the charge and are not as economical as the 
1 ' hit and miss ' ' type on account of lower compression when under- 
loaded. The clearance remains constant, but the charge is diminished 
and the results are not as good. 

Mr. Sargent proposes to cut off the charge after the piston has 
traveled a portion of the stroke. On the return stroke compression 
will begin at this point and ignition take place as usual. Then instead 
of exhausting at the same point of stroke as charge is cut off (as is 
done when charge follows full stroke) the expansion continues down 
to atmospheric pressure. This being the case> there is no need of a 
muffler, and the temperature of escaping gasses is reduced very 
materially. So much so that a tandem engine can be used and the 
piston rod packed without difficulty, which cannot be done at present. 

This plan has been tested in a fifty horse-power engine and given 
good results, so that there seems to be no reason why it is not available 
for automobile work. He also has an ingenious starting arrangement 
which seems to have good points of its own. Builders of gasoline 
motors as well as the operators of this type of carriage will be interested 
to know of these improvements and can obtain further details by cor- 
responding with the inventor. 



The Westchester Automobile Club 

THIS is the name of a new organization which has been formed by 
a number of well known New Yorkers, many of whom own 
country seats in the northern part of Westchester and along 
the northern shore of Long Island Sound. The club purposes to 
establish supply stations for motor vehicles on the country roads lead- 
ing to the Ardsley Casino, the Knollwood Country Club, and the 
Westchester Country Club. 

Howard Willetts, one of the organizers of the club, is reported to 
have said that the club already had forty members, among them being 
Paul G. Thebaud, Percy Chubb, Sidney Chubb, W. K. Vander- 
bilt, W. K. Vanderbilt, Jr., Worthington Whitehouse, George For- 
dyce Leith, Henry Graef, J. Scott McComb, E. S. Reynal, Gen. 
George M. Smith, Oliver Harriman, Jr., J. Dunbar Wright. Albert C, 
Bostwick, Bradford B. McGregor, F. W. S. Cochrane, and Frederick 
W. Geissenhainer. 



The Automobile Index 

Everything of permanent value published in the technical press of 
the world devoted to any branch of automobile industry will be found 
indexed in this department. Whenever it is possible a descriptive sum- 
maiy indicating the character a?id purpose of the leading articles of cur- 
rent automobile literature will be given, with the titles a?id dates of the 
publicaiio7is . 

Illustrated articles are designated by an asterisk (*). 



* Autocar, Its Use and Management, 

The— 

Henry Sturmey. Chapter 6 of an 
article by a well known automobil- 
ist. "The Autocar," Coventry, 
November 24, 1900. 

* Automobile, The— 

By John A. Kingman. This arti- 
cle is practically a history of the 
steam driven vehicle from its first 
use up to the present time. " Cas- 
sier's Magazine," New York, De- 
cember, 1900. 

*Bicycles, Motor — 

An article in which a survey is 
made of the various motor bicycles. 
"The Automotor Journal," London, 
November, 1900. 

Boiler, Water Tube — 

Illustrated description of the Gith- 
en's boiler used on the steam car- 
riage of that name. "The Motor 
Age," Chicago, November 15, 1900. 

Brakes, Report of — 

M. L. Bochet on the subject pre- 
sented at the International Automo- 
bile Congress. "Horseless Age," 
New York, November 21, 1900. 

"'Charette of the International Motor Car 
Co* — 

A. description of a new type of 
voiturette. "The Autocar," Lon- 
don, November 17, 1900. 

*Chart, Motor Vehicle Power— 

Which gives in the minimum of 
time the power required to propel a 
motor while at varying rates of 
speed and when the draw-bar pull 



required varies. "The Automotor 
Journal," London, November, 1900. 

Electric Automobiles for City Service, 
Comparative Tests — 

Abstracts of a series of articles by 
R. A. Fliess, which originally ap- 
peared in the Electrical World and 
Engineer. "Automobile Magazine," 
New York, November, December, 
1900. 

^Electricity for Automobilists — 

First of a series of articles by J. 
W. Roebuck intended for those who 
operate either electric or gasoline 
motors where electric ignition is 
used. "The Motor Car World," 
London, November, 1900. 

Engineer be Spared ? Can the — 

By M. C. Krarup. A discussion 
of the position occupied by the en- 
gineer in the automobile industry, 
their manufacture and operation. 
" Horseless Age," New York, De- 
cember 5, 1900. 

^Engines, Compounding Vehicle Gaso- 
line — 

By C. P. Malcolm. (See under 
Gasoline. ) 

"Exposition, Automobiles at the Paris — 

By G. F. Desjacques, in which he 
goes into the construction of the 
various motor vehicles exhibited. 
"Engineering," London, Novem- 
ber 25, 1900. 

Fuel Consumption Trials in France — 

Report of the tests recently car- 
ried out ; the aim being to determ- 
ine the quantity of petroleum re- 



THE AUTOMOBILE INDEX 



103 



quired for a given distance. "The 
Automotor Journal," London, No- 
vember, 1900. 

*Gas Engine, One Horse Power — 

Arlicle accompanied by working 
drawings for an engine of the power 
mentioned. " Horseless Age," New 
York, November 28, 1900. 

^Gasoline Engines, Compounding Ve- 
hicle— 

By C. P. Malcolm. An article in 
which the author presents the ad- 
vantages and disadvantages of com- 
pounding. " The Horseless Age," 
New York, December 5, 1900. (See 
under engines. ) 

^Gasoline Motors, Construction and Use 
of Special Lathe Attachments for 
Machinery, Small — 

W. O. Anthony. Part 4 of a se- 
ries of articles designed to point out 
the merits of certain tools and ma- 
chinery suitable for builders of mo- 
tor vehicles. ' ' The Horseless Age, ' ' 
New York, December 5, 1900. 

^Gasoline, Motor Vehicle, The — 

By F. B. Stearns. A single cylin- 
der four-cycle motor is used which 
is placed horizontally. " Motor Ve- 
hicle Review," Cleveland, Novem- 
ber 29, 1900. 

"Gear, How High is Your?"— 

A formula presented by Dr. Henry 
Power, intended to give an expres- 
sion for the number of inches a car- 
riage travels during one revolution 
of the engine shaft. " Horseless 
Age," New York, November 21, 
1900. 
Gear, Hurter Speed Reducing — 

" Horseless Age," New York, De- 
cembers, 1900. (See under Speed. ) 

*Great Britain, Anniversary Run of the 
Automobile Club of — 

A very complete article, replete 
with illustrations taken along the 
route. "The Motor Car Journal," 
London, November 17, 1900 ; also 
"The Autocar," London, Novem- 
ber 17, 1900. 

x Hill Climbing Trials at Chanteloup — 
A very complete description of 
these recent trials with official times. 
"The Autocar," London, Novem- 
ber to, T900. 



Motor Car, The Moffat— 

Description of a new type of elec- 
tric motor vehicle, which carries the 
motors concealed in the hubs of the 
wheels. An epicyclic train between 
the motor and the wheel effects the 
necessary reduction of speed. 
" Trade Journals Review," London, 
November 15, 1900. 

*Motor, Experiments with the Banki — 

By Prof. E. Meyer. Account of 

some tests made by the author. 

' ' The Automotor Journal, ' ' London, 

November, 1900. 

Motor, The Pennington War — 

Illustrated description of a motor 
designed for war purposes. "The 
Autocar," London, November 10, 
1900. 

Motor Tricycles, Some Defects and 
Remedies — 

First part of an article by A. E. 
St. Craig, in which he offers a num- 
ber of suggestions regarding this 
class of vehicles based on personal 
experience in the use of them. 
"The Motor Car Journal," London, 
November 24, 1900. 

x Motor Vehicle, Construction of a — 
No. 8 of a series of articles by L. 
Elliott Brookes, showing working 
drawings of a vehicle for use in con- 
nection with a four horse-power gas- 
oline motor already described in the 
same journal. "Motor Age," Chi- 
cago, November 22, 1900. 

*Motor Vehicle, The Robinson — 

Description of an American car- 
riage which possesses a number of 
new features. "The Motor Car 
Journal," London, November 24, 
1900. 

Motors and Motor Cars — 

A criticism of a paper on the sub- 
ject read by Mr. Charles T. Crow- 
den. "The Autocar," London, 
November 10, 1900. 

•Power, The Driving — 

E. J. Stoddard. "Horseless 
Vge," New York, December 5. 

'.MlHl. 

Resistance of Obstacles— 

An article by Ernest J. Loring, 

intended to explain the relation e\- 



io4 



THE AUTOMOBILE INDEX 



isting between the weight carried by 
a wheel and the power required to 
force it over an obstacle. "Horse- 
less Age," New York, November 
21, 1900. 

*Road Building in the United States, 
Progress of — 

An article by Maurice O. Eld- 
ridge, in which he goes into a discus- 
sion of roads found in various parts 
of the country. " L. A. W. Bulle- 
tin," December, 1900. 

*Road Building in the United States, 
Progress of — 

An article by Maurice O. Eldridge, 
Asst. Director of the office of Public 
Road Inquiries. This is the first ar- 
ticle of a series to be published on 
the subject and is historical in na- 
ture. " L. A. W. Bulletin," Boston, 
October, 1900. 

Silencer, The Hudlass Exhaust — 

Illustration and description of a 
new form of muffler which possesses 
several new features. "The Auto- 
car," London, November 10, 1900. 

*Speed Reducing Gear, The Hurter — 

Description of a recent French 
device which contains a number of 
novel features. " Horseless Age," 
New York, Decembers, 1900. (See 
also Gear. ) 

*Speed Varying Device — 

A very clear and interesting de- 
scription of the Dieterich gear, 
which automatically adjusts itself to 
the load. "American Machinist," 
New York, November 22, 1900. 

The Autocar, Its Use and Management — 

One of a series of illustrated arti- 
cles by Henry Sturmey, in which he 
goes into the question of car con- 
struction. "The Autocar," Lon- 
don, November 10, T900. 

*Tour in a Motor Vehicle — 

Miss Dorothy Edmunds contrib- 
utes a record of her experience dur- 
ing a trip on an automobile. The 
story is written in an interesting 
manner. ' ' The Motor Car Journal, ' ' 
London, November 24, 1900. 

*Trials of Electric Vehicles— 

An account of recent tests carried 

on under the auspices of the Auto- 

. mobile Club of Great Britain. "The 



Autocar," London, November 10, 
1900. 

Tricycles, Some Defects and Remedies, 
Motor- 
By A. E. St. Craig. (See under 
motor ) . 

Truck, in Great Britain and the United 
States, The Heavy — 

Second instalment of an article by 
Robert Bodman, in which he pre- 
sents the relative advantages of cer- 
tain boilers. "Horseless Age," 
New York, November 14, 1900. 

^Vehicle, The Twentieth Century — 
By W. H. Maxwell, Jr., in which 
the author states a number of facts 
as showing why in the coming cen- 
tury the self-propelled vehicle will 
come to be more and more used. 
"Metropolitan Magazine," New 
York, November, 1900. 

Vehicles, Economy in Steam — 

The author, E. C. Oliver, opens 
with a statement of the present 
wastefulness of the steam engine as 
used for propelling road vehicles. 
The article points out certain lines 
along which improvement may be 
made. "Horseless Age," New York, 
November 21, 1900. 

Voiturette, Driving a — 

Continuation of a series of arti- 
cles by R. T. Mecredy, in which he 
gives explicit and detailed informa- 
tion as to the proper method of 
handling this form of motor vehicle. 
"The Motor World," New York, 
November 22, 1900. 

Voiturette, The Wolseley — 

This is a new style of carriage de- 
signed by Mr. Austen. The igni- 
tion is electrical and one striking 
feature is the accessibility of its run- 
ning parts. "The Autocar," Lon- 
don, November 10, 1900. 

* Wagon, An English — 

Description of a steam truck built 
by the Lancashire Steam Motor 
Co. "Automobile Magazine," New 
York, October, 1900. 

Wheels and Axles — 

Copy of a report presented at the 
International Automobile Congress 
by Captain Ferras. ' ' Horseless 
Age," New York, November 14,1900. 



The Automobile 
magazine 103?^ 

Vol. hi FEBRUARY, 1901 No. 2 

The Automobile for the Physician 

By EDWIN C. CHAMBERLIN, M. D. 

IF there is any class of men who should deeply appreciate the ad- 
vantages and comforts offered by the modern motor-car it must 

be the physician and surgeon. It has been the pleasure of the 
writer to frequently discuss this subject with many gentlemen who con- 
stitute this proportion of our population. 

Among the charter members of the Automobile Club of America, 
and, in fact, at the first meeting of the organizers of this club no other 
profession was so well represented as the medical. 

The practicing physician has peculiar needs, and in some respects 
he resembles the fire chief. 

To be successful he must be ready at a moment's notice, and at all 
hours of the night or day to go a long or short distance, and the doctor 
who arrives promptly is the one selected for the second time, and is 
the one who has the ever-increasing practice. The ease, grace and 
swiftness of the automobile is such that it appeals with special force to 
the active practitioner, and to any one who wishes to keep abreast of 
the times and is anxious to actually save many hours during the week. 
The cost of a motor-car suitable for a physician being at the start the 
same as a pair of good horses with proper equipment and afterward 
maintained at a less expense, one can readily understand why this type 
of locomotion is pre-eminently suited to the physician. 

The fact that an automobile. can be kept standing and ready For 
instant use is a point greatly in its favor. With the best type of gaso- 
line or electric vehicle the physician may be well started on his way to 
the patient, and flying along through the streets within thirty seconds 



108 THE AUTOMOBILE FOR THE PHYSICIAN 

after receiving an emergency call. This element of constant readiness 
meets the need of any doctor, and will be appreciated more and more 
as the use becomes more general. 

It is said that the automobile is the cause of new diseases affect- 
ing the chauffeur. They are called ' ' eccentric motoritis ' ' and ' ' auto- 
mobiliousness. " This first disease attacks the enthusiast usually at 
the beginning of his career as a driver, but after learning all the ins 
and outs of his machine he becomes immune to further attacks. 
Automobiliousness, strange to say, affects the chauffeur when riding to 
make a record on long-distance club runs. With eyes set on some dis- 
tant point he dashes along the highway, stopping only when a photog- 
rapher appears or a reporter shakes his manuscript at him. It is a 
satisfaction to know that this form of disease also passes away after a 
few months' experience in the open air. 

To enjoy all the solid and seductive comforts of the automobile 
the physician should be accompanied by a good mechanic, acting in 
the same capacity as coachman with a horse-drawn vehicle. 

One doctor remarked the other day that he could cover 50 per 
cent, more ground with his automobile than formerly by horse power, 
and that he could now enter a house and not be annoyed by being- 
obliged to stop and remove horse hairs from his clothes. Another 
physician told me he never suffered any more with cold hands, as he 
could always warm up over the motor during cold weather. Still an- 
other physician, a specialist on electricity, explained how he had used 
on several occasions his electric carriage batteries in taking X-ray 
photographs for use in surgical cases, when the electric current was 
not to be had. At fires, and other exciting points where the horseless 
ambulance is called, the surgeon and driver feel more secure and 
happy in the knowledge that the old ambulance horse, who frequently 
runs away, is safely home eating his oats. 

In view of these, and many other features not mentioned, one is 
easily convinced that the horseless carriage is one of the greatest boons 
modern invention has given to the practicing physician. 



A well-known engineer who has had some automobile experience 
and who is now a resident of Russia states that the roads generally in 
Russia are not at all well adapted to automoblling. All over Moscow 
there are nothing but cobblestones. He says the number of automo- 
biles in St. Petersburg and Moscow is very small. 



What Shall be the Power ? 

IN a recent issue of the Journal of the Association of Engineering 
Societies, Louis Derr contributes an article in which he goes into 

a summary of the features of the various powers as applied to 
to the propulsion of motor vehicles. He first takes up the electric 
motor, in which he treats of the advantages peculiar to their use. 
When he comes to the internal combustion engine he says that this 
type has not found extended favor in the country. 

This statement would hardly seem to correspond with conditions 
as they actually exist. If one stops for a moment he will be surprised 
when he figures out the different styles of gasoline motors which are 
now on the market. 

Regarding the use of compressed air for automobile service, the 
author says : 

" Compressed air has been the engineer's dream ever since the 
invention of the steam engine, and many attempts — for the most part 
futile — have been made to apply it to vehicle propulsion. The chief 
trouble is from the inevitable refrigeration accompanying expansion, 
which, without reheating devices, quickly clogs the exhaust passages 
with frost ; but, even apart from this, the energy stored in compressed 
air is really comparatively small. It can be shown by a simple calcu- 
lation that a pound of air, expanding isothermally from 150 pounds 
gage pressure to 15 (n atmospheres to 2), will develop 48,300 foot 
pounds of work. Assuming that the steam carriage already described 
will develop 2^ horse-power hours before exhaustion of water supply, 
it follows that 103 pounds of air will be needed for the same endur- 
ance under the given conditions, which, by the way, are beyond the 
possibility of realization in practice. At the given pressure the air 
would occupy 122 cubic feet, and a tank nearly 5 feet cube would be 
needed. As this is out of the question, a much higher compression is 
used, and the customary pressure is 2,200 pounds or about 150 atmos- 
pheres. This reduces the volume to 9 cubic feet. Steel reservoirs to 
withstand this pressure weigh about 85 pounds per cubic foot of ca- 
pacity. A weight of 66 pounds has been realized, but in this case the 
factor of safety is rather small, and explosion of a tank under this 
pressure is highly dangerous. Thus to contain the air 765 pounds 
reservoir will be needed. To have 165 pounds pressure at the end of 

[09 



no WHAT SHALL BE THE POWER? 

the run another pound of air will be required, making a total of 869 
pounds for reservoir and contents. This may be instructively com- 
pared with the 240 or 250 pounds required by the steam carriage for 
fuel, water and boiler. The weight of engines and piping is assumed 
to be the same in the two cases. 

1 ' In practice the case is not quite as favorable for the air engine. 
Available data indicate that, by using compounding, reheaters, etc., — 
all adding weight and complication — about 0.27 of a horse-power hour 
can be obtained from a cubic foot of air at 2,000 pounds pressure. 
This weighs nearly 1 1 pounds, whence to get 2^ horse-power hours 118 
pounds of air will be required. In the table below the available energy 
of compressed air expanding without loss under different pressure con- 
ditions is given for the sake of comparison with other sources of 
power. 

He then goes on to speak of the ludicrous claims put forward for 
the energy available when liquid air is vaporized. 

As to the question of cost of maintenance the author states ' ' that 
this has not yet been definitely settled for American conditions. The 
following table is for a carriage belonging to a French physician, and 
covers an experience of 6,000 kilometers (about 4,000 miles). It un- 
doubtedly represents a fair average cost. Although in this country 
the fuel and lubrication cost would probably be smaller, and the writer's 
experience would incline him to reverse the proportion of repair and 
depreciation charges, the greater cost of tires for American roads would 
probably keep the total about the same. Of course if the carriage is 
cared for by the owner the last item disappears: 
Gasoline, . . . . . . .2.00 cents per mile. 

Oil and grease, . . . . . . 0.15 

Tires, . . . . . . . -0.94 

Repairs and miscellaneous, . . . 5-°5 

Depreciation, .... . . 3.09 

Interest and taxes, . . . 1.09 

Hostler, . . . . . . . .4,67 

16.09 
It is the author's opinion that, for urban-passenger service where 
charging stations are conveniently accessible, the electric vehicle will 
continue to hold its own. For heavy service he considers the steam 
carriage the best fitted, while for high speeds and long-distance work 
he considers the internal combustion motor the superior. 



Prudence's Automobile 

You think me a man of some courage, 

So you've no idea how I feel 
When Prudence invites me out riding, 

With her in her automobile. 

I accept with great trepidation! 

I don't like the looks of the gear; 
I'm shy of the whole apparatus, 

And then, Prue will ask me to " steer." 

I hope that the tires will not puncture; 

I pray that this thing may not bolt; 
But I'd feel a hundred times safer 

Out driving an unbroken colt. 

Seven miles inside twenty minutes! 

We swing round the corner on two wheels! 
Heav'n help us and all reckless mortals 

Who race in their automobiles! 

I've longed to tell Prue that I love her; 

To beg her to hear my appeal ; 
But I can't make love to advantage 

While racing an automobile. 

I can't take my mind off the steering — 

Heav'n only knows where we should land ! 

I dare not — though Prue is bewitching — 
Drive automobiles "with one hand." 

Nellie Stutson Croft. 



A certain well-known automobilist, who is the owner of a very 
fast machine, recently had occasion to travel from a Western town t< > 
New York and used his machine for the trip, He made a fast run. 
and had occasion to pass a field in which was one solitary cow. When 
the automobile hove in sight this cow became quite interested and 
gazed at the curious machine, apparently stunned at the sight. Our 
automobilist reached New York in blissful ignorance of the silent harp- 
he had done. He returned to his W r estern home after completing his 
business in New York. A few weeks afterward he received a Utter 
from a farmer in which a request was made for compensation, saying 
that since his cow had seen that automobile she had not given an) 
milk. Automobilists, take note, and slow up in passing fields in which 



The Roads of the World 

BY L. LODIAN 

AUTOMOBILES may be seen running over roads in Italy that 
were constructed more than 2,000 years ago — the self-same 
roads, hundreds of miles long, over which the Roman legions 
tramped flushed with victory, over which St. Paul walked, and over 
which the French troops so repeatedly marched in the early part of 
the century just passed. And through all those ages of centuries, the 
roads have scarce felt the touch of repair. In fact, most of them have 
never been repaired during 2,000 years of existence, simply because 
they have never needed repair. When the Romans built their splendid 
military roads, they built them on a sort of " self-repairing " principle ; 
that is, they built them narrow enough to compel traffic to wear them 
down evenly. 

For the — what seems to us moderns — narrowness of the old 
Roman roads has often been a matter of remark. The real object of 
this narrowness I have never yet seen stated in any exposition on road 
engineering, other than the idea being advanced of economy and ra- 
pidity of construction. But I learnt the real motive during travels in 
Italy in '91-92. 

We all know that a wide road is only too liable to be worn into 
ruts. The wider it is the more ruts it will degrade into unless sharply 
looked after. I have seen some natural-made roads in Cibiria (Si- 
beria; one-quarter mile wide, but such a collection of ruts! On 
the other hand, during travels in Mexico Republic, I have seen nar- 
row — say 12 feet — natural-made roads, running through a marshy coun- 
try, almost as hard and compact and smooth as some of the asphalted 
streets of Manhattan city, or Paris or Berlin. 

Those roads in Mexico, to which I refer, had on either side of 
them the quick-mud country. In popular language, this country is 
termed "quick-sands" ; but — like a good many other things popu- 
lar — this is erroneous. The earth is literally a quick-mud — a most 
tenacious clay — and sticks like glue to the clothing, if you happen to 
sink a foot into it, as did the writer. Among railroad engineers, this 
quick-mud is known as gypsum, and to handle the treacherous ground 
properly, has been a problem in track construction. 

So, in Mexico, the traffic being forced to confine itself, in the 



THE ROADS OF THE WORLD 



IJ 3 



quick-mud country, to a 12-foot gage, has. in the course of years, 
hammered out a track as hard as a first-class French highway. 

Now, the Romans built their 2, 000-y ear-lasting highways pur- 
posely narrow, so that the roads should be "self-repairing," "self- 
mending," or " self- wearing-even," or what expression you like to 
apply to a road which automatically, so to speak, keeps itself in good 
order for a couple of millenniums. 

Since the old Romans never extended their conquests to America, 
we are not possessed of any remains of their roads, but the traveler in 
most parts of Europe will see them. You will even find them as far 
north as old Scotia — since the Republic extended its conquests even 
unto Caledonia. As most of the readers of this article have never 
seen a Roman road — much less noted the construction of one — I 
append herewith a sectional view, showing the successive layers : 



r~ 

Basalt; Blocks, \ foot 



thick 




- \ __^=^E=i.==== = - -Ccmcnted^Brick^and vTik . Debris, 2 loof-thick 



00 O!o;°o"o°o o*oY6 ?%o;oo& a o-°-'Q '6°<. 



?^?:° : ^^'^^^ 



:o"o 



O" d O - .^Stones' a-ndcLimc? $Vfcot' -tEick, 







Section of Roman Road Built 2,000 Years Ago. Still in Use 



The Roman road, be it noted, is not a French road — nor a metal 
road, nor one of Macadam's, but (so far as the surface is concerned"), 
a substantial solid stone or rock-wearing surface, made thicker and 
rendered more permanent than even the thickest flag-stone sidewalks 
in Europe or America ever were. 

The loose stone underlayers rendered drainage excellent. Can it 
be wondered at that these ancient Roman highways are still to-day 
almost as perfect as two millenniums ago ? Just think of it — hundreds 
of miles are still in good order, without having, as before stated, felt 
the touch of repair. It is true that, during the lapse of ages, there have 
been wars galore, and that the rival parties have each had a hand in 
tearing up the roads for the sake of securing the big stones For the 



ii 4 THE ROADS OF THE WORLD 

erection of forts, temporary or permanent. This accounts for the 
peculiar sudden ending of some of the old military roads in Italy, 
which the tourist will notice to-day. He may follow one of these rock- 
stone highways till it suddenly ' ' runs to seed " in a corn field or smil- 
ing vine-valley. He may be informed that, if he likes to trudge across 
five or six miles of cross-country land under cultivation, he will pick 
up the stone highway again. The interegnum space of road has been 
torn up (nobody knows when) for the construction of forts or houses. 
Even the peasants used to tear up the roads, for the sake of the flag- 
stones, when they wanted materials for their houses or mills. But all 
that was stopped long ago ; in a few places, the torn-up gaps have 
been replaced with metal roads, which have required more looking 
after and repairs in two years than have the old roads of the Republic 
in two thousand. 

By metal road, it may be necessary to explain, is not meant a 
road of any metallurgical properties or coverings, but the kind of 
broken stone used for and usually rolled into the surface. This 
"metal" — or rather mineral — is generallv the common grayish-blue- 
tint flints visible on railways laying claim to ' v standard rock ballast 
track. ' ' 

During travels in Australia, I noticed that most of the country 
roads were of this type of " metal " material. AYell rolled, it is a most 
satisfactory road, but it can only be properly and economically rolled 
with a steam roller. But if the metal is not steam-rolled or indiffer- 
ently worked in, the road is pronounced a curse by every automobilist 
who travels it. For obvious reasons — for what tires, solid or pneu- 
matic, can successfully negotiate those knife-edged flints ? 

The roads of Australia were a pleasant surprise. I did not expect 
to see a young country so well advanced. In India the British military 
roads are fully "up to standard" — the English gave that much to 
the Hindus, although otherwise (after six months spent in the coun- 
try) I am obliged to pronounce British administration in India a suc- 
cessful failure. The country is all misery and squalor. There are no 
such things as ' ' oriental magnificence and splendor. 

France possesses, of course, the best roads on the globe. Her 
system of construction is, of course, her own ; hence the term, a 
French road. Macadam probably got his idea from the French, and 
gave his name to the system known as Macadam roads, for the two 
methods are almost identical, consisting of properly-proportioned lay- 
ers of hand-sized stones, gravel, lime and sand. 



THE ROADS OF THE WORLD 115 

Russia has only half a dozen good highways. It is scarcely in a 
Russian to build a good road. He knows far better how to build up 
his pockets with the moneys voted for the roads. 

WHAT IS THE LONGEST HIGHWAY IN THE WORLD? 

In the Russian Union you will find the longest highway in the 
world. It extends from the frontier of the old Polska Republic, to 
the headwaters of the Amur, in Eastern Siberia. That is a stretch of 
approximately 5,000 miles. It crosses four ranges of mountains — the 




Photo, by Podyopof, Vladivostok 

A Workman's Hut on the Great Siberian Road (Note the Sign Post) 



Urals, Central Siberian, Altai Spurs ( Circum-Baikal >, and Iabloni : 
also a dozen great rivers. The writer has covered the whole route, so 
knows whereof he writes. It is practicable for an automobile through- 
out ; but oh, how rough and tough it would be in parts ! To attempt 
the journey, it would almost literally (to use a vulgar expression), 
' ' shake the life out of you. ' ' 

In February, '98, I was quite curious to watch the " change ot 



n6 THE ROADS OF THE WORLD 

frontier" between Russia and Germany. That is to say, I was 
leaving Russia en route across Germany and France, and back home 
to America, and wanted to observe closely the sudden change pass- 
ing from Russia to the land of the Teuton. I expected to find 
it like any other frontier country — that is, people on both sides 
for several miles understanding each other's language. Never was I 
so much surprised, and disappointed. On the Russian side, a people 
understanding Polish, Russian, French and German (in great part) ; 
on the German side, a people who, for a very large part, only under- 
stand German. On the Russian side, diabolical excuses for roads — 
slush, mud, or deep sand, right up to the dividing-line little river 
marking the frontier. On the German side, directly you cross the 
river, a well-built system of roads. I spent a week touring about this 
frontier country. On one occasion, I particularly wanted to see the 
interior of the Russian fort at Alekcandrofna. To get a pass was, of 
course, hopeless. So what do you suppose I did? I deliberately 
walked past the sentry, was challenged, invited into the guard-house, 
questioned, then invited before one of the officers. While thus being 
' 'invited" about, I saw all I wanted to see ; and the officer, seeing my 
papers en regie, politely asked me to take refreshment with him, 
which I as courteously declined, and was permitted to leave as I os- 
tensibly entered — a passing tourist. But I would not advise anybody 
else to try the expedient. 

Evidently, if ever Russia and Germany go to war — an improb- 
able contingency — and Germany invades Russia, she will find the 
stick-fast Russian roads a chief obstacle — that is, if the mistake is 
made of trying to utilize them. 

We read in history that the great French invading army of 1812 
was destroyed by the Russian winter snows and cold. Nothing of the 
kind ! The writer has covered much of the ground that the grand 
army covered, also during winter, and can safely say that the French 
army was principally destroyed by the interminable Russian roads of 
mire and muck and slush. 

My experience of Latin-American roads, during two and a half 
years of travel in Spanish- America, is that they are either all dust in 
warm weather, or all mud in cold weather. This is particularly the case 
in Argentina. Outside of the cities, it is possible to use an automo- 
bile, but highly impracticable. 

ROADS WHERE NO AUTOMOBILE COULD LIVE. 

In parts of Iberia, there are so- called highways, where the trickiest 
of trick automobile drivers would not dare venture. The " roads " 



THE ROADS OF THE WORLD 



are blocked with rocks from time immemorial. A thousand years ago, 
the Moors wended their way sinuously along these roads, in and out and 
around-about the huge stones ; the Spanish of the present day are 
doing precisely the same thing. But gradually — two or three miles a 
year for the whole country — these boulder-blocked roads are being 
blasted and leveled. 

As to tires. Wide tires are always best, under all circumstances. 
Take no notice of theorists who argue that under certain conditions, 




Photo, by Latpabiata, Ekaterinburg, Siberia 

Peasants' Houses on the Siberian Road 

narrow tires are an advantage. There is no exception. I would rec- 
commend some of the theorists to lug a hand-cart around, loaded 
with wood, over all sorts of surfaces — from an earth road to an as- 
phalt surface. At the end of a week they will have no two opinions. 
Don't employ a horse to do the work with registering scale. Horses 
can't speak, and the registering scale only represents one aspect, sheer 
pull. Do the pulling yourself, and you will come out in favor ot broad 
tires. 



n8 THE ROADS OF THE WORLD 

Conclusion. — Broad tires and narrow roads would seem to be, 
judging by old Roman standards, the solution of the good roads prob- 
lem. By narrow, say, 15 feet, or wide enough for two vehicles to 
pass. It stands to reason, that if a road is narrow, it is self -wearing- 
even. It is far more economical to build, quicker to construct, and 
easier to maintain, when it needs looking after. We see proofs of this 
in our own country districts : narrow roads that are almost ' ' hard as 
adamant,' while the wide roads are often unspeakable muck-furrows. 



Cylinders of Hydro-Carbon Engines 

IT seems to be generally admitted that one of the main requirements 
of the successful hydro- carbon engine is that it shall be well made. 

While this is, of course, true of any machine if the best results 
are to be obtained, it is probably more essential to the internal com- 
bustion than to any other, owing to the extremely high temperature 
which exists in the cylinders. Nor is good workmanship the only re- 
quirement, for the proper proportioning of the cylinders is also essential 
to avoid distortion or unequal expansion at these high temperatures. 
Those who are most familiar with this type of motors do not hesitate to 
credit the excellent results obtained from the DeDion motor to this 
combination of proper design and good workmanship. Whatever the 
cause we know they do exceedingly good work, even in small sizes, 
and the most successful builders in this country are combining the 
same good qualities. 

As the cylinder and pistons heat up they are apt to expand differ- 
ently and seriously affect the fit, and consequently the leakage in the 
cylinder. This accounts for many instances where motors have run 
well till they heated up and then began to weaken till they cooled down. 
This is a point that has cost many dollars to inventors and experiment- 
ers, and, also, why so many makers buy the motors and mount them 
according to their own ideas. There is more to it than appears on the 
surface, and this is a point not told by drawings or blueprints. 



ft ft ft 



1901 Trials of Heavy Motor Vehicles 

AN organization which perhaps more than any has been the 
means of development of motor vehicles in Great Britain 
is The Liverpool Self-Propelled Traffic Association. 
This body of men, which is, really speaking, a scientific society 
and is the local centre of the Automobile Club of Great Britain 
and Ireland, has gone into the investigation of self-propelled 
vehicular and locomotive road traction in a most exact manner, 
and all the experiments and tests carried out by it are recognized 
as authoritative. 

In June of this year this association intends to carry out a 
series of trials of motor vehicles suitable for heavy traffic. The 
object of these trials is to provide means of making a preliminary 
test of heavy motor wagons suitable for hauling operations in 
Lancashire prior to their being taken over by a Lancashire syn- 
dicate which will be formed for the purpose of conducting road 
transport between the City of Liverpool and the manufacturing 
towns in that part of Lancashire. The trials will take place on 
June 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 of 1901. 

The following gentlemen will act as judges : Mr. Everard 
R. Calthrop, Mr. S. B. Cottrell, Professor H. S. Hele-Shaw, Pro- 
fessor Boverton Redwood, Sir David Salomons, Mr. Henry H. 
West. 

The general regulations applicable to all vehicles are : 
(I.) The vehicle shall be self-propelled and self-contained. 
It shall be propelled by mechanical power alone, but there shall 
be no restriction on the source of such power or the nature of the 
agents used. (II.) The vehicle shall be capable of going any- 
where that a horse-drawn vehicle carrying the same load is ordi- 
narily required to go, and of being placed in the same positions 
and withdrawn therefrom without external assistance. The 
particular manoeuvre most generally called for is to work into 
and out of a loading berth when cramped for room. This 
requirement arises in the case of embayments, or of confined 
spaces between other vehicles in a line receiving or discharging 
goods. Carters usually back into such positions obliquely and 
bring the vehicle into line by turning the leading wheels at right 
angles to the rear wheels and again backing, but it is open to 
competitors to perform the manoeuvre as they think best. 
(III.) The vehicle shall be capable of working into and out o\ 

[19 



120 i 9 oi TRIALS OF HEAVY MOTOR VEHICLES 

an embayment of one and a half times its own length. (IV.) The 
vehicle shall be capable of starting from rest on and mounting a 
gradient of I in 9 (sets). (V.) The capacity of any water 
tanks, whether the same be fitted for feed, cooling or other pur- 
poses, shall suffice for a run of 15 miles on the basis of the con- 
sumptions during the trial runs. (VI.) Such portion of the 
platform of the vehicle as is designed to carry the load shall be 
level, and the height of the floor line, measured either when light 
or when laden, shall be not less than 3 feet 6 inches, and shall 
not exceed 4 feet 3 inches. (VII.) The vehicle shall conform 
in all respects to the requirements of the Locomotives on High- 
ways Act of 1896, and, in the case of its being oil-propelled, of 
the " Regulations as to Petroleum " issued by the Home Secre- 
tary under Section 5 of this Act. In Class C, intended for vehi- 
cles for export to the colonies and abroad, there is no tare limit, 
but the other regulations must be adhered to. (VIII.) All work- 
ing parts shall be properly encased. (IX.) The boiler, tanks, 
oil-baths and connecting-pipes shall be fitted with drain-plugs at 
their lowest points. (X.) The cross-section of any pipe con- 
necting two tanks shall be not less than that of the pipe provided 
for filling the first tank of the two. (XL) Provision shall be 
made to lock the compensating gear. 

The following are the points which will be taken into consid- 
eration by the judges in making the awards : Cost , control, 
working and construction. The various classes of vehicles will 
be subject to different restrictions. 

This competition is international in character, and a letter 
received from the Honorary Secretary of the association expresses 
the hope that some American built vehicles will be among the 
competitors. Full information regarding the trials may be had 
by addressing E. Shrapnell Smith, Royal Institution. Liverpool, 
England. 



Why is it that so many of the builders of steam vehicles seem to 
stick to the throwing of the lever forward in order to reverse the engine? 
It would seem that, when a vehicle is required to go ahead, the move- 
ment of the lever to accomplish this would be a forward movement, 
and not as is now usually found a backward motion. Of course this 
is not a very important matter yet it would be more natural if, when 
you desired to make the engine go ahead, you pushed the lever ahead 
instead of pulling it backward. 



From Cleveland to New York 



BY ALEXANDER WINTON 

ON the early morning of November i, 1900, in company with T* 
C. Collings, I left Cleveland and headed the machine East. 
During the preceding days the rain-fall had been generous in 
this section, and advices from the Weather Bureau were that the fall 
had been considerably heavier in those sections of Pennsylvania and 
New York through which we were compelled to travel. It was a some- 
what discouraging report, but the 
morning of Tuesday, November 
1 st, broke clear, and we started. 

The run from Cleveland to 
Silver Creek, N. Y. , was made 
without incident. The roads were 
quite soft and pretty bad in 
stretches, but pretty good time 
was made notwithstanding. At 
Silver Creek it began to rain, and 
the general disagreeableness of the 
situation was augmented by a driv- 
ing south wind. At Buffalo, we 
missed the road which we had in- 
tended to take. Hoping to cut off 
a corner, we cut around and got on 
the Broadway Road instead of the 
Genesee turnpike (Old State 
Road). The course taken was a clay road, and with the con- 
tinued rain and consequent slippery roads there was at times great 
difficulty in making anything like satisfactory speed. There was 
considerable sliding from one side of the road to the other. About 30 
miles out of Buffalo it was dark, and of a sudden I realized that we 
were at the top of a long, steep and dangerous hill. I stopped the ma- 
chine and listened. Down in the blackness could be heard the pounding 
of waters. It seemed as if there was a water-fall, and 1 thought that 
possibly the heavy rains and consequent swollen streams had washed 
away the bridge. Collings detached one of the head lamps from the 
machine and went forward to reconnoiter. He had been gone and out 




Alexander Winton 



122 FROM CLEVELAND TO NEW YORK 

of sight for fully ten minutes when I beean to entertain fears lest some- 
thing" had happened to him. But presently I saw the lamp flickering 
far below and in a while he had joined me at the summit. ' ' Pretty 
tough proposition this," was his observation. " It's a steep, uneven 
and slippery grade, and at the bottom is a narrow bridge unprotected 
by rails on the sides ; below the bridge, about 50 feet, is a river. If 
we go over the sides of that bridge, it's all off." 

It goes without saying that the descent was commenced with ex- 
treme caution. I ran the left side wheels in the gutter to prevent 
slipping, and Collings walked behind and held the back end of the 
machine to aid in keeping her straight. The nearer we got to the 
bottom the louder grew the noise from the water below us. It was an 
intensely lonesome spot. At last we reached the bridge, and I never 
was so careful in my life as when we slowly crossed it. It was a stone 
bridge, and the roadbed across it was rounded like a "hog's back." 
When well over it I breathed more freely. 

The hill on the other side was mastered without difficulty. At the 
top we could see the lights of Darien. We stopped there for the night. 
It was then 6 o'clock, but very dark, and the day's run was about 
250 miles. When conditions overhead and under wheel were con- 
sidered, the day's mileage record was wholly satisfactory. 

At the hotel in Darien a cheerful and bewhiskered farmer said: 
''Say, mister, you took darn mean chances running over that pesky 
bridge in the dark during a rain. Just a year ago a wagon, horse and 
driver slipped and fell into the river. Man and horse both killed, 
wagon smashed to splinters." This remark made us feel glad we got 
safely over, and we did not have the slightest desire to make more 
local history by plunging down over the rocks with an automobile. 

The hardships of that day's travel were responsible for a long sleep, 
and it was not until 10:30 next morning that we were breakfasted and 
ready for the road. At our beginning of the second day the sky was 
clear. It had stopped raining during the night, but the roads were soft, 
and fast driving was accomplished with no small danger. We had gone 
about -15 miles on our second day's journey, and were running over a 
somewhat improved stretch at about a 3 5 -mile per hour clip, when 
bounding from a farm-house yard came a big black dog, that looked as 
huge as a well developed calf. He miscalculated his distance or sup- 
posed the machine would "shy" or turn out — but it didn't. The 
canine was struck "amidships," and barks no more. He really did 
not know what had struck him. My machine was equipped with a 



FROM CLEVELAND TO NEW YORK 123 

steering wheel. If I had held a lever it is safe to presume that the 
shock from contact would have put us in the ditch. We made a good 
run to Geneva without further accident. Roads were drying, but the 
hills were something frightful. At Geneva we got our bearings and 
made for the State road, which should have been entered upon at 
Buffalo. 

This cross road, about twenty miles in length, was the worst 
stretch of country I ever went over with a motor carriage. It was like 
a plowed field. We struck the State road about 4 P. M. , and pulled 
into Syracuse at 5:15. There' we remained over night. 

Next morning at 7 o'clock found us again on the road. The 
extremely rough roads from Syracuse east were due to washouts 
caused by the heavy rains. We bumped and bounded along like a 
rubber ball. When we got down near the canal the roads were quite 
impassable, and we were forced to take the tow-path for about 30 miles. 
The path was so narrow that at times part of wide tires would lap over 
the embankment. It meant slow work with a consequent loss of time 
which played havoc with record work. 

We finally got back on the main road, but through this section it 
had rained hard during the preceding night, and the roads were danger- 
ously soft and slippery. At this point occurred a misadventure which 
came near terminating the expedition. Going at about 15 miles per 
hour through a small plantation where trees grew close at either side 
of the narrow road, I started to make a small turn in the course when 
the machine slipped, swung around and dove off the path and into the 
young forest. About a half a dozen small hickorys were struck by the 
front axle. They bowed down and we crawled up along their bark. 
The front end of the machine was clear from the ground. Luckily we 
were not thrown out of the carriage. When it was realized that no 
accident to ourselves had resulted, we looked at each other and could 
not help but laugh at the intensely humorous situation. There we were, 
miles from any town and doing our best at climbing trees with an auto- 
mobile. We climbed down upon the ground, and battled with all the 
power within us to pull the machine down from the trees. It would 
not yield. The next two hours were spent with hammer, chisel and 
jack-knife. The interfering trees were cut away close to the ground, 
and we then put on power and got back into the road. 

After getting out of this predicament, we had gone on only a 
short way when a turn in the road disclosed the main road obstructed 
by a sign, " No road ; take road to left." Accordingly, we turned on 



124 FROM CLEVELAND TO NEW YORK 

a fork leading to the left, and soon came to a river, the bridge over 
which was being reconstructed, and closed to traffic. The stream was 
nearly ioo feet wide at this point, and the water was muddy. The 
bridge constructors told me, however, that it was not more than two 
feet deep with a fairly good bottom, and that pending bridge repairs 
the farmers forded the stream. 

There were no two ways about it, so the machine took to the 
water. The banks on either side were soft and marshy, but offered no 
great annoyance. The stream was, as has been stated, not much more 
than two feet deep in the worst places. The machine went through 
without a hitch, although in some spots the bed was rocky and very 
uneven. Two hours later we discovered that a tire was punctured. 
We got all things ready for the repair while we continued to run, 
and when all was in shape stopped the machine, pulled out a big nail 
which had caused the puncture, Collings attached the foot pump, I in- 
serted the plug, and in just five minutes we were aboard and on our 
way rejoicing. The repair was complete ; there has been no leak since. 
That night at 6 o'clock we reached Schenectady, N. V., and anchored 
for the night. Six o'clock next morning saw us on the road again, 
and in a fog so dense you could scarcely see a machine-length ahead. 

Taking the ' ' old road ' ' we traveled over the remains of the first 
railroad ever built in this country. The big boulders on the sides 
caused a little bending of the rims — but no great dimunition of speed. 
Got through Albany without incident. We crossed the river and went 
over the East Shore Road from Albany. At Croton I again missed the 
road. It was dark and our lamps were lighted. The route taken ter- 
minated in a l ' cow path. ' ' I pulled up and was wondering what had 
happened, when from the dark recesses of the woods there came a 
young man and a maiden. 

I was told that the road to New York had been left several miles 
behind. I turned about, and finally got on the New York road. At 
McComb's Dam bridge there was some repairing going on, and almost 
in the middle of the road, unheralded by red lamp, was a pile of struc- 
tural material, into which I crashed with a force calculated to wreck 
something. No harm resulted to the machine, however, and we were 
enabled to complete the ride and run through to Madison Square 
Garden without further incident. 

I might say that the chief object of this run was to further test 
some of the many improvements in our ic)0[ machine. 

Our frontispiece shows Mr. Winton accompanied by his running mate, T. C. Cokings, just after 
finishing their interesting journey — Ed. 



The Automobile 

Did you think that I came from the hand of man. 

That I sprang from a human brain ? 
Did you think that a genius drew my plan 

And ' stablished my earthly reign ? 
The genii back of the ancient night 

Were sponsors upon my birth, 
And I was born of the wings of light 

For a wingless course on earth. 

In city street or in country lane 

They hover when I go by ; 
They draw my life from the bolted chain, 

From mastered flame of the sky ; 
The bolts and rivets and bars and wheels 

May labor and rock and roar, 
But the will of the genii through me steals 

And the leagues behind me soar ! 

I am a dream of the things men thought 

When the high gods walked the world, 
When Hercules at his labors wrought 

And the bolts of the anvils hurled 
Their song of might in the morning light 

Of the dawning strength of man, 
And the seas were poured from left to right, 

And the earliest rivers ran ! 

I slept an age in the beaming sun, 

I rocked in the ocean's lap, 
I followed the path that the lightnings run, 

I laid for eons to nap 
On the breast of the wind of the whirling spheres 

In the molten cradles I lay — 
A babe of the immemorial years 

Born out of the Past for To-day. 

I am one with the wind of the surging storm, 

And one with the summer calm ; 
I yield my will to the powers that form 

My speed to a woman's hand ; 
A child may master by levered Eorce, 

As docile and meek 1 smile 
At the ancient shadow they called a horse. 

And cherished for speed and style ! 



126 THE AUTOMOBILE 

But ever the breath of the blast is mine, 

And my veins are bolts of flame ; 
Unseen, they follow with eyes that shine, 

That genii from whence I came — 
The gnomes of the air and the eerie souls 

That breathed on the brain of man 
And gave him the key to the force that rolls 

Through the artifice of my plan. 

Wingless, yet winged with the ancient dream, 

Fired with the ancient fire, 
I come from the bourne of the lightning's beam 

At the call of the new desire ! 
I type the progress of force and thought, 

The need of the later time, 
Whose arch is based where the high gods wrought 

In the flush of their potent prime. 

Borne with the dream, that may yet come true, 

Of ships with the speed of light 
Sailing the seas of the central blue 

To ports of the starry night, 
I take the road or the crowded street, 

The hill or the level plain, 
I, and the genii who follow fleet, 

In the pride of our earthly reign ! — (Ex.) 



The Columbia University recently announced that students who so 
desired can now take a course in motor vehicle construction. In add- 
ing such a course the faculty says : ' ' The motor vehicle has now be- 
come such a factor in commercial and private use that it is deemed as 
essential that a mechanical engineer should now be well posted in 
motor vehicle construction as in marine, stationary or locomotive 
engineering." Some time ago the International Correspondence 
Schools announced a course in gas, gasoline and oil engines, in which 
special attention is given to the application of such engines to motor 
vehicles. 



ft ft ft 



The St. Louis Automobile 

THE accompanying illustration shows in how many avenues of 
activity the automobile is becoming a formidable rival of the 
horse. The motor vehicle is a most desirable thing for a tour 
through the beautiful country. If you wish to stop by the way as the 
party shown in illustration, you do not need to tie your horse to some 
nearby tree. You need not fear a runaway, and it is not necessary to 




The St. Louis Automobile Trap 

spread blankets over your horse to protect it from the flies in warm 
weather. 

The machine shown was made by the St. Louis Automobile and 
Supply Company, St. Louis, Mo., for shipment to Mexico, where it is 
to be subjected to severe service. The picture was taken while the 
machine was out on a test. 



128 THE ST. LOUIS AUTOMOBILE 

It is equipped with a double cylinder water-cooled engine. The 
cylinders are each 4x5 inches. This engine makes 6co revolutions 
per minute. The gasoline tank is placed under the seat, the gasoline 
being led to inlet valve by means of a one-eighth inch brass pipe. 

The frame is built up of angle iron, and is made amply strong to 
stand hard service. After the engine is started the vehicle is practically 
controlled with one lever, the longer one, the other being used for 
shifting the gears. The vehicle will climb a 25 per cent, grade nicely, 
and so will be found equal to any emergency likely to be encountered 
on any road. The water tanks are placed in the side of the body, near 
the rear. These are made of corrugated copper and carry enough 
water for a run of 75 miles. The carriage is provided wilh a folding 
seat in the back, thus rendering it possible to carry four passengers 
when necessary. 

The machines are substantially built, and the best workmanship is 
employed in their construction. 



Don't try to turn off at an angle suddenly, especially when near 
trolley tracks which are a little higher than the road. 

Don't try to do stunts in a crowded thoroughfare. 

Don't start out on a run without first knowing how you stand in 
the way of gasoline. 



The Pennsylvania Automobile Club, with headquarters at 138 
North Broad street, Philadelphia, is very much interested in the auto- 
mobile show, to be held in that city, February 4 to 9, 1901, under its 
auspices. Diagrams of space are ready, and can be had on applica- 
tion at the office of the managers at the above address, There will be 
an eighteen-foot track, where vehicles will be shown in motion. This 
track will be almost 12 laps to the mile. The Second Regiment 
Armory is to be the seat of action, which has a floor space of 32,000 
square feet. 



The Central Passenger Association recently decided that automo- 
biles are not baggage. Automobile owners claimed the same right as 
owners of bicycles, but the railroad companies said they might as well 
argue that horses and carriages ought to carry brass tags and be trans- 
ported free. 



Three Thousand Miles With a Steam Carriage 

By GEORGE E. GREENLEAF 

AFTER keeping horses for pleasure purposes for several years, 
the writer sold them, and made a mental resolution never to 
buy another, unless necessary for business purposes. This 
resolution was faithfully kept for twelve years, in spite of temptation. 

About a year ago the purchase of an automobile was proposed. 
This naturally led to inquiry into the merits of the different systems, 
using as motive power, electricity, explosion or internal-combustion 
engine, and the steam engine. 

An electric carriage would have had the preference, but was out of 
the question on account of difficulty in getting batteries recharged, 
short radius of action, large cost of running and probable great depre- 
ciation in the battery, leading to expensive cost of maintenance. 

A carriage driven by an explosion or internal-combustion motor 
seemed to be more desirable than a steam-driven carriage, but on in- 
quiry of friends, who were owners, and an examination of some of the 
carriages, all seemed to have very noisy engines and gearing, offensive 
smelling exhaust, and in addition to these, considerable trouble with 
the engines, from various causes. 

These reasons, and the fact that the writer had a fair knowledge of 
the construction and operation of the steam boiler and engine, decided 
the matter in favor of a steam carriage, and one was accordingly 
purchased. 

In due time the carriage arrived and the instructor proceeded to 
explain the use and operation of the different parts, following this by 
raising steam and going out on the road for a lesson in steering and 
speed control. It was with a decidedly nervous feeling that the writer 
took the instructor's place on the seat and, obeying the instructor's in- 
junction to push the throttle lever slowly forward, did so, and felt the 
carriage start forward. A short run proved that the carriage was so 
evidently under complete control that the nervousness passed off and 
has never returned even when running on the most crowded streets. 

With the exception of one week from causes described later, this 
carriage has been used every day from the hist of June to the first of 
December, running in that time about three thousand miles. 

A few details of experience gained with the carriage may be of in- 

[29 



130 THREE THOUSAND MILES WITH A STEAM CARRIAGE 

terest. Before accepting the carriage the attachment of an auxiliary 
hand pump and the enclosure of the lower part of the engine wheel — it 
projected below the carriage body — were insisted on. Although told 
that the latter was unnecessary, it needed only a glance at the front of 
the engine cover at the end of a run over dusty or muddy roads to 
show the wisdom of this precaution. The front of the cover was in- 
variably covered with dust or mud, which would have been thrown into 
the running parts of the engine, if left uncovered, and in combination 
with the grease oil in the bearings and slides, would have resulted in 
very rapid and destructive wear. 

Before attempting any long runs a thorough and careful study and 
inspection of all parts of the carriage were made, covering the opera- 
tion of the engine, places for oiling, methods of adjusting the bear- 
ings for wear, and packing the glands of the piston rods, valve rods 
and pump plunger. 

The location of hot steam pipes was thoroughly impressed on the 
memory by parting with various pieces of cuticle. 

A thorough inspection of the carriage is made before going out 
on any run, no matter how short ; and to this careful inspection may 
be attributed our freedom from all accidents except such minor hap- 
penings as will occur in any machine. 

The automobile is only a machine, and no part of it is so compli- 
cated that a man of good intelligence cannot readily understand its 
mechanism and operation if he will take the necessary time and pa- 
tience to do so. This may involve some unpleasant work and an ex- 
tremely dirty pair of hands, but the operator will feel well repaid for 
his trouble the first time something goes wrong on the road, which 
his knowledge, thus acquired, enables him to remedy, and go on his 
way. 

The first thing to be repaired was a pump plunger lever. This 
broke in the plunger pin-eye, the break being due to excessive wear, 
caused by screwing up the plunger packing too tightly. 

This packing should not be set tighter than will allow the plunger 
to be moved with the fingers ; a very slight leaking of water around the 
plunger does no harm. This was easily remedied, and the new lever 
has been used about two thousand miles now, showing only a very 
slight amount of wear. 

The next event was the breaking of a ball in the crank-pin bear- 
ing. This caused a delay long enough to allow of taking off the cover 
plate on the connecting rod and cleaning out the pieces of the broken 



THREE THOUSAND MILES WITH A STEAM CARRIAGE 131 

ball. After inspection of the bearing it was considered safe to use, and 
we finished our ride. A new ball was easily put in after reaching home. 

When the carriage was received it was not equipped with a water 
column, consequently the gage glass was the only reliance for deter- 
mining the height of water in the boiler. It did not have a very good 
arrangement of piping for blowing out the sediment which will accu- 
mulate in the pipes. In consequence, the bottom connection to the 
gage glass became clogged with sediment, and this caused a false 
height of water to be shown in the glass, indicating plenty of water in 
the boiler, when, in fact, there was none at all. This resulted in a 
badly burned boiler. Fortunately it happened near home, when re- 
turning from a ride. This accident involved sending the boiler back 
to the makers for repairs, losing the use of the carriage for a week, 
and is the most serious accident I have had. 

A water column, with try-cocks was then put on, and the piping 
so arranged that the bottom connection to the water column acted as a 
sediment trap. A blow-off cock was put in the lowest point of this 
pipe, and a globe valve in the top connection to the water column. 

By closing this globe valve and opening the blow-off cock the 
sediment can be blown out as often as desirable. As the water we use is 
very hard, containing carbonate of lime and magnesia, we have 
adopted the plan of blowing off about a quart of water every time the 
water tank is filled, and have had no trouble with sediment since. 

The water gage glass is usually provided with a check valve at 
each end, which will close automatically if the glass breaks; these 
check valves are also provided with a valve which can be closed by 
hand. If such combination valves are used, it is a good plan to re- 
move the automatic check from the upper valve, as the jarring received 
on the road and the use of the try-cocks on the water column, if the 
gage glass be connected to it, will often cause the automatic valves to 
close, and thus show a false height of water in the gage. 

If the automatic check be left in the lower valve, the escape of 
water in consequence of a broken glass will be prevented by it, and the 
escape of steam from the upper end can be stopped by the hand valve 
in the upper check. After replacing the gage glass the admission of 
steam by opening the upper hand valve will cause the lower automatic 
check valve to open. The connections in which the gage glass is held 
should be in line with each other, so that the glass will not be in con- 
tact with metal when in place. The rubber packings of the gage glass 
harden under the action of the heat, particularly the upper one. and 



-o- 



THREE THOUSAND MILES WITH A STEAM CARRIAGE 



when this occurs new packings should be put in. It is well to use con- 
siderable care in packing and setting the gage glasses, as this will be 
well repaid by increased freedom from breakage. My first gage glass 
has not broken yet. 

It should seem unnecessary to advise that one should know that 
the fuel and water tanks are rilled before starting out, but a little extra 
care on this point may not come amiss. The writer has had the un- 
pleasant experience of finding himself three miles from a can of gaso- 
line with grave doubt as to whether there was enough in the tank to 
carry him to a fresh supply or not. On a long run it is always best to 
fill the fuel tank at every opportunity, as gasoline is not to be obtained 
at every place, although most druggists and all plumbers keep it on 
hand. We have had difficulty in obtaining a supply only once ; this 
was in a small town on Sunday when all places of business except the 
drug stores were closed. A visit to both druggists' resulted in two gal- 
lons which were enough to take us to a town where the tank could be 
filled. 

The average distance covered per gallon of fuel is between twelve 
and thirteen miles, including the amount necessary to raise steam from 
cold water. Over certain roads it is not unusual to make fifteen and 
sixteen miles per gallon, but these are excellent telford roads without 
steep grades. Twenty gallons of water will usually last for twenty-five 
miles, but there have been occasions where this amount has only lasted 
for twelve miles on account of deep sand interspersed with large boulders 
causing a heavy demand for steam. 

The pneumatic tires with which the carriage was equipped caused 
more trouble than anything else. Although used principally over fine 
telford roads, punctures were numerous, averaging one every three 
hundred miles from causes ranging from wire nails to horseshoes and 
broken bottles. 

The more serious punctures necessitated sending the tires back to 
the makers for repairs, which would have involved losing the use of 
the carriage for three to five days, except that a spare tire was kept on 
hand. 

Finally a semi-pneumatic or cushion tire was tried, with the result 
that this tire was adopted, and since that time no trouble has been ex- 
perienced with the tires. From the use of these tires, it is the writer's 
firm conviction, that pneumatic tires are a needless annoyance on a 
carriage which does not weigh more than 1,000 pounds when loaded. 
With the tires now in use the carriage rides as easily as on the 



best pneumatic tires, and requires no more power to drive it, as proved 
by the mileage per gallon of fuel and water over the same roads. 

The boiler has been inspected and subjected to cold water test 
twice during the past season, and it is the intention to have this done 
every three months hereafter. 

There have been no leaky tubes in the boiler, and while there 
have been some small leaks in various steam pipe joints, there have- 
been none which could not be stopped in five minutes. 

If the water used be hard, the blow-off cock should be opened at 
the end of a run, and about two inches of water be blown out of the 
boiler before the pressure goes down; not allowing all the water to be 
blown out of the boiler, however, as the sudden cooling induced would 
strain the boiler severely, and frequent repetitions of this practice 
would cause a leaky boiler. 

After the pressure has gone down the boiler may be emptied ana 
washed out, if necessary. 

Several friends predicted that the carriage would be on fire before 
it had been in use very long, but this cheerful prophecy has not come 
true, perhaps because extra precaution has been taken to keep all 
joints in the gasoline pipes tight, paying particular attention to the 
unions at each side of the fire-box anel to the pipe passing across the 
top of the boiler. Two bad cases of burning of boiler tubes caused 
by this cross pipe leaking have come to my attention. 

If the owner of an automobile will carefully study the mechanism 
and operation of his carriage until it is perfectly familiar to him, so that 
he knows when the parts are performing their functions properly, the 
feeling of surety which this knowledge will bring when on the road and 
far from the repair shop will amply repay him. 

Let him inspect the carriage thoroughly himself before going out, 
even if he employs a man to take care of it. The prompt replacement 
of a pin or tightening of a loose nut may prevent a breakdown on the 
road. 

The old saying, "an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of 
cure," is particularly applicable to machinery. 



Automobiles at The Glasgow Exposition ol 

igoi 

OUR readers are probably familiar with the fact that, during 1901 
the City of Glasgow, Scotland, is to hold an International 
Exposition. Glasgow is a city of many industries, but, per- 
haps, none is so important there as engineering, which would perhaps 
be better described as machinery construction. Among the many 
kinds marine and locomotive engineering, of course, take leading- 
places, but there is besides an amazing variety of machinery manu- 
factured, from Barr & Stroud's range finder, an extremely delicate 
instrument, capable of deciding the exact distance to a visible enemy 
up to ten miles, to mammoth cranes, capable of handling the engines 
and boilers of the largest vessels afloat. It would, therefore, be little 
short of a misfortune if, in an exhibition held in such a city at the be- 
ginning of the twentieth century, the automobile exhibit were less than 
fully representative. The exhibition will be the first held in Britain 
since the emancipation of the automobile by the repeal of the High- 
way Locomotives Act, a law which, by practically prohibiting the use 
of automobiles on public roads, did so much to paralyze inventive 
genius and manufacturing enterprise; and it is now being recognized 
that the Glasgow exhibit can be made to have far reaching missionary 
effects in forwarding the great horseless carriage movement. Not only 
will the collection of machines be laro-e and varied, but a week will be 
specially devoted to a series of demonstrations with all kinds of motors 
to show their capabilities, and their reliability in regard to speed, dis- 
tance, and amenity to control. These demonstrations will be under 
the auspices of the Automobile Club of Great Britain, assisted by a 
number of the leading makers. The club will, towards the end of the 
summer, tour for 1,000 miles, concluding with the week in question, 
and, as the club is well organized and strong both numerically and 
financially, the demonstrations are certain to be popular, as well as 
educationally valuable. 



It is announced that in New Haven a concern is interested in 
the design and manufacture of automobile hearses. It is said 
further that the people are just " dying " to ride in them. 

134 




( He desire those interested in both the manufacture and operation of Auto- 
mobiles to send in for use, in this department, whatever they think may be of 
interest to us or our readers. — Editors. ) 



That Automobile House 

I READ the letter of Frank C. Hudson in your issue for January 
with a good deal of interest. Any points of interest on the 

subject of caring for automobiles will be of great value to men 
like myself, who, while fortunate enough to be an owner, have to pay 
out considerable each month for the proper storage and repair of my 
vehicle. 

There is one point I think in which the value of Hudson's barn 
could be materially increased. It is found that in all livery stables 
means are provided whereby the carriages may be washed. The intro- 
duction of a faucet, arranged so as to permit of hose connection, should 
not be lost sight of. This could easily be done, and at slight expense. 

Another point which should not be overlooked in this connection 
is that when it comes to putting down the floor, it should be de- 
pressed at the point where washing is done, as otherwise you are liable 
to be caused a great deal of labor in keeping the floor free from dirt. 

In one part of his letter Mr. Hudson says: "The pit is on an 
angle in the corner, with steps down from the back end * 
The idea of the angle is that the carriage can be backed on from the 
door, and can be run straight out the door without doing the obstacle 
race act." Why would it not be a good idea to put in a small turn- 
table, which would enable you to "head on" the carriage For any 
desired point? Perhaps some readers who have looked into this 
question can help me by relating their experience along these lines. 

Seattle, Wash. Ned Gai i iday, 

1,0 



Not How Cheap, But How Good 

HOW many times have we heard the question asked: "Why 
don't you make the automobile lighter in its construction? " 
This is the first and foremost idea that the layman of to-day 
has in his mind regarding the horseless carriage, and is one of the most 
important points as well as first steps to be taken into consideration by 
the manufacturer in order to insure perfect safety. 

A few moments' consideration of this subject will bring out more 
clearly the advantage of heavy construction and tend to lessen the 
number of accidents which occur from day to day, enlighten the pur- 
chaser in the matter of selecting his vehicle, and insure perfect safety in 
the general make-up of the carriage. A vehicle made of too light ma- 
terial simply means constant delays and an endless amount of expense. 

Of necessity the carriage or wagon must be heavy enough in its 
parts to carry the load for which it is designed, and constructed of the 
best material the market affords. A given cross section of any metal 
has its limit as to the strain imposed upon it. We must have at least 
25 per cent, over and above this limit in order to be on the safe side 
and ready to resist the extra strain which from time to time each part 
is called upon to carry. 

Too light construction is all wrong and only tends to wreck the 
interests of the manufacturers and the marketing of their products. 
Heavy construction is of absolute necessity, not only in the line of 
safety, but to obtain better traction. 

We certainly would not place a light horse and wagon in use 
where it really required one of heavier make simply because it cost a 
few dollars less in the start. No wise man would do this, for the 
general repairs on the wagon alone, to say nothing of the life of the 
horse, would cost much more than the price of the heavier equipment 
and the one that is properly designed for its particular line of trade. 

A good example of this can be had by referring to the January 
issue of this magazine, page 92. This vehicle in question, after being 
run for a period of two years, and over all kinds of roads, had as a re- 
pair bill about $1.50, and this was in the way of replacing the rawhide 
pinions which transmit the power to the wheels, which from one cause 
or another had " stripped." It will be remembered that an increase 
of 35 per cent, was figured in this case, and is a good example of what 

136 



NOT HOW CHEAP, BUT HOW GOOD 137 

may be obtained from heavy construction and best material. If in the 
first cost an extra few dollars had been expended we would have had 
a saving of several hundred in general repairs. 

The saving of ten cents on a set of carriage steps is looked upon 
by some people as a great thing, and rather than pay for a good drop- 
forged step they will use one of the cast iron make. The breaking of 
one of these cheap steps would not only injure both life and limb, but 
the business and sales of their vehicles in the long run. This is of 
minor importance when compared with other parts of the vehicle. A 
vehicle constructed of any other than the very best material is far from 
cheap, no matter what the price may be. 

New York, N. Y. H. M. Underwood. 



That Automobile Explosion 

THE following item appeared in the columns of the New York 
Sun. Thursday November 29: "Lawyer Albert Brown, of 
Manhattan, started yesterday in his Locomobile to visit his 
brother, Percy Brown, a lawyer, who lives at Hempstead, L. I. At 
Glenmore and Railroad Avenues, Brooklyn, the gasoline exploded and 
set fire to the machine, which was damaged $125 worth. Mr. Brown 
continued his journey on a trolley car. ' ' 

A few days after the item appeared, the New York World came 
out with an editorial, in which reference was made to the foregoing- 
item in the following words: 

"It was an unfortunate, or perhaps it was rather a fortunate 
occurrence that Mr. Albert Brown's gasoline automobile should have 
' blown up ' just at the time when the automobilists are protesting 
against the government regulation which forbids their use of ferryboats 
or other passenger steamers. If the accident had occurred on one of 
our crowded ferryboats or excursion steamers the consequences might 
have been very disastrous. The danger of explosion on passenger 
steamers cannot be too carefully guarded against, and the gasoline 
engine has no place on any of them. ' ' 

It is, I think, decidedly unfair for the latter paper to so condemn 
the gasoline automobile. As a matter of fact there are large numbers 
of gasoline and naphtha engines in satisfactory operation, as the Sun 
pointed out, and the number of accidents with them is very small in- 



i 3 8 THAT AUTOMOBILE EXPLOSION 

deed. I do not know, of course, how the accident happened. Some 
one must have in some way brought fire near the gasoline when ex- 
posed to the air, otherwise it would not have occurred. Gasoline is 
harmless when confined in some kind of receptacle. If a light was 
through carelessness on the part of someone, placed too near the 
escaped gasoline then it was not the fault of the gasoline, but of the 
party in charge. 

The World's reference to the danger which might hav r e attended 
the explosion, had it taken place on board one of our ferryboats, is too 
radical to be considered very seriously by those familiar with the use 
of gasoline. The properties of gasoline are well enough known, and 
when properly handled, it is one of the most useful of liquids. 

It is probable that the explosion referred to was caused by a leak- 
ing pipe. 

The World says: "It was an unfortunate, or perhaps it was 
rather a fortunate occurrence that the automobile should have ' blown 
up ' just at the time when the automobilists are protesting against the 
government regulation which forbids their use of ferryboats or other 
passenger steamers. 

This, I think, is rather strong, and while it is true the automo- 
bilist is now at a disadvantage in this matter, it is more than probable 
that at no very distant date automobilists will be permitted to take 
their vehicles across on ferryboats without being compelled to empty 
their gasoline tanks before running the machines on board. 

Hackensack, N. J. Walter Brown. 



Insufficient Battery For Sparking 

MY experience leads me to believe that makers of gasoline motor 
carriages do not use large enough batteries, or batteries 
having a sufficient number of cells. A powerful spark will 
help almost any motor, and if the motor is inclined to go back on you 
the increased battery power is a great help. 

My first introduction to this difficulty was in connection with my 
gasoline launch, where the motor had the habit of lying down once 
in a whiie after it got thoroughly warmed up. Then I doubled up on 
my battery and had no more trouble. The spark was large enough to 
explode almost any mixture, and, while it may not be right from the 



INSUFFICIENT BATTERY FOR SPARKING 139 

maker's standpoint, it certainly is from mine, as a user. I suppose 
every user should be expert enough to tell the exact mixture of air 
and gas by the sound, but, as a matter of fact, they are not, and the 
question of getting home is the all-important question. 

On my carriage I have doubled up twice on the battery, and I 
don't have any spark troubles. After the cylinders get hot I switch 
out part of the cells, but when I strike a bad road they all go into 
commission. I can't tell how much of a spark I get, but I'm inclined 
to believe it will explode almost everything but water. If I ever run 
out of gasoline out in the country I'll try kerosene and see how that 
goes. Some of my friends tell me I have battery enough to run home 
on if the gasoline gives out. At any rate, it gives good satisfaction, 
and I would rather spend ten dollars a year extra for batteries to avoid 
the sparking troubles some of my acquaintances have. 

W. H. Truman. 



Know Your Machine 

I HAVE read the article by Mr. Bostwick and some of the comments 
thereon, and, after I got over the first shock of the statements 
he made, I commenced to think he knew what he was talking 
about in most respects. Now, I believe a man who is careful, who 
knows something about machinery and doesn't try to see how fast he 
can go, can keep a good automobile for less than he can a horse. On 
the other hand, I haven't the slightest doubt that it costs many people 
more. 

But the main point in the article was the advice to know your 
machine. Get acquainted with it thoroughly. Go to the factory it 
you can, and see how it is put together. See what each part does, and 
find out what will happen if it breaks. Learn to make all the points 
and to repair them on the road, if necessary. Carry such spare parts 
as are necessary, and be sure they fit. It is decidedly aggravating to 
carry around a spare part for several hundred miles and, finally when 
you want it, find it won't fit. 

Learn the symptoms of the motor. How it sounds under differ- 
ent conditions, and what the sounds mean. If you do this, you'll have 
more comfort, and less worry and expense. 

New York, N. V. Frank C. Hudson. 



Water in Steam Boilers 

I HAVE discovered a few points in operating my steam machine 
which may be of service to others. They relate to the amount 

of water in the boiler, and may save you trouble and expense. 
If you haven't a water column on your boiler put one on the first 
thing. Every engineer ought to know where his water is, even if his 
gage glass breaks or gets stopped up. 

Not having one, you are sometimes puzzled to know whether the 
glass is full or empty — it looks alike in both cases. Hold a piece of 
newspaper behind it and you can tell at once. If full of water the 
print will be magnified. If empty the print will be smaller than 
normal. 

The tendency in case of low water, or in case of doubt, is to run 
for home as fast as possible, but it's a habit that wants to be overcome. 
If your water is low, the faster you run the machine the fiercer fire 
you are burning and the more chance you have of burning your 
boiler. Run slowly, burn a low fire and the less likely you are to 
have trouble. Don't be afraid of explosions, they are almost out of 
the question with the boilers they are building to-day. L.W. R. 



He feared no bucking bronco that went snorting o' er the plain ; 
He had tamed the brute for pleasure, and could do the same again. 
He had steered the ponderous mail coach where the rocky passes 

sweep 
In mystifying zigzags close to chasms broad and deep. 

And sometimes he had ridden, in an economic stress, 
Out in front, upon the pilot, of the cannon ball express ; 
His reckless hungering for speed often tempted him to seek 
The joy of a toboggan down the nearest mountain peak. 

But success must have its limit. Ere his mad career was through, 
He boasted once too often, and he met his Waterloo. 
He thought no pace too devious or swift to be for him a bracer, 
But he howled for help and weakened when they got him going on a 
motor racer. (Ex.) 

140 



A Kerosene Motor Driven Carriage 

DURING the years 1885 and 1886 Daimler, Berry, Hardaker and 
Butler did some original work in connection with the operation 
of bicycles and motor tricycles, using petroleum spirit, but it 
was not until 1895 that petroleum oil was for the first time used for 
motor vehicles. This was done over in England by James D. Roots, 
conjointly with his partner, Mr. Venables. 

The firm of of Roots & Venables, of London, was the first one 
to successfully manufacture a motor vehicle in which a petroleum oil 




Kerosene Motor Vehicle of Roots & Venables 



motor was employed, and it gives us pleasure to present to our readers 
an illustration of their latest carriage. This is of three indicated horse- 
power and is fitted with their regular style motor. There are a num- 
ber of advantages growing out of the use of petroleum, among which 
may be mentioned the following: It causes no deposit in cylinders or 
combustion chambers ; greater safety, and is considerably cheaper than 
gasoline or petrol. The carriage shown has bicycle spoke wheel-. 
those in the rear being 31 inches, while the front ones are 27 inches In 
diameter. Solid tires are used. 

For igniting, a platinum point is used. The engine is ol (he single' 



142 A KEROSENE MOTOR-DRIYEX CARRIAGE 

cylinder type. This carriage is of light weight, weighing, when tanks 
are full and ready for the road, but 672 pounds. The frame is built up 
of channel iron. 

The fact that the engine can be run by kerosene makes it more 
certain that one is not going to be stalled owing to lack of oil when 
starting out on a trip. It is just possible that gasoline cannot always 
be obtained, while kerosene can certainly be had almost anywhere. 
These carriages have been operated successfully for several years, and 
possess features which ought to commend them to automobilists who 
are looking for a light, safe, and easily operated vehicle. 



A New Design of Automobile Engine 

W r E show on the following page a novel design of engine, more 
especially intended for automobile work in its design, and the 
aim has been to meet the following requirements : A perfectly 
balanced engine embracing nothing but the simplest elements, and those 
the same as the most common kind of engine; self lubrication; every 
working element entirely excluded from dust or dirt; and the entire 
control by a single lever. 

The arrangements, as will be seen by the vertical section, consists 
of two cylinders, which may be compound, as shown, or both high 
pressure, set at right angles, piston rods and crossheads in one forging 
and the connecting rods taking a single center crank. The crank is 
built up with the connecting rods bushed, and running on a bush, and 
that on the hardened and ground crank pin, all in place to stay. The 
crosshead pins are hollow, hardened and ground, turning both in the 
crossheads and in the connecting rods at pleasure, and are held from 
coming out endwise by ledges cast on the frame. 

The eccentrics are cast on the throws of the cranks, and the 
eccentric straps and rods are in one piece. Thus it will be seen that 
all the working parts, except valve and piston are within the casing, 
and as all the surfaces from the outside in. and inside out are filled 
with oil holes, and a lot of them, the splash lubrication is so complete 
that the take up for wear has been dispensed with. There are no 
bolts, nuts or screws or anything else inside the case to get loose. 

The engine is controlled and reversed in the following manner: 
The two plug cocks, operated by the single temporary handle shown in 



A NEW DESIGN OF AUTOMOBILE ENGINE 



H3 



the half-tone, serve to reverse the direction in which the steam flows 
through the engine. In the case of the compound, when the handle 
is in the vertical position the steam is shut off; when moved for the 
forward motion a by-pass admits steam to the intermediate receiver 
first, and a further motion cuts off this passage and opens steam to the 




The Sweet Engine 



high pressure cylinder, and from the receiver to the low pressure. 
Hence, if the high pressure is on the dead center the steam from the 
intermediate receiver will start the engine. When in the full forward 
motion the steam and exhaust pass straight through the two plug 
valves, but when the valves are turned back about one-quarter turn 



144 



A NEW DESIGN OF AUTOMOBILE ENGINE 



the high pressure steam is led through small channels to both the high 
pressure exhaust chamber and the receiver, and through the low pres- 
sure exhaust chamber also ; thus making both cylinders high pressure 
for backing, but by the contracted passages the engine cannot back 




Sectional Views of the Sweet Engine 



fast. When backing, the exhaust from the high pressure passes out 
through the end of the valve. 

This engine was designed by John.E. Sweet, for parties in Syra- 
cuse, N. Y., and built at the works of the Straight Line Engine Com- 
pany, of that city. 



A New Motive Power — and What Became 

of It 

BY I. B. RICH 

I WAS sitting in my office, in Philadelphia, the other day, dictating 
answers to a pile of letters that had arrived in the morning mail, 

when the boy brought in a somewhat dilapidated card bearing the 
name of Charles Hopewell, Jersey City, Automobile Expert. 

What he wanted of me was a mystery. True, I'm a member of 
a club in town, have a couple of carriages of different makes, but I 
didn't suppose I was conspicuous enough to be selected as a victim of 
an expert. If his card was a fair sample of the man, he was a genius. 

"Show him in, Jimmy," and to my stenographer — "I'll finish 
dictating a little later. ' ' 

Mr. Hopewell was a queer looking genius, but you couldn't help 
being interested in his talk. He had a new motor vehicle, and had 
just run it over from Jersey City. Made good time of course — they 
all do — and wanted me to see it and ride in it. Knew I was a careful 
man; quite a mechanic; wanted my opinion, and a lot of other flattery. 
But he said it as though he meant it, and I began to believe myself. 
Queer, how easily we fall in with other people's ideas when they are 
favorable to ourselves. 

He urged so persistently and flattered so artistically that I finally 
agreed to go out for a run in the park at 2, and then I tackled the 
correspondence again with renewed energy, but I kept thinking of his 
conversation and wondering what the machine could be like. When 
I asked him the motive power he only smiled and said it wasn't gaso- 
line, or steam or electricity, or even liquid air. What under the sun 
was it? , 

Promptly at .2 o'clock a bell announced his arrival, and 1 went 
out to see him and the machine, principally the latter. 

It was a small wheel, low hung body affair — not particularly hand- 
some and yet it had a business like air about it that 1 rather liked. 
But the motor and the motive power. Whatever it was, it was all on- 
closed, together with the motor, and there didn't seem to be an] 
chance for dust to get at the machinery. As that has been a hobby of 
mine for some time, I liked it better than ever. 

I 15 



146 A NEW MOTIVE POWER— AND WHAT BECAME OF IT 

Well, I stepped into the machine and tried to note the surround- 
ings. He had a wheel-steer device, but with a small handle projecting 
from the rim, like the handle of a piece of machinery. This indicated 
when the wheels were straight, and also gave a handle for a quick revo- 
lution of the hand wheel when necessary. Another hobby of mine, so 
the machine increased still more in my estimation. 

To start, he pressed a button with his foot, and with a slight kick 
the motor started with very little noise. On the steering wheel was a 
dial marked from zero up to sixty, and as this was stamped " miles " I 
asked if it meant speed or distance. 

" Speed, Mr. Rich. I'll put that at about ten, and then handle 
her by the clutch till we get out of the crowd. This lever throws in 
the clutch this way and pulling it back applies the brake. Backing? 
Oh, yes. Moving this same lever sideways gives the reverse. Don't 
often want it, but when you do it' s handy. ' '~ 

We were moving now — crawling along behind a trolley here,, 
shooting through an opening there, and his handling proclaimed him 
an expert driver better than anything else could have done. But what 
was the motive power. There was no smell of oil, no steam, no am- 
meter or volt meter. Only the steady quiet throb of the engine, run- 
ning something like a gasoline engine, but more quietly than mine did. 
I gave it up, so I finally asked him again, what made it go. 

We were entering the park by this time, and as the roads were 
fine and almost deserted he had plenty of time to explain things. 

''Well, here's what makes it go," he said, as he raised the seat 
curtain and displayed a large tank with a glass front, filled with what 
appeared to be homeopathic pills. 

"Didn't know you were a doctor, Mr. Hopewell," I replied. 
" Now, joking aside, what makes this thing go? It goes better than 
anything I ever rode, but I want to know what makes it; no more 
joking please — I want facts." 

" Dead earnest, Mr. Rich, these pills, as you call 'em, make the 
motor mote." See here, and he uncovered a pipe leading downwards 
from the tank, " see them feeding down to the motor." 

Sure enough, every second stroke a pill dropped down, presum- 
ably to the motor, but that didn't explain things for a cent. 

" Those pills," he went on — "are dynamite. No, don't try to 
jump," as he grabbed my coat and forced me to the seat, "they're 
harmless until they reach the cylinder of the engine. There they do 
the work, as vou see. 



A NEW MOTIVE POWER— AND WHAT BECAME OF IT 147 

" This dial marked miles regulates the number that are fed to the 
motor per minute, and the motor runs fast or slow in accordance with 
the number of pills it receives. This tank holds enough for a thousand 
miles, and can be renewed as safely and as easily as water — when we 
get our depots established in various cities. But a thousand mile 
charge gives you a large radius of action, and a mighty small chance 
of running out without being able to renew. 

' ' Doesn' t she work pretty though ? Never a miss or a slip. Here 
you take her now — you can handle her as well as I can. Turn that 
dial if you want to go faster — there, that's the twenty-five-mile notch 
now and she's running like a bird. Now what do you think of her? " 

Whal could I say but that it was fine in every way, and how 
could I refuse to go in on the ground floor when he broached the finan- 
cial part of the question. Seemed like a chance of a lifetime, and 
Morgan and Jay Gould began to seem like poor men as compared with 
what I should be in ten years' time. The outlook was illumined with 
bond coupons and bullion. 

Then he told me of his other plans. How he had been investi- 
gating explosions in flour mills and wood finishing establishments, and 
had discovered how to use flour dust and wood dust instead of dyna- 
mite for his motive power. 

Ordinarily I should have been skeptical, but hadn't I seen the 
dynamite pill machine, and why wasn't the other just as feasible? 
Saw mills and grocery stores began to loom up as the automobile sup- 
ply houses of the future, and I saw visions of autos driven up to one of 
them while the operator went in for a bag of flour or a box of sawdust. 
Then my fortune increased in due proportion, and fleets of private 
yachts, motor vehicles of all kinds and sizes and other luxuries began 
to appear as everyday occurrences, and 

" Isaac, I say, Isaac, you'll be late for the office if you don't get 
up this very minute — I've called you three times before," and my wife's 
practical remarks put an end to dreams of fortune and dynamite and 
flour and sawdust. But it all seemed so real and so feasible that I'm 
trying to make out whether it was a prophecy or just a plain ordinary 
nightmare. 



Notes on Heavy Motor Traction 

THE question of the application of the self-propelled vehicle to 
the transportation of heavy loads along common roads is one 
which of late has been taken up by a number of manufactur- 
ers in this country, and in view of this, it seems fitting that we present 
our readers with a resume of the recent address of Prof. George 
Forestier before the Liverpool Self- Propelled Traffic Association on 
" Heavy Motor Traffic in France." 

Prof. Forestier is Inspector-General of Roads and Bridges in 
France, and while his remarks refer particularly to conditions as they 
exist in that country, nevertheless some of his deductions are just as 
applicable in our own land, and it is hoped his address will contain 
much that will be valuable to American manufacturers. 

In his opening remarks the speaker referred to the varying con- 
ditions found in roads, calling attention to the fact, that in order to 
meet and overcome these, the motor used should be of sufficient power 
to overcome the resistance which the most hilly part of jthe road will 
present on that day when the road is in its worst state, unless on that 
particular day the useful load can be reduced without inconvenience. 

Regarding fuel, it was the opinion of the Professor that liquid 
fuel was the ideal. He gave as reasons for this the great saving in 
weight and the dispensation of a stoker. 

Where he compares motor-driven vehicles with horses, it is per- 
haps better that we give his own words : 

COMPARISON WITH HORSES. 

" Let us compare, now, the cost of transport by automobile with 
that by means of horses. 

" In France, we reckon that a horse can go at a pace of from 2. 25 
to 2.5 miles an hour, giving a tractive pull of o. 13 of its weight, for a 
day of from eight to nine hours, and that on a well -paved or even 
macadamized road on a fine day the rolling resistance is less than 44 
pounds per ton. A cart for two horses weighs 12 cwts. , and the two 
horses, weighing together one ton, can thus give an effort of 291 
pounds, corresponding to a load of 6.6 tons on the level. If one takes 
hills and the tare of the vehicle into account, the load must be reduced 
to 3.0 tons, which, for twenty miles per day, equals sixty net ton miles. 
Besides, the driver of this team has to be paid, the team fed, and the 

14S 



NOTES ON HEAVY MOTOR TRACTION 149 

vehicle repaired, and this equals 12s. 6d. ($3.00) per day, that is to say, 
2.5 pence per net ton mile. 

' ' As horse haulage can take the goods from the sender to the con- 
signee quite as well as automobile traction can in fine weather or on a 
paved road, it is not threatened by mechanical haulage for any traffic 
where a higher speed than 2.5 miles an hour is not required. In 
winter, master carters can vary their teams according to the state of the 
roads, but in mechanical traction one can only reduce the load and 
speed. Accordingly, it is very desirable that our constructors should 
carefully study the conditions by which they can reduce their prices, 
still much too high in consequence of the unnecessary provision made 
for speed, which is of no actual use to them commercially. ' ' 

In regard to the question of road maintenance he remarked that 
the mutual action of roads and motor vehicles ought to be studied by 
both paved and metaled roads, as there is some difference between 
them. We quote : 

' ' Contrary to what we have said of the individual resistance of 
the sets which constitute a paved road, metaled roads are composed 
of materials of small dimensions which are only able to resist the 
weight of heavy motor traffic by mutually helping one another. 
Again, the foundation and top layers together form a thickness or 
depth which is oftener than not insufficient to prevent the subsoil from 
having to bear so heavy a pressure that it gets out of shape. In 
normal weather, metaled roads are almost as firm as paved roads, and 
the resistance to rolling is about equal on the two. Unfortunately, 
when rain has fallen for several days, the binding material loses all 
cohesion, and the road becomes a mass of movable stones, which slip 
about more and more easily under the pressure of heavily-burdened 
wheels as the speed increases. At the same time the depth of the 
road, already too small and still further reduced by the displacement 
of some of the stones, transmits to the subsoil a pressure too great 
for its stability, and it gives way. When this is the case the road con- 
tinually presents an inclined plane in front of the driving wheels, and 
this largely increases the rolling resistance, and, at the same time, adds 
considerable friction between the sides of the felloes and the depres- 
sions that are made. All engineers responsible for roads have agreed 
that during the rainy season the rolling resistance may be treble what 
it is during fine weather. This is one of the most unfavorable condi- 
tions for mechanical propulsion, for it necessitates the motors not only 
being capable of a single maximum effort but of a continual one, which 



15° 



NOTES ON HEAVY MOTOR TRACTION 



may be three times greater in wet weather than in fine, unless one is 
content to diminish the speed. 

' ' The remedy for this state of things depends, as we have seen in 
the case of paved roads, on proper maintenance and on the motor 
vehicle builder. In the first place, the depth of the road should be in- 
creased, it should be kept clear of all excess of detritus which might 
increase the state of mobility of the material, and the subsoil should 
be drained in order to prevent its giving way under the load. In the 
second place, the weight supported by the motor wheels should be di- 
minished, and the latter should be given a width of tire in harmony 
with the compressibility of the road. 

' ' Very wide tires should be used on soft ground, as experience 
has proved in the case of steam ploughing engines. It is only under 
these conditions that the soft earth will stand the engine's combined 
driving action and weight when going round curves. On the con- 
trary, if the soil is as resisting and hard as a stone road in good weather, 
curves make no difference, and the tires obtain their full adhesion. 
For the motor wagons with which we have to deal, it is necessary then 
to have two sets of wheels — one with very wide tires for winter, during 
which the road material is easily disturbed; the other with narrower 
tires for summer when the material is verv coherent. ' ' 




Dick Turpins Awheel. 

BY PERCTE W. HART. 
// /^\N the fi rst of each month I use my gasoline automobile to 

\^Jr take the money for the payroll over to the Ellendale 
mines. It's a trifle more than twenty miles, and a poor 
road through wild hilly country, but I always enjoy the little trip. ' ' 

Such was an innocent remark of mine, made while dining with 
some friends at a public restaurant, during a visit to Chicago. That 
some person who overheard me deemed the information of value 
would seem to be proved in the sequel. 

On the first day of the following month, I started forth as usual 
from my native town, with the payroll money in a hand satchel upon 
the seat beside me. It was a fine morning, clear, and just warm 
enough to be pleasant. Everything seemed to promise a most enjoy- 
able ride. My runabout was of rather primitive model, one of the 
first types of gasoline automobiles introduced in America, conse- 
quently very heavy and incapable of such speed as the later develop- 
ments. But, nevertheless, it was quite fast enough for comfortable 
riding over the rough country roads of our district, and I had become 
so well accustomed to handling the machine that I could do almost 
anything with it. For the first few miles after leaving home I sped 
along pretty briskly, but just before entering the wild and lonely 
region which I had to traverse, I stopped to exchange a few words 
with an old friend of the family, who was at work in a field at one side 
of the highway. 

" Much travel along here this morning? " I happened to inquire, 
after some little interchange of views on crops and national affairs. 

The old farmer had left his plow and team of horses standing in 
the furrows, and was leaning against the snake fence. He pursed his 
lips at my question, and looking rather disdainfully at my halted 
vehicle, said: " Only a couple more like yourself that be' ant satisfied 
with the Almighty's gift of animal critters to mankind." 

"What, automobilists ? " I queried eagerly, for 1 was alone in 
the sport in our country. 

" Naw, but two city fellows on their bi-cyc-kels," growled the 
old man uncompromisingly. "They scooted past hero more than an 
hour ago, with their backs hunched up like a kickin' steer. Reckon 



152 



DICK TURPINS AWHEEL 



you won't catch up with them this side o' Ellendale, 'cept you put on 
steam enough to bust your biler. 

A few moments later I bade good-bye to the old farmer and 
started off without giving a second thought to the cyclists that he had 
mentioned as preceding me. For the next ten miles or so my route 
lay through the hilly and deserted section which I have mentioned. 
Just about the middle of it the way led along the bottom of a winding, 
wooded ravine. Upon either hand rose nearly perpendicular banks, 
masked by an impenetrable growth of stubby fir trees. Along both 
margins of the road lay many good-sized rocks which had been re- 
moved in the making; but the space between was wide enough to 
allow two vehicles to pass abreast. At this season of the year, the 
sandy soil, of which the highway was composed, was dry and hard. 
The section over which I had been journeying was extremely rough 
and hilly, so when I came to the ravine I was glad enough to put my 
speed-changing gear to its highest limit, and commenced to run along 
at a good pace. Suddenly, as I turned a sharp bend, I came upon a 
bicyclist. He was a short, stocky fellow, clad in a blue riding suit. 
He stood on one margin of the road beside his wheel, and was run- 
ning his fingers about the machine, in a listless sort of fashion. I 
brought my automobile to a halt a few paces ahead of where he stood, 
and, turning in my seat, addressed him: 
" Anything the matter? " I queried. 

He replied with a negative shake of the head, and did not even 
raise his eyes to mine. 

' ' I thought your wheel had gotten out of order and that perhaps 
I might be of some assistance," I went on. 

Still he made no verbal answer, and apparently gave no heed to 
my presence. Unwilling to intrude where I was evidently not wanted 
I started my runabout and proceeded onward. I had scarcely gone 
a hundred feet when I heard a shrill whistle. It seemed to come from 
behind me, and I did not doubt but what it was produced by the lips 
of the taciturn cyclist. But when I turned in my seat and looked 
back he was still standing in the same idle fashion, with his whole at- 
tention seemingly absorbed upon the fittings of his wheel. 

" May be some lunatic escaped from an asylum," I muttered to 
myself; "he certainly doesn't act like a sane person." And, as I 
continued to speed along I could not help smiling at the idle fancy. 

The windings of the road made me quickly lose sight of the oddly 
behaving stranger, and I had just dismissed him from my mind as an 



DICK TURPINS AWHEEL 153 

unimportant incident, when something that I saw right ahead caused 
me to gasp and stare in astonishment. This was nothing more nor 
less than a low barricade of loose stones piled directly across the road. 
It was low, as I have said, but, nevertheless, I could not hope to leap 
it with my clumsy vehicle. The whole thing happened very quickly 




" Stand and deliver," he cried fiercely. See next page 

and I had scant time for reflection. Just as my hands clutched at the 
brake and stopping levers the figure of another cyclist, clad in brown. 
arose from behind the barricade, and I could see his wheel, leaning 
against an adjacent stump. 



154 DICK TURPINS AWHEEL 

" Stand and deliver," he cried fiercely, at the same time pointing 
a revolver at me. 

Quick as lightning their purpose flashed through my head. 
They were after the payroll money in the satchel alongside of me. 
The mute-mouthed rascal whom I had just passed had signalled my 
approach to his confederate. With no thought of any such contin- 
gency in our law-abiding country I carried no weapon, not even so 
much as a club. I would be practically helpless if they once got hold 
of me, and the villains probably knew this as well as I did. By erect- 
ing the barricade they expected to bring me to an abrupt halt, and so 
secure both my person and the treasure before I had time to attempt 
an escape. 

"We don't want to kill you, but we mean to have that bag 
you've got on the seat and your automobile, as well." called out the 
armed cyclist; " so better give up easily and save trouble." 

I was still rattling on toward him, and had approached within a 
short distance while he was speaking. Just as he finished I gave two 
quick twirls on the steering gear, the auto swung around on two 
wheels, very nearly capsized, and then sped back over the road I had 
come. 

" ' Good-bye, ' ' I yelled derisively, at the same time dodging down 
low, with the hope of avoiding any flying bullets that might ensue. 

But the highwayman did not fire. He merely gave vent to a 
sardonic laugh, that echoed back and forward from the narrow banks 
of the lonely vale. It did not take many seconds for me to compre- 
hend the reason for his hilarity. Scarcely had I gotten out of sight 
and turned another bend, when I came upon the whilom listless and 
sulky blue-suited cyclist engaged in piling up another stony barricade. 
He had it nearly completed, and must have started to work the mo- 
ment I had gotten out of sight. 

1 ' Stand and deliver, ' j he called, after the same fashion as his com- 
patriot, and emphasizing the request in like martial style. 

Although his barricade was not so high as the other one, I saw 
at a glance that it would be no use to try to force my way over the 
thing. So I repeated my first manoeuvre, swinging the auto quickly, 
and scuttling forward again. 

" This is a mess, and no mistake about it," I said to myself, with 
a quick glance about. "They've got me corralled, for I can't get 
out at either of the sides. They've won the first trick, I guess, but 
I'll see if I can't trump in on their long suit." 



DICK TURPINS AWHEEL 155 

Even while so muttering I had slowed down speed, and now, for 
the moment out of sight of both of the miscreants, allowed a goodly 
portion of the gasoline in the supply tank to run on the road. 

" Now," I commented, "unless I am greatly mistaken, there is 
just enough fuel left to bring them to Hightown, not a hundred yards 
further, anyway." 

Once more I turned the bend and found the brown-suited cyclist 
still on the alert. I brought my runabout close up to the barricade, 
came to a full stop, and jumped out, leaving the precious satchel upon 
the seat. 

"I surrender to your combination of overwhelming force and 
superior strategy," I remarked, as nonchalantly as possible. 

Still keeping a wary eye upon me, the modern highwayman gave 
a shrill whistle as a signal to his companion at the other end of the 
trap, and then addressed me as follows: "Sorry to bother you, but 
it's all in a day's work. Just stroll back a little piece, sit down on the 
edge of the road, and keep quiet. That's all you've got to do. We 
won't hurt a hair of your head if we can help it. Won't even bind 
you. And, perhaps, if you're real good we may leave your automo- 
bile to be called for somewhere, and nothing to pay on it but a little 
storage. It all depends upon how quiet you keep. So take my ad- 
vice and make the best of being held up, and say no more than you 
can possibly help to anybody." 

All the while he thus chatted the villain held his revolver in a 
handy position for immediate use. I made no protest, but obeyed his 
instructions so far as taking a seat upon the shelving bank was con- 
cerned. By this time the other desperado came along the road, push- 
ing his bicycle with one hand. He gave me a queer sort of a grin in 
passing, but said nothing. 

"Now, partner, throw that wheel anywhere you like and clear 
away the wall;" cried the brown-suited one, who seemed to be the 
leader, as he certainly was the more talkative of the pair. " I'll keep 
my eye on this gentleman." 

The other did as he was bid, and set to work removing the barri- 
cade. This did not take long. When he had finished, and the two 
men were just about to clamber aboard the captured automobile, the 
taciturn fellow suddenly bellowed: "Hey! Ain't we forgetting some 
thing. Can't carry our bicycles with us, but we shouldn't leave them 
handv for him." 



156 DICK TURPINS AWHEEL 

' ' By Jove ! I nearly forgot all about that, ' ' ejaculated his com- 
panion savagely. " I'll fix them." 

And striding over to where the two wheels lay, he picked up a 
big rock and proceeded to smash their parts with considerable energy. 

" Bye-bye," he sang out, as he next proceeded to follow his com- 
panion aboard of my runabout. 

The pair showed an intimate knowledge of the working of an 
automobile, and started away almost immediately. In a few seconds 
more they had vanished around a bend. 

' ' Now what can I do to thwart their escape with the payroll 
money and my runabout," I said to myself. " There is only the one 
road for them to take as far as High town, and the fuel I left will last 
no further. They must make a stop there. All depends upon 
whether I can reach there before they can procure a fresh supply of 
gasoline. ' ' 

But I well knew that I could not do this on foot, and no horse or 
other means of quick transport was available this side of the spot that 
I had succeeded in making their temporary destination. Then an 
idea flashed through my mind, and I leaped toward the two shattered 
bicycles of the highwaymen. I first scanned them rather despairingly, 
and then set to work with a cautious whoop of joy. The destruction 
was not quite so bad as the rock-smasher had imagined. Of course 
neither of the wheels was capable of being ridden the way he had left 
it, but then I had the more or less unshattered parts of the two to 
select from. I found a wrench in one of the tool bags, and a screw 
driver in the other. The way that nuts, bolts, handlebars, and other 
parts flew around in the next five minutes, was a caution to all repair 
shops. A wheel from one, a sprocket from the other, and back to the 
first for a saddle, and so it went. I don't mind saying that in a per- 
fectly sane mood I would never have dared to ride the hastily thrown 
together and ricketty combination which I was now effecting. But I 
must have been temporarily insane; wild with excitement and the de- 
sire to forestall the villain's clever game. At length the wheel was 
complete, so far as I could see, and throwing myself upon it, I ped- 
aled recklessly after the captors of my automobile. 

I will not attempt to describe that ride in detail. In fact, I can 
scarcely recall its incidents. A confused memory of vigorous pedal- 
ing, an unsteady seat on the ill -adjusted saddle, a hard matter of 
steering with wheels far out of true, and an ominous creaking and 
groaning from the scantily spoked rims. But above all was the pedal- 



DICK TURPINS AWHEEL 



157 



ing, the driving that wretched machine up and down grade, regard- 
less of safety or anything else. Then there was the delicious moment, 
when I first sighted the fleeing riders in my automobile. We were 
nearing Hightown then, and they knew better than to fire their re- 
volvers. They evidently trusted to outspeed me, and all other pur- 




" Arrest those men," I cried. See page 158 



suit. They little suspected that I had tampered with their fuel sup- 
ply, and that their course was nearly run. But they realized it all oi 
a sudden, when just in front of the Post Office, with its crowd of open- 
mouthed loafers standing round. The automobile gave a few gasps 



158 



DICK TURPINS AWHEEL 



and slackened speed, until it stopped. I was upon them before they 
could move from their seat. 

"Arrest those men," I cried to the crowd, who knew me well, 
just as the bicycle upon which I was riding sank to the ground in fly- 
ing fragments. 

"Gentlemen," I remarked to the scowling pair, as the sturdy 
farmers flocked about, "it's my turn now." 

And so it was. 



The Waywardness of One Machine 

BY W. E. Sv 

I'M not much of a believer in luck or fate, but my experience with 
one of my carriages came near making a convert of me. I had 

decided on the machine I wanted, and went to the factory to see 
it and try it. 

Arriving in the town of W on a Wednesday morning, I made 

my way to the factory and found the machine ready for trial. Having 
been disappointed once I intended to give this vehicle a good trial, and 
so informed the manager, who was glad to have me do as I pleased with 
it. So they fixed up the machine, and I started in to test it. 

The pavements of W are none too good. I found cobbles, 

poor Belgian block, dirt, and all having a liberal supply of gutters and 
manholes, none of which were conducive to easy riding, or good for 
weak springs. For three days I drove that machine around the town 
and out on the country roads in no careful manner. It's a w r onder I 
wasn't arrested for fast driving, for the way I ran over those streets, 
striking manholes, car tracks, etc. , was almost enough to rouse a country 
policeman to anger, but I was unmolested. 

Everything went splendidly. I never saw a machine run nicer, or 
more steadfastly in its absolute refusal to break or give out at a single 
point. I was delighted, so was the manager, especially when on Sat- 
urday mornining I handed him my check and became the proud pos- 
sessor of a machine that had defied my efforts to smash it. Now I 
should try to prevent a break as carefully as I had been eager to make 
one before. 

Well, I started for Boston on Saturday morning, accompanied by 
the aforementioned manager, on a hot August day. We had possibly 
gone a mile from the factory when my steam dropped and I discovered 
my fire was out. It was the first time it had shown a desire to quit 
business, except when deprived of its supply of oil. Fortunately, we 
were near a store with a telephone, so the foreman was sent tor and he 
came flying after us on his wheel, he looked the burner over, couldn't 
see anything wrong, lit it without difficulty, and steam came up prompt- 
ly. I wanted him to stay with us a while and watch it. but they were 
busy in the shop, and, as everything appeared to be going right, he 
left us to our cruel fate and returned to the factory. 



i6o THE WAYWARDNESS OF THE MACHINE 

We had gone possibly two miles further when, without apparent 
cause or warning, the burner again went out of commission. No tele- 
phone near us now. Thermometer ninety-eight in the shade, no telling 
how much in the sun, and no shade near. We finally scared up a boy 
with a bicycle whom we chartered to go to the factory after John 
and then followed a sizzling hot hour when an umbrella, a fan and a 
glass of lemonade would have seemed as a gift from heaven. John 
had trouble starting the fire this time, but finally got it going, and then 
took his place beside me, as I insisted he should accompany me to 
Boston. The manager used the wheel to the nearest station, and went 
in by train. 

The burner gave no more trouble, but before we had gone five 
miles we discovered a trail of water behind us, which, though it laid 
the dust, lessened the capacity of our tank, and made frequent stops 
for water necessary. The tank had sprung a leak near the top and 
demanded attention. 

We reached Boston, however, after numerous delays for water, 
only to be informed that the tank couldn't be soldered before morning. 

Eight o'clock saw us all gathered at the storage house, and from 
that time until one we worked on that tank, getting everything in 
shape, and starting for Providence after a not very elaborate dinner. 

Well, to make a long story short, we got there after several de- 
lays, due to the tank leaking. It is only fair to say that the engine 
always worked perfectly. The burner was a constant source of trouble, 
as well as the water tank. My chief mistake, however, was in having 
rigid wooden wheel construction and solid rubber tires. 

But it will always remain a mystery to me why I could not break 
the carriage while it was near the sheltering wings of the factory, and 
a greater mystery why I could do nothing else but break it when I had 
it away from the factory. 



A letter received from Prof. Geo. S. Atwood, of Berlin, Germany, 
mentions that it is wondered at by many that more American firms are 
not represented at the Permanent Automobile Exhibition, now open in 
his city. This exposition is constantly open, and no admission fee is 
charged. A number of sales have resulted from visits paid to this 
exhibition. 



Of Passing Interest. 



{Readers will confer a favor upon the editors of this magazine 
by sending in any interesting item of news suitable for this depart- 
ment. ) 

While a representative of this paper was discussing - with a well 
known automobilist of this city, a few days ago, as to the French 
and American makers of racing automobiles, our chauffeur referred 
to the French as having more correct ideas regarding the construc- 
tion of fast automobiles than our own builders. It is a fact, that 
almost all racing vehicles built on the other side possess a decided ad- 
vantage, in that they are made with a sloping dashboard, instead of 
one of vertical shape. A vertical front offers the largest resistance to 
the atmosphere. In the case of a sloping front the pressure acts 
along the line followed by the car, while, owing to the direction of 
slope, the tendency is to press the car heavily downward. 



The Automobile Club of San Francisco has completed arrange- 
ments for leasing the building at present occupied by the Mercantile 
Library. It is intended that the ground floor will be used for the ac- 
commodation of vehicles of members. 



While there may be some misgivings as to the men who will 
handle the motor vehicle delivery wagons, there is another feature 
which will largely counteract it. This is the presence of the "auto- 
mobile machinist" in every stable, whose duty it will be to see that 
everything is right, and to make such repairs as are necessary. The 
drivers will also report on any defects, and be taught, as far as pos- 
sible, to remedy any defects which come to light on the road. 



There are but few persons who, when they first undertake to oper- 
ate an automobile, are not liable to become confused when meeting 
passing teams. Some operators have suggested, that if drivers of 
teams would pay more attention to their horses when passing horseless 
vehicles, and less to the automobile, there would be fewer runaways 
and resultant accidents. 

This sounds all right, but perhaps it is a rule which works both 

r6i 



162 OF PASSING INTEREST 

ways, and the first experiences of many drivers of automobiles would 
lead to the opinion that they too would do well to attend more closely 
to their machines and less to passing teams. 

Another thing which is very funny, but nevertheless true, is that 
when the beginner makes up his mind as to how to steer clear of cer- 
tain passing teams, he is more than likely to make straight for that 
team. It was the same when the wheel was first tackled by the aver- 
age rider. This is a strange thing, but it is certainly true. Keep 
yourself under control is the safest way of keeping your machine under 
control. Accidents do happen, but in many instances they arise, not 
so much from the derangement of the mechanism as from the operator 
allowing his mind to become deranged. 



A friend went on a run recently and forgot his funnel for filling his 
gasoline tank. Finding a quart bottle with a small neck he promptly 
scored it around near the base with a file, struck it a sharp blow on a 
stone, and had a good funnel in short order. It's best not to forget 
appliances likely to be needed, but an ingenious person usually finds a 
way out of minor difficulties. 



William Esty, of Laconia, N. H. , is making a new wheel which 
has a number of new features, which has all the load-sustaining quali- 
ties of the wood wheel, while the wire spokes with which it is fitted 
and which are tangent to the hub, give it all the tension-resisting quali- 
ties of the wire suspension wheel. In this wheel wooden spokes are 
used. 



The Automobile Club of France has decided to hold an Inter- 
national Exposition of automobiles from the 21st of January until Feb- 
ruary 10, 1 90 1. 



The new automobile omnibus service between the National Palace 
and the Statue of Carlo, in the City of Mexico, was subjected to a severe 
test on the 2d and 3d of December last, which was very satisfactory. 



One of the early novelties of the twentieth century will be the 
1 ' Automobile School for Women " to be opened in Chicago in a few 
weeks. It is intended for the instruction of women in the management 
of their horseless carriages. 



Notes from Abroad 

There were no less than seven Locomobiles entered and run in 
the recent anniversary run of the Automobile Club of . Great Britain to 
Southsea. This speaks well for American enterprise. 



The Italian Touring Club proposes to have a tour in 1901, when 
the automobile clubs of Venice, Bologna, Padua, Florence and Feirara 
will probably be represented. It will occupy about two weeks, and 
will be through Milan, Novara, Turin, Pisa and Leghorn. 

The tour will end at Milan, where an exhibition will be held. For- 
eigners are welcome to have a part in this tour and it is hoped Ameri- 
cans will try and so arrange matters as to be able to be present. The 
plan now is to hold this tour some time between April 21 and May 
May 22 or 23, a time when the presence of American visitors to Europe 
is quite pronounced. 



The Automobile Club of France is constantly growing in member- 
ship. The total now reaches the large number of 2,389. 



A recent trip over the Alps undertaken by Lieutenant Engler, of 
Frankfort-on-Main, is illustrative of the ability of the motor carriage 
to stand up to heavy service. He, accompanied by his wife, started 
from Stuttgart through Ulm, Frankfort, Walchensea, whence the ve- 
hicle crossed the Karwendel mountain, which reaches a height of 
33,000 feet, and proceeded to Innisbruck in Tyrol. From there they 
went over the Brenner Pass to Venice in Italy. The journey was 1,200 
miles long. An average speed of thirteen miles an hour was main- 
tained. The Tonal Pass is very steep, but the vehicle surmounted all 
difficulties very satisfactorily. 



The Association Philotechnique, of Paris, has established a Pro- 
fessorship of Automobilism. 

163 



Casting by The Tropenas Process 

THERE are, doubtless, many of our readers to whom a few facts 
concerning what is known as the Tropenas Process of making 
small castings will be very acceptable. This process consists 
in the use of special converters in which pig-iron and selected scraps, 
previously melted in a cupola, are subjected to an air blast of 3 to 4 
pounds pressure per square inch, directed horizontally across the top 
of the molten bath. This action generates intense heat by the com- 
bustion of the metalloids in the pig-iron, and, after a period varying 
from 16 to 20 minutes, depending on the quality of the charge used, 
there remains in the converter a bath of nearly pure iron. Addition 
is made of ferro manganese or ferro silicon, or both, to bring up the 
silicon, manganese and carbon contents to the specified proportions, 
when the metal is drawn off into a ladle and poured. The process is 
very simple, and the product very regular. 

The peculiar advantage of this process lies in the fact that the re- 
sultant metal is much better, and, consequently, more fluid than that 
produced by any other method, and it is this fact which makes it valu- 
able in the manufacture of small and intricate castings, as it can be 
poured over the lip of the ladle in as small a stream as desired, and 
will run through thin sections, producing solid castings free from pin- 
holes and cracks. 

Any grade of metal is readily produced by varying additions, and 
is consequently valuable, not only in the production of low carbon 
steel of the maximum permeability, so much desired in electrical cast- 
ings, but also in the production of special grades of hard steel for 
mining machinery parts, and other purposes. 

In March, 1900, the Sargent Co., of Chicago, commenced, after 
a careful study of steel making, the making of small castings by this 
process. This plant has proved to be entirely successful, and produces 
from 20 to 30 tons of castings per day. These castings are sound and 
solid, and have specially smooth surfaces. All classes of general ma- 
chinery, railroad, mining and electrical castings are turned out by the 
company. 

Miscellaneous castings, unless otherwise specified, are made of 
mild steel, and have a trusted strength of from 65,000 to 75,000 
pounds, with an elongation of from 20 to 30 per cent. 

Castings, as made by this process, are true to pattern, and can be 
furnished in much less time and at low cost. Small castings, used in 
in automobile construction where lightness and strength are desired, 
can be made by this process equal in all respects to forgings. 

164 



A Combination Wrench 

NO automobile is complete unless it carries a full complement of 
tools, and no set of tools seems to be complete unless it in- 
cludes the familiar adjustable wrench. Of course, if one so 
chooses, he can carry a number of wrenches of different sizes, but after 
all it is really wonderful in how many ways the adjustable wrench helps 
one out. 

These tools are made in a large variety of styles, each claiming 




A hand)' wrench. 

some merit, and doubtless they possess it, but for an all round, handy, 
neat and serviceable wrench, attention is called to the one shown in 
the accompanying illustration. It is rigidly made from the best ma- 
terial, and the workmanship is of the very finest. It will be seen that 
in addition to being used as a wrench it can also take the place of a 
spanner. Its range of action, both as wrench and spanner is quite 
large, and altogether the tool is admirably fitted to the wants of auto- 
mobilists generally. It is made by Frederick Schrader, Bridgeport, 
Conn. 



Pettingill & Co., the well-known advertising agents, of Boston 
and New York, have just issued a neatly gotten-up book, entitled 
" The Science of Advertising." The book is written in a highly in- 
teresting manner and contains a number ot very pithy suggestions, aud 
we advise those interested in the subject to obtain a copy. It contains 
14 pages and is bound in cloth. 

[6=5 



Carriage of Explosives on Ferryboats 

THE question of allowing automobiles to make use of the ferry- 
boats is one which has been referred to quite often of late. 
Now that the Automobile Club of America has taken definite 
steps to have a change made in a statute which is both absurd and un- 
reasonable, it is fitting that a few facts concerning what has been done 
by the club should be disclosed. 

The committee which laid the matter before the Treasury Depart- 
ment was composed of George F. Chamberlin and Richard L. Sweezy. 

After these gentlemen had presented their argument in favor of a 
revision of the statute they were answered by a reaffirmation of the 
ruling previously rendered, namely, the prohibition of gasoline, naph- 
tha and other explosives being carried on ferryboats. As a result of 
this interview the club committee was advised to appeal to the courts. 

It is true that in some instances careless operators will lose their 
heads, and as a result may cause serious injury, yet we think that in 
most cases the owners of automobiles are level headed men and women 
and would be likely to take all necessary precautions to avert any 
accident. 

We hear much about the accidents which happen in connection 
with automobiles, but as a matter of fact, when sifted down, we think 
it will be found that the number of accidents are relatively small when 
compared with those caused by other modes of conveyance. When- 
ever an automobile breaks down or meets with any mishap whatever, 
people point the finger of derision and look upon the ' ' new-fangled 
notion" as a dangerous toy. This is natural, and every new thing, 
especially when it is so applicable to every-day uses as is the automo- 
bile, is apt to be hurt by unwise dabbling on the part of some. 

To operate an automobile successfully requires a good deal of 
common sense, notwithstanding the statement made by some makers 
that their vehicles can be run by a child. 

Of course it is to be supposed that there will be some who will 
needlessly expose their explosive liquid, used either as fuel or as mo- 
tive power. Yet it does not seem just proper that all should suffer on 
this account. There is to-day a great quantity of such explosives car- 
ried on our ferryboats, and this wholesale discrimination against auto- 
mobilists does not appear to be fair at all. 

It is to be hoped that all the clubs, as well as the Automobile Club 
of America, will take this matter up and fight it to a finish. 

j 66 



The Dream of the Scorcher 

• ' Bring forth the car ! ' ' The car was brought, 

In truth it was a noble steed- 
A racer of the get-there breed ; 

It looked as though the speed of thought 
Were in his wheels — gee, what a game ! 

I ne' er before had seen the same. 
Up in the seat swift I jumped, 

And with willing hands the levers pumped. 
You should have seen the way I humped 

My back and leaned hard against the steering bars, 
Without one thought of cable cars ! 

Away ! away ! My breath was gone — 
I saw not where I hurried on ; 

'Twas scarcely yet the close of day 
As I flew on — away ! away ! 

My speed was like a mountain blast — 
Great guns ! but I was traveling fast ! 

Full soon a warning shout arose. 
A lady dressed in Sunday clothes 

Straight in my pathway gently stepped— 
Her relatives, I'm sure have wept 

And mourned her sudden, sad demise — 
A demon's joy shone from my eyes ; 

Away ! away ! my car and I, 
Upon the pinions of the wind, 

All human folk we left behind. 
We sped like meteors thro' the sky — 

A fat policeman barred my way ; 
His funeral was, I heard, next day. 

On ! on ! at lightning speed I sped, 
And stopped not once to count my dead. 

A trolley car my pathway blocked ; 
The motorman was sadly shocked 

When I rode up the fender to 
The roof, then down again flew 

Upon my mild, untrammelled way. 
The sky grew dim and dull and gray. 

My victims had no chance to pray. 
I mowed them down to right and left, 

Nor cared how many I bereft 
Of husband, father, brother, wife — 

Ah, me the carnage and the strife 
167 



i6S THE DREAM OF THE SCORCHER 

Of wicked wars could not compare 

With my wild ride, for everywhere 
Rose dying cries and wailing moans, 

And piteous pleadings mixed with groans 
That would have made my blood run cold 

Had I but stopped ; but not for gold 
Or precious stones would I have paused 

To note the ravages I caused. 
On ! on ! into the jaws of night 

I rushed and shrieked with wild delight 
To see men start in wild afright 

As down upon them swift I bore 
And left them, weltering in their gore ! 

Away ! away ! with fiendish squeal 
I crushed the weak 'neath rubbered wheel, 

I sneered and laughed at maimed men, 
I drained with glee my awful cup, 

I laughed a chortling laugh — and then 
The pipe went out and I woke up. 



The automobilists of Baltimore are having troubles of their own, 
so far as can be seen. Not long ago a number of automobile owners 
in that city wished to test the park rule, which prohibits horseless vehi- 
cles in the parks. They ran their machines into the park, and were 
promptly arrested. The rule states that no vehicle driven by steam or 
any other system of propulsion with the exception of electricity shall 
be admitted within the park property. The sole object of the gentle- 
men who took part in this little act was to test the rule. It is the 
same old story told over, and it is only by fighting such unreasonable 
laws that automobilists everywhere will gain those privileges which they 
are certainlv entitled to. 




Woods' Electric Runabout 

IN our January issue we published an article regarding the new line 
of electric automobiles turned out by Clinton E. Woods, and this 
month we are able to present a half-tone showing one of these 
vehicles. This is an end view of the runabout buggy. 

As will be seen by illustration, this carriage is characterized by the 



^-"" 




Woods' Runabout Buggy 



graceful lines peculiar to the Woods vehicles. It is an exceedingl) 
comfortable carriage, and ample room for two persons is provided 1\\ 
the 37-inch seat. The total weight is but 1,100 pounds, and, it i^ 
claimed, it will run forty miles on any hard, level road, and is capable oi 
climbing anything up to a twenty per cent, grade, which is ample fol 
ordinary conditions. 

169 



Ideas of Inventors 

(Copies of patents mentioned herein can be obtained from the 
Patent Office, Washington, D. C, for 5 cents each.) 

Mr. Richard C. Mudge, of New York, has patented a new 
form of flue construction for use on steam carriages, whereby 
the products of combustion are disposed of in a much more satis- 
factory manner. (Patent No. 6581 14, September 18, 1900.) 

Alfred Boulier and Eugene Boulier, of Neuilly, France, have 
recently taken out patents for an explosion engine in which two 
pistons work simultaneously in opposite directions in a single 
cylinder, A chamber separated from the cylinder contains the 
mechanism for the admission and escape of gases. (Patent No. 
661409, November 6, 1900.) 

A patent was recently issued on a sled in which it would seem 
as though it was questionable whether the device, as shown by 
patent, would prove practicable. It consists of a regular carriage 
body containing motor with runners placed in front where front 
wheels are usually found. In the rear a drum provided with 
spiral flanges runs in journals, the drums being operated by con- 
nections made with motor carried in rear of sled. (Patent No. 
661427, November 6, 1900.) 

A running gear for motor vehicles has just been patented by 
John W. Eisenhuth, of New York. It consists of a frame join- 
ing front and rear wheels with guiding wheels pivotally mounted 
upon it, together with a power shaft running longitudinally. 
Pinions are used for driving the rear wheels of vehicle. ( Patent 
No. 6612 10, November 6, 1900.) 

Frank Lamkin, of Norwalk, O., has recently taken out patents 
for a gear case for motor wheels. This comprises a casing for exposed 
parts of the driving mechanism. It is made fast to the body of car- 
riage at one end and at the other to the rear axle. Patent No. 
661,583. Filed Sept. 17, 1900. 



John I. Thornycroft, of London, England, well known as the de- 
signer of water heater boilers, has just taken out patents for a motor 
vehicle for heavy loads in which all the working parts are placed below 
the platform. Double reduction spur gearing is used to transmit 
power from engine to driving axle. Patent No. 662,206. 



IDEAS OF INVENTORS 171 

John G. McPherson, of Philadelphia, has just taken out a patent 
on a controlling mechanism for automobiles, in which is a central shaft 
which carries a clutch which in turn is operated by a lever, enabling 
the reverse to be made without affecting the engine. Patent No. 
661,543. Filed June 25, 1900. 



John B. Walker, of Irvington, N. Y., recently took out a patent 
for a vaporizer for automobile boilers for supplying liquid fuel to steam 
boilers. Patent No. 661,651. Filed March 3, 1900. 



Patent for a carbureter has just been issued to Thomas B. Jeffery, 
Chicago, which has two chambers, one for carbureting liquid having 
an air inlet, the other chamber having an exhaust connection. A par- 
tition separates these chambers, which is apertured to afford communi- 
cation above the liquid level of the first chamber. Patent No. 661,697. 
Filed Aug. 11, 1899. 



A Winter Problem 

ONE of the difficulties of automobiling in cold weather is the pos- 
sible freezing of the water in the tanks or pipes. In the steam 
machine the only way to avoid this would seem to be a thor- 
ough lagging of all the parts and of turning steam into the tanks when 
standing. Long stops, however, almost necessitate a shelter from the 
cold. 

Gasoline machines are, of course, subject to the same disease, but 
some of the experienced drivers avoid this by using a twenty per cent, 
solution of glycerine in the tanks instead of clear water. This allows 
the tanks to be left full and avoids the annoyance of drawing the tank 
after each run or during a long wait. 



The Long Island Automobile Club will hold a 100-mile trial run 
about the middle of March. The course will be somewhere on Long 
Island, probably from Jamaica to Patchogue. The trial will be open 
to all American-built vehicles, those not especially constructed for 
racing purposes. A cup will be awarded to the winner, and it is prob- 
able that the event will become a regular annual or semi-annual event. 



Alderman McEneaney's Resolution 

j 

IT is very doubtful if many of our readers looked with any serious- 
ness upon the resolution which Alderman McEneaney introduced 

before the Board of Aldermen of New York City recently. He 
probably never stopped to consider when he brought his resolution be- 
fore the board referred to, how much the passage of such a resolution 
would interfere with the operations of numerous businesses. 

He proposed an ordinance prohibiting the use of gasoline for any 
purposes under a penalty of $25 for each offence. We note that when 
Mr. McEneaney's plan of action was brought to the attention of those 
interested it was treated somewhat as a joke, and rightly so. As has 
been said before in these columns, gasoline is not any more dangerous 
than kerosene, if properly handled. It is more particularly with the 
connection this resolution has with automobilists that we have to do. 
Gasoline machines are plentiful, and most steam vehicles use gasoline 
as fuel, so it may be safe to assume that such a resolution would touch 
both steam and gasoline vehicles. 

It is, however, not at all probable that such a resolution will ever 
materialize, and it seems unnecessary for our friends to lay awake at 
night thinking of the matter. 

While it is true that Alderman McEneaney's resolution will prob- 
ably never become a law, yet it is equally true that, to allay the appre- 
hension of the public as to this dangerous liquid, it might be well if 
owners of gasoline automobiles would seek to come to some agreement 
with the law makers. 

No law, of course, can be made to reach those whose indifference 
to the rules of caution leads to disaster. Yet the laws should be rein- 
forced by regulations looking to the sale, and particularly the storing 
of the fluid. There seems to be no particular obstacle to prevent the 
carrying out of an adequate law as to storage, which will at the same 
time permit the easy refilling of the tanks carried on automobiles. 



The recent 1 1 End of the Century ' ' race organized by one of our 
enterprising daily papers, proved quite disastrous to some of the auto- 
mobiles which entered. Some of the participants had anything but 
a pleasant time, and certainly did not begin the " New Century " in a 
satisfactory manner. The whole proceeding smacked of modern jour- 
nalism, and it was pleasing to note that many of the more representa- 
tive automobilists of the city were conspicuous by their absence. 

172 



National Association of Automobile Manu- 
facturers 

THE Executive Committee of the National Association of Auto- 
mobile Manufacturers met on January 3, when the following 
resolutions were adopted: 

Resolved, That it is the sentiment of this Executive Committee 
that no exhibits be made in Chicago by manufacturers, except under 
the auspices of the Chicago Automobile Club; that the time is too 
short for said club to properly prepare and give a suitable exhibition 
this year, at a date early enough not to conflict with the Pan-American 
Exposition at Buffalo, in May; therefore this committee suggests that 
they would favorably consider a show to be given under the auspices 
of the Chicago Automobile Club, some time between January 1 and 
March 1, 1902; and further 

Resolved, That it is also the sentiment of the members present at 
this meeting, that every effort should be made by the manufacturers to 
make as strong a showing as possible at the Pan American Exposition, 
devoting all their energies to that exhibition rather than to any other 
show this year, up to the date of the annual show in New York, under 
the auspices of the Automobile Club of America. 

The work the association has set out to perform ought to receive 
the support of manufacturers everywhere. The show business is being- 
worked to death, there can be no doubt, and it is only by the unifying 
of action that the tide can be stemmed. 



New Headquarters of the Automobile Club 

of America 

THE Automobile Club of America is certainly to be congratulated 
upon its new headquarters, which are in the Plaza Hank 
building, corner 58th Street and Fifth Avenue. 
The whole of the second floor in the building named has been 
taken. The rooms are beautifully adapted to club purposes, and their 
open character makes it exceedingly light in day time. The windows 
are large and on three sides of the building. Access to the rooms can 
be made either by elevator or stairway. 

What impresses one more than anything else is the superb loca- 
tion, giving as it does a fine outlook upon the Park Pla/a. It is 

173 



i 7 4 HEADQUARTERS OF AUTOMOBILE CLUB OF AMERICA 

doubtful if another place in the city offers such advantages as the one 
selected. As a prominent member of the club remarked: "There is 
enough to keep you interested the whole day long watching the pass- 
ing throng. ' ' 

Then again, being so near the Plaza, it affords an exceptionally fine 
place for the assembling of machines previous to a run. Altogether, 
the rooms and their arrangement, facilities, and situation are ideal, and 
we have no doubt all members of the club will enjoy to the full these 
improved advantages. Credit is due to the members of the House 
Committee, who have engineered the work of arranging for the club's 
' ' New Home. ' ' 



The Automobile Club of Great Britain and 
Indiscreet Automobile Drivers 

W'E have referred several times in these columns to the harm 
sometimes done by automobilists failing to recognize the feel- 
ings of drivers of restive horses, and to stop when requested 
to do so by the police. This indifference has been made so annoying 
to the English authorities as to lead to a consideration on their part as 
to whether it would not be wise to compel all motor vehicles to carry a 
number, whether engaged in public or private service. This is the old 
story; the great bulk of automobile owners being called upon to suffer 
because of the indiscretion of a few. 

The numbering of private motor carriages would prove almost 
ruinous to that branch of the motor vehicle industry, as there would be 
healthy and vigorous protest against the labeling of these carriages. 

The Automobile Club of Great Britain has taken this matter up, as 
one of the leading functions of automobile clubs is to foster the auto- 
mobile industry in all its phases. In order to bring lo time offenders 
in this direction the club referred to has asked the police to give it 
the names of guilty ones, and if it happens to be a member, that one 
is liable to be expelled from the club. 

This seems to be a very wise stand to take. Automobile drivers 
would do well to recognize, more than some apparently do, that driv- 
ers of horses have rights as well as they. Should automobilists fail to 
recognize this fact, it cannot but be hurtful to the industry, and that, it 
seems to us, is not at all desirable for many reasons. 



The New Winton 

IT gives us much pleasure to present our readers with an illustration 
and description of the new product of the Winton factory at 
Cleveland, Ohio. The name of Winton is so closely connected 
with automobile development in this country as to be somewhat of a 
household word, and this latest model is fully able to maintain the 
reputation this company has meritoriously earned in the automobile 
world. 

The new vehicle is a decided improvement on all previous types. 
The motive power is considerably increased, and is sufficient to warrant 




The New Winton 



gearing up to much higher speed than was before possible. Instead 
of using the lever for steering, a wheel is used. This gives a steadi- 
ness, a certainty and ease of control, which are very patent to thost 
who operate machines at anything like high speed. 

Another new feature is the improved form of muffler used. In- 
stead of being large in diameter and running crosswise, this is made 
of less diameter and runs lengthwise with the motor, and in such po- 
sition as not to attract notice. The gearing in the new model has also 
been incased in such a way as to give absolute protection from dust. 

Uniformity in diameter of wheels is another improvement. This 

i75 



176 THE NEW WINTON 

means that it will not be necessary to carry two different sizes of spare 
tires in case anything should happen which would render any of the 
tires of no further use. 

Direct gearing has been introduced, thus doing away with the 
countershaft. This lessens the noise, and, altogether, the operation is 
much more silent than anything yet obtained in a gasoline motor. 

Particular attention has been paid to the obtaining of security. 
Special pains have been taken to insure the securing of parts. Cotter 
pins have been used freely. The workmanship and quality of material 
are of the best, and the result of this company's long and varied ex- 
perience has resulted in placing upon the market a reliable, satisfactory, 
all-around serviceable motor vehicle, and about which we will probably 
hear most favorably during the coming season. 



Doings of the Automobile Club of America 

A MEETING of the Technical and Contest Committee of the 
Automobile Club of America was held January 7, in the office 
of the President, A. R. Shattuck. Other members present 
besides the President were: Cornelius J. Field, Dr. S. S. Wheeler, 
Prof. R. H. Thurston, Malcolm W. Ford and A. L. Riker. 

The Chairman, Mr. Cornelius J. Field, pointed out particularly 
that the proposed endurance test, to talk about which the meeting had 
been convened, must be purely an endurance and not a speed test. In 
referring to this, he said: " We must prove to the public that an auto- 
mobile can go a given distance and get there without breaking down, 
and let the matter of speed take a secondary place. ' ' 

As a result of the committee's deliberation it was decided to make 
awards on the following basis: 

1. Vehicles making fewest stops en route. 2. Vehicles carrying 
greatest weight in passengers in proportion to their own weight. 
3. Vehicles requiring least repairs (if any) and maintaining an average 
speed of from twelve to fifteen miles an hour. 

Stops will be made en route for meals and to sleep. It is expected 
that the average daily travel will be about 100 miles. There will be 
no special charging stations or depots for fuel along the course, com- 
petitors relying entirely for supplies upon the cities and towns through 
which they pass. 

The route will be through Tarry town, Peekskill, Poughkeepsie, 



DOINGS OF THE AUTOMOBILE CLUB OF AMERICA 177 

Albany, Utica, Syracuse and Rochester. Checkers will be stationed 
at villages en route at an average distance of about twenty-five miles 
apart. The competition will be open to all motor vehicles carrying 
two persons side by side on one seat. 

There will be two classes, one for manufacturers and the other for 
individual owners. The entry fee to the former will probably be $100. 
A prize fund of $2,500 has been established, and awards may be made 
both in specie and plate, though this has not been definitely decided 
upon. The date, also, is yet open, though it is thought conditions will 
be more favorable in the early autumn than at any other time. 

In addition to being an endurance test the run is expected to be 
viewed as a traveling exhibition. Efforts will be made to secure a 
very large entry list, so that the showing may be made as impressive 
as possible. 

The meeting of representatives of various automobile clubs also 
held at Mr. Shattuck's office on the 10th of January for the purpose of 
discussing the matter of signposts on our country roads was product- 
ive of much good, and will result in a very vigorous campaign along 
the lines suggested. It was attended by delegates from the following 
automobile clubs : North Jersey, Baltimore, Philadelphia, Westchester, 
Long Island, Rhode Island, Bridgeport, Massachusetts, Brooklyn. 
Pennsylvania and New Jersey. 

It was decided to begin the crusade by paying attention to the 
roads between New York and Boston. The signposts to be used are 
to be made of iron, and will be practically indestructible, similar to 
those used in France. 



Mr. J. Ransome Bridge, of Boston, President of the Massachu- 
setts Automobile Club, sailed for Europe on the 3d of January. He 
intends to spend some time over in France, touring in a motor vehicle. 
Mr. Bridge has already done considerable touring in this country. 



We regret to have to report the death of Mr. J. E. Farwell, oi 
Worcester, Mass. The deceased was an enthusiastic automobilist, and 

was President of the local club. 



Automobile Club Directory 

Under this headi7ig we shall keep a record of the motor vehicle 
clubs both of this and other countries, and we hope to have the 
co-operation of club officers in making it accurate and complete. 

Corresponding clubs of the Automobile Club of America are 
designated thus * 



Automobile Club of America, Mal- 
colm W. Ford, Secretary, 203 Broad- 
way, New York ; representative on In- 
ternational Racing Board, Clarence 
Grey Dinsmore ; Substitute, John H. 
Flagler. 

Automobile Club of New Jersey, 
Secretary, Dr. H. Power. 

Automobile Club of Baltimore, W. 
W. Donaldson, Secretary, 872 Park 
Avenue, Baltimore. 

Automobile Club of Brooklyn, Sec- 
retary, C. Benton Dix, Hotel Claren- 
don, Brooklyn. 

* Automobile Club of Columbus, O., 
C. M. Chittenden, Secretary, Broad 
Street. 

Chicago Automobile Club, Secre- 
tary, H. M. BrinkerhorT, Monadnock 
Block, Chicago. 

Indiana Automobile Club, Indianap- 
olis, Ind. Secretary, August Kabich. 
Long Island Automobile Club, 
Secretary, Charles W. Spurr, Jr., 552 
State Street, Brooklyn. 

Automobile Club of New England, 
Secretary, Geo. E. McOuesten, Brook- 
line, Mass. 

^Cleveland Automobile Club, L. H. 
Rogers, 357 Amesbury Avenue, Sec- 
retary, Cleveland, O. 

*North Jersey Automobile Club, E. 
T. Bell. Jr., Secretary, Paterson, N. J. 

"* Automobile Club of Rochester, 
Frederick Sager, Secretary, 66 East 
Avenue, Rochester, N. Y. 

Massachusetts Automobile Club, 
President, J. Ransome Bridge ; Treas- 
urer, Conrad J. Rueter ; Secretary, L. 
E. Knott, 16 Ashburton Place, Bos- 
ton, Mass. 

Pennsylvania Automobile Club, Sec- 
retary, Henry J. Johnson, 138 No. 
Broad Street, Philadelphia. 



"^Philadelphia Automobile Club,, 
Frank C. Lewin, Secretary, 250 No. 
Broad Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Automobile Club of Bridgeport, 
Secretary, Frank W. Bolande. 20& 
Barnum Avenue, Bridgeport, Conn. 

Rhode Island Automobile Club, Sec- 
retary, Frederick C. Fletcher, P. G\ 
Box 1 314, Providence, R. I. 

San Francisco Automobile Club, 
B. L. Ryder, Secretary, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 

Columbia College Automobile Club, 
Lewis Iselin, Secretary, Columbia Col- 
lege, New York, N. Y. 

"^Buffalo Automobile Club, Secretary, 
Ellicott Evans, The Lenox, Buffalo, 
N. Y. 

Worcester Automobile Club, Wor- 
cester, Mass., President, J. E. Far- 
well ; Vice-President, J. W. Bigelow ; 
Marshal, W. J. H. Nourse ; Secretary- 
Treasurer, H. T. McKnight. 

AUSTRIA. 

Budapest — Magyar Automobil Club,. 
31 Musem Korul. 

Innesbruck — Tirol es A u t o m o b i 1 
Club, Rudolph-Strasse 3. 

Prague — Prager Automobil Club. 
BELGIUM. 

Antwerp— Automobile Club Anver- 
soir, 34 r. Longue de l'Hopital ; Presi- 
dent, Baron de Bieberstein. 

^Brussels — Automobile Club de Bel- 
gique, 14 PJ. Royale ; Moto-Club de 
Belgique, 152 Boul. du Nord ; Touring 
Club de Belgique, n r. des Vauniers. 

Charleroi — Automobile Club de 
Charleroi, Hotel de Esperance. 

Ghent — Automobile Ciub de Flan- 
dres. 

Liege — Automobile Club, Liegeois,, 
2 r. Hamal. 



178 



AUTOMOBILE CLUB DIRECTORY 



179 



FRANCE. 

Amiens — Automobile Club de Picar- 
die, 36 r. de La Hotoie. 

Avignon — Automobile Club de 
Avignon. 

Bordeaux — L' Automobile Bordelais. 

Dijon — Automobile Club, Bourguig- 
nors Cafe Americanie. 

Lyon — Bicycle et Automobile Club 
de Lyon ; Motor Club de Lyon, 3 pi. 
de la Bouise. 

Marseilles— Automobile Club de 
Marseilles, 61 r. St. Fereol. 

Nance— Automobile Club, Lorrain, 
Thiers pi. 

Nice — Automobile Velo, Club de 
Nice, 16 r. Chauvain. 

*Paris— Automobile Club of France, 
6 pi. de la Concorde ; Motr-Club de 
France ; Touring Club de France, 5 r. 
Coq- Heron. 

Pau — Automobile Club, Bearnais 
Ave. de la Pau, President, M. W. K. 
Thorn. 

Perigueux — Veloce Club, Perigour- 
din, Hotel de Commerce. 

Toulouse — Automobile Club, Tou- 
lousain Cafe Riche, pi. St. Etienne 
Societe des Chaffeurs du Midi, 25 r. 
Roquelaine. President, M. Gay. 

GERMANY. 

Aachen (Aix la Chapelle) — West- 
deutscher Automobile Club, Hotel 
Grand Monarque. 

Berlin — Mitteleuropaischer Motor 
Wagen Verein, I. Universitatstrasse, 
Herr A. Klose ; Deutscher Automobil 
Club, Liusenstrasse, 43-44. 

*Deutscher Automobil Club, Lius- 
enstrasse, 43-44. President, S. D. 
Herzog, Victor von Ratilin. 

Dresden — Radf ahrer-und A utomobi- 
listen Vereinigung: Dresdener Touren 
Club. 

Eisenach — Mitteldeutscher Automo- 
bil Club ; Motorfahrer Club, Eisenach. 

Frankfort am Main — Frankfurter 
Automobil Club, Restaurant Kaiserhof. 



Munich — Bayer. Automobil Club, 33 
Findling Strasse. 

Stettin — Erster Stettiner Bicycle und 
Automobil Club. 

Strassburg — Strassburger Automo- 
bil Club. 

Stuttgart — Suddeutscher Automobil 
Club ; Wurtembergischer Motor Wag- 
en Verein. 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

Birmingham — Motor and Cycle 
Trades Club, Corporation street. 

Edinburgh — Scottish Automobile 
Club. 

Liverpool — Liverpool Self-propelled 
Traffic Association, Colquitt street. 
Secretary, E. Shrapnell Smith. 

^London — Automobile Club of Great 
Britain and Ireland, 4 Whitehall Court, 
S. W. Hon. Secretary, C. Harrington 
Moore. 

Nottingham Automobile Club, Sec- 
retary, A. R. Atkey, Nottingham, 
England. 

HOLLAND. 

Nimegue — Nederlandsche Automo- 
bile Club. 

ITALY. 

Milan — Club Automobilisti Italiani 
6 via Guilini. 

*Turin — Automobile Club d'ltalie 
Via Vittorio Amedeo II. 26. 

RUSSIA. 

Moscow — Moskauer Automobile 
Club, Petrowka, Hauschnow. 

St. Petersburg — Automobile Club 
de Russe, President, M. Delorme. 

SPAIN. 

Madrid — Automobile Club de Mad- 
rid. 

SWITZERLAND. 

^Geneva — Automobile Club de 
Suisse, 9 boul. de Theatre. 



The Automobile 
magazine 

A Live Journal for all intei'ested in Motor Vehicles 
Vol. Ill No. 2 NEW YORK, FEBRUARY, 1901 Price 25 Cents 

Published Monthly by 

THE AUTOMOBILE PRESS, 

95 Liberty Street, New York. 

Telephone: 984 Cortlandt. Cable Address : " Loceng," N.Y. 

Angus Sinclair, President. Jas. R. Paterson, Secretary. 

Fred H. Colvin, Vice-President and Editor. Jas. J. Salmond, Associate Editor. 



Boston Office, 170 Summer Street. Philadelphia, The Bourse. 

Subscription Price, S3. 00 a year in the United States, Canada and Mexico. Foreign Countries 
in the Postal Union, $4.00 (gold). Advertising Rates on application. 



Copyrighted, 1901. 
Entered at New York Post Office as second-class matter. 



For Sale by Newsdealers everywhere. 



Looking Backward 



NOW that our readers have had a chance to get over the end of 
the century business perhaps it is in order to look back upon 
what has been accomplished during 1900 in the way of auto- 
mobile development. Undoubtedly, during the year just closed there 
has been growth all along the line, and perhaps it is safe to say that 
American manufacturers have had their share of this. 

The exhibitions of 1900 brought to light such varieties of styles as 
to cause genuine surprise on the part of large numbers of our public, 
most of whom thought manufacturers generally were confining them- 
selves to one or two styles only. 

Manufacturers have been compelled to do much original work. 
Much money and time have been put into this pioneer work, and it 
•does seem now as though the theorist was fast giving way to the prac- 
tical man. To be sure the building of automobiles has not arrived 

tSo 



LOOKING BACKWARD i8r 

at anything near what it might be, but, nevertheless, much has been 
accomplished, and there is every reason to look forward to a more 
successful year's work during 1901 than ever before. 

Undoubtedly, the business world is waiting for the commercial 
wagon, and that the manufacturers are fullv aware of this is evidenced 
by the attention they are giving to this branch of the industry. 



Designing of Carriage Bodies 

WHILE, of course, the particular shape given to the body of a 
horseless vehicle may not affect its running qualities, it is at 
the same time desirable that in designing the bodies, some 
effort should be made to have them look in some degree graceful, in- 
stead of, as in some instances, such samples of awkwardness and un- 
symmetry as many are. 

The writer was recently conversing with a gentleman who was 
getting together data to put into a lecture, in which he intended to 
show the development made in automobile construction from early 
times up to the present. He showed a few samples of foreign-built 
machines. What stood out more than anything else was the peculiar 
and striking variety of shapes given to the bodies. Some of them were 
practically absurd, possessing almost no gracefulness of outline what- 
ever. 

The recent show in New York brought together all varieties of 
bodies peculiar to this country, and it must be admitted that the differ- 
erence between them was in some instances very marked. 

The possessor of a pair of carriage horses would justly take pride 
in having a correspondingly graceful and well-proportioned vehicle. 
Builders of automobiles may harp as much as they like about the 
perfect running mechanism, the excellently constructed frame and 
other good qualities of their machines, but a mistake will be made ii 
they fail to give due attention to the designing of their carriage bodies. 
The average purchaser of an automobile likes a neat and graceful- 
looking vehicle, and the body presents exceptional facilities for improv- 
ing the general appearance of any carriage. 

On the whole, it is probably true that American makers have net 
adopted such strange body shapes as have foreign builders*, yet there 
are some vehicles built here which have bodies with most peculiar 
curves. People do care for appearance, even when it comes to ante 
mobiles. 




ot^rVeh'icles 
,M (Business 



W M « 



Operation of Electric Delivery Wagons 

By WILLIAM H. MAXWELL, JR. 



HERE are not many of us who are now willing to venture the 



statement that the automobile delivery wagon is not a com- 
mercial success. We have a most wholesome respect for the 
opinion of those shrewd managers of the great business enterprises 
who have adopted the motor car for their delivery services in almost 
every large city in the country. Personal experience, and acquaintance 
in one way or another with the exact facts, show us that these gentle- 
men are not often misled, nor do they make any investment of an 
amount equal to that necessary for even one motor delivery wagon for 
the mere sake of their physical well-being. 

In this age, when concentration of energy and specialization of 
effort mean everything to the proper conduct of any enterprise, it seems 
that there is a field for a very interesting inquiry as to what methods 
are employed by these men in reducing the operation of their delivery 
services to an exact science. First of all a very slight examination of 
the names of the firms which are using automobiles for the delivery of 
goods shows that only the most progressive men in each line of busi- 
ness have placed their names on the lists of progress in this direction. 

With the gradual introduction of the automobile in the various de- 
livery services in our cities, we come upon the statements of the ex- 
periences of those who have tried the motor vehicle for goods delivery. 
Some are favorable to the automobile; some are not. What do these 
experiences show ? What can they show at the present time ? Too 
careful study cannot be put on the actual results obtained, for probably 
in the next two years we will form our own opinion of the availability 
of the motor vehicle for business purposes. That opinion will be 
moulded by those men who are capable of taking hold of a proposition , 
of getting from it all the good that can possibly be extracted. 

' ' None are so blind as those who will not see. ' ' This is true of 
the majority of our hard-headed, but often extremely obstinate and 
self-opinionated business men. Such men usually make use of every 

182 



OPERATION OF ELECTRIC DELIVERY WAGONS 183 

argument they can to excuse themselves from their duty to themselves, 
and those who are backing them financially, of looking into and ex- 
amining a proposition as reasonable on its face as is the motor vehicle 
in a delivery service. 

The automobile manufacturer can hardly be blamed for putting a 
machine into the hands of every applicant who has the funds to make 
a purchase of a vehicle. He has had a heavy load to carry, and every 
little assistance counts in such a case. However, many of those who 
have purchased and used automobiles as adjuncts to their business, 
because of their unscientific and ill-advised methods, have been, 
and are, the greatest detriments to the commercial automobile. A 
man who often will be just on the point of making a purchase will 

remember that his friend X has been operating a delivery wagon 

for some time past, and he will invariably ask the advice of X as 

to the practicability of the motor vehicle without even considering for 
one instant the ability of X to be a proper judge of anything. 

The practicability of any piece of mechanism depends entirely on 
the care given it. In the case of the electric vehicle, for such is the 
type of motor power to be considered here, the mechanism needs so 
little care that the careless person often neglects to give it the little it 
does require, and then blames the vehicle because satisfaction does not 
result. Every prosperous railroad, business, or anything else for that 
matter, which merits and meets with success, is run on a system which 
more often than not has been reduced to an exact science. Those who 
expect to obtain results from the use of the motor vehicle in a delivery 
service must follow the same course. In a large service this means the 
employment of a competent executive, who is capable of directing the 
movements of those under him, so as to obtain the best results by giv- 
ing the vehicles employed proper care and attention. If the service is 
not large enough to warrant the employment of such a man, the owner 
himself, for his own interest, should become conversant with the most 
approved methods of caring for his equipment. This can be done in 
the case of the electric vehicle, in a comparatively short time. 

First of all, in caring for any electric vehicle, use common sense. 
Don't try to make your apparatus do more than you know it was built 
to do. Give it care regularly, and, if you haven't the time to do it 
yourself, hire someone who has. 

The most vital part of the electric vehicle, and the portion which 
needs the greatest amount of care is, of course, the batteries. 
type of battery will vary with the vehicle used, but the care to he gi\ er 



i84 OPERATION OF ELECTRIC DELIVERY WAGONS 

them is, in most, cases, the same. The cells usually number either 
forty, or forty-four, placed in trays of ten each, or eleven each, as the 
case may be, for ease in handling. In some vehicles, twenty or twenty- 
two cells are placed in a tray. In such a case there are two trays in- 
stead of four. Each battery will have anywhere from 2.1 to 2. 16 volts 
per cell according to the make, and the whole battery, when properly 
connected up, should show a voltage ranging from ninety to ninety- 
four. It is not within the range of possibility for anyone to state at 
present what is the best type or make of battery for use in an electric 
automobile. There are certain fundamental principles in storage bat- 
tery construction which cannot be varied. A light weight battery can 
be made to give a large mileage, but it will have a short life. A heavy 
battery will usually give a short mileage, but have a long life. The 
best batteries at present seem to be those which more nearly approach 
the mean between these two points. 

A number of the better makes of electric vehicles have the termi- 
nals of each tray or crate of batteries brought back to binding posts 
at the rear. The connections should be of such lengths that they can- 
not be incorrectly made. See that the cells have plenty of air while 
charging, for they generate a considerable amount of gas which might 
become troublesome if confined. Do not bring a flame where it can 
explode the gas. The carriage may be run, everything else being in 
order, as soon as the battery is put in place, charged, and firmly secured 
by bolts and retaining clamps. 

When the battery is received, shipped with the liquid in it, un- 
screw the small nobs in the top of each cell, and see that the liquid 
covers the tops of the lead plates. If it does not, it should be filled 
with electrolyte, but not until the battery can be immediately recharged. 
Damage is done to the plate if left in contact with the acid for any 
length of time without being charged. 

To make the electrolyte for use in the battery, add one part of 
chemically pure sulphuric acid to four parts of water. The specific 
gravity of the electrolyte should approximate 1.25. To determine this 
without a specific gravity gage, accurately weigh ten pounds of the 
electrolyte, and exactly the same quantity of water should weigh eight 
pounds. The weights and measurements should be most carefully 
made. For refilling the cells where the liquid has evaporated, use a 
much weaker solution — 10 parts of water to 1 part of sulphuric acid. 

The lead cell connections should be burned together with lead. 
When battery connections are soldered, they corrode easily if 



OPERATION OF ELECTRIC DELIVERY WAGONS 185 

not kept painted. Sometimes when running over very rough roads, 
the connecting lugs may be broken between the cells. If this is the 
case, the voltage, as shown on the meter, will be unsteady while the 
vehicle is running on the high speeds, or the current will not flow at all. 
The vehicle will still operate on the low speeds in most makes of car- 
riages, until such time as the lugs can be burned together, or securely 
clamped temporarily, which last should be done as soon as the break 
is discovered. 

A charging plug is furnished with every properly equipped vehi- 
cle, as is also a volt-ammeter. The positive wire of the plug, usually 
painted red, should be connected to the positive end of the charging 
circuit, and the other wire of the plug to the negative. The receptacle 
for the charging plug and the automatic switch breaker in almost every 
well made type of electric vehicle will be found close together. Usually 
the charging plug is so made that it fits the receptacle in but one way. 
There should be arranged a suitable place for a charging board 
with a rheostat, and double pole knife switch and suitable terminals for 
connecting wire. When the plug is properly connected to the rheostat 
0:1 a switchboard, see that the controller handle is pushed back to rest. 
Remove your locking key. Push the handle of the charging switch 
in the carriage over to the proper position, and insert the charging 
plug. Bring your wall rheostat back to the first contact point, and 
close the knife switch. After these preparations the circuit is com- 
pleted by lifting the iron armature of the automatic switch, and if it is 
held up the circuit is complete, and the battery is receiving a charge. 
By the rheostat on the charging board, the resistance may be turned 
out until the flow of current reaches the required number of amperes, 
registered in the carriage on the ammetei, or better, by one on the 
charging board. 

The battery, no matter of what make, should be charged at as 
slow a rate as possible. The slower, the greater amount of emcieney 
given. A battery should never be rapidly charged or discharged. 

To learn when the battery is fully charged, consult your meter in 
the front of the carriage. Another indication of a full charge is that 
the battery will gas or boil, the sound of which can be plainly heard 
by placing the ear near the cells. 

The automatic circuit breaker now placed in most electric carriages 
is not to break the circuit when the current is too heavy, but is for the 
protection of the battery in case the current in the main line should 
cease or become so low as to allow the batteries to discharge into the 



i86 OPERATION OF ELECTRIC DELIVERY WAGONS 

line. So when the flow of current is low, the circuit is broken, and 
the battery is thereby protected against a short circuit. When the bat- 
tery is charged, the breaker does not open the circuit ; it is not in- 
tended for that purpose. An alarm clock attachment which at the hour 
set will throw the knife switch, and so break the circuit, is the most 
preferable apparatus to use for such a purpose. 

The voltage of a battery remains constant within six or eight volts 
as long as there is any quantity of charge in it, but drops very rapidly 
when the charge is nearly exhausted. A battery should never be dis- 
charged below seventy volts, and should be recharged at once after 
every using. The worst neglect you can give a battery is to leave it 
discharged for any length of time. A little practice in reading the 
volt-ammeter when the vehicle is running will enable you to tell accur- 
ately the amount of charge that remains in your battery. The meter 
will also inform you whether your motor is running properly, and 
whether it is using more power than it should. 

The counter voltage of the battery, when fully charged and with 
one-half the normal current flowing into it, should be about one hun- 
dred and twenty volts. If it does not reach that voltage before the 
liquid begins to boil, there may be some bad cells in the lot. A test 
should be made, and the bad cells should be replaced or repaired. 
Frequently the cells need nothing but cleaning out. 

To clean a cell separate it from the adjoining cells by cutting the 
lugs. Take the plates out and wash them. Remove all the particles 
that may have lodged between the plates. The cells should be then 
filled again with electrolyte, charged, tested, and replaced in the 
battery. 

If not properly set and cared for, the brushes of the motor will 
give a great deal of trouble, and under such conditions are an extremely 
prolific source of annoyance. The brush holder clamps the carbon 
firmly, and makes a solid connection for the passage of the current. 
The set screws should be firmly pressed against the carbon and se- 
curely locked by the lock nuts. Care should be taken that the brass 
of the carbon holder does not touch the commutator. When properly 
set the brushes make perfect contact, and keep the commutator smooth 
and in good condition. Should it become otherwise, for any reason 
whatsoever, it should be attended to immediately. 

i To be continued. ) 



Steam versus Horse Drawn Trucks 

HENRI G. CHATAIN 

IF the steam truck is to become a factor in the transportation of 
general merchandise through our city streets and best suburban 

roads the total cost per ton mile of goods transported must be 
less than the present system of horse transportation, otherwise no 
matter how many sterling qualities and advantages may be advanced 
for their adoption, the intending purchaser will balk if you ask him to 
increase his expense account. I bring up the question of cost per ton 
mile of paying load first, because in an economical and broad sense it 
includes nearly all the features of the steam truck except such points 
as noise, odor, visible exhaust, and products of combustion. If a 
steam truck does the work that it is designed to do, and does it week 
in and week out, and so on throughout its life (which should only be 
limited by fashion) and the cost per ton mile of paying load remain 
a fairly constant figure it may be said it fulfils its duty, therefore it is 
well designed. 

To successfully accomplish this result all its parts must be so 
designed as to be free from breakdowns, adhesion of the wheels to the 
ground must be sufficient at all times (and this is a very important 
feature), steam must be available at all times and in large enoujh 
quantities for emergencies ; provision must be made to greatly increase 
the effort transmitted to the drivers to get out of ruts, holes, and start 
on rough pavements, etc. 

Now, as to the non-paying side but that which carries weight with 
the general public, the noise, odor or visible exhaust, these it can be 
said are reasonably dispensed with by the best makes. The question 
could now be asked are there any steam trucks that fulfil these general 
requirements? I think it can be answered for the greater part in the 
affirmative, and probably the most successful steam trucks built in 
this country which fulfil these requirements were constructed by the 
following firms : The Cunningham Engineering Company, of Boston, 
now being merged into the Massachusetts Steam Wagon Company : 
the Thornycroft Steam Wagon Company of America, and the Adams 
Express Company truck. The first of these is an entirely American 
product. The second has imported from England certain parts of their 
first wagon which was built in this country, while the third represents 

is- 



iS8 



STEAM VERSUS HORSE DRAWN TRUCKS 



a design worked out by the mechanical engineer of the said company 
for experimental purposes. These three trucks represent about the 
best that has been done in this country up to the present, and a 
general description of two of the three systems follows : 

The Massachusetts Steam Wagon Company's truck shown in the 
illustration carries three and a half tons burden at the rate of five miles 
an hour through fairly crowded streets, and unloaded it may safely be 
worked at higher speed under the same conditions. The wheels are 
made up of metal hubs, wood spokes and rims, and their diameter is 
uniform, viz. : 34 inches. The tires are of steel and are bolted to 




Massachusetts Steam Wagon Company's Truck — Load Three and a half Tons 



the rims ; their width is approximately 2>H inches and they are 1 
inch thick. The axles are machine steel, 2 x / 2 inches diameter at 
bearing surfaces and tapered toward the center, diameter at that 
point being approximately 3^ inches. The axle bearings are of 
the ' ' cage roller ' ' type. Their lengths are 5 y 2 inches. A phos- 
phor bronze washer, which is used for a thrust bearing, is retained by 
one of cast iron, and a nut. All four springs are of the semi-elliptic 
type, held rigidly at their front ends, but movable at the rear ends to 
allow for compression ; heavy castings hold the spring to a steel chan- 



STEAM VERSUS HORSE DRAWN TRUCKS 189 

nel, which is part of the frame steering. This is effected by the fifth 
wheel method and is actuated by means of a series of spur gearing 
and a worm, a hand wheel which is placed in the cab within easy reach 
of the operator. The worm, of course, makes the system irreversible 
from shocks, etc. The frame is built of standard roll sections and 
comprises three main members, running the length of the frame, suit- 
ably braced to make it rigid. The platform proper is of wood ; no 
' ' reach " or " reach rods ' ' are used in this construction. The engine 
is horizontal and erected upon a built-up base, which is rigidly fastened 
to the central member of the frame by means of a web plate. It con- 
sists of a pair of 3^ x 6 x 5 inch cylinders of the locomotive type ; 
180 degree cranks for each separate engine, making four 90 degree 
cranks all told. Means are provided by a special valve to admit steam 
to all cylinders, by which arrangement 50 horse-power can be devel- 
oped for a short period of time. The different parts are lubricated by 
means of grease retained in special cups. Sliding doors on the engine 
case permit inspection. The throttle valve, variable cut-off, the 
reverse motion, and the " transformer " valve are all operated from 
the cab and are very accessible. The power is transmitted from the 
engine shaft by a spur gearing to two countershafts carrying two 
"Cunningham" hydraulic clutches, one forward and the other back 
of the engine shaft, all lying in the same plane. Keyed to the coun- 
tershafts are the sprocket wheels, by which by the intermediary of chains 
and pinion, power is transmitted to the differentials on both front and 
rear axles. These chains are kept taut by means of stretcher-rods 
and due to the springs in their construction shocks on the engine are 
avoided. 

The front differential has in combination with it a specially devised 
gimbal joint which permits of the axle being turned without interfer- 
ring with the transmission of power to it. The front set of wheels may 
be used alone to run by, or the rear set, or both, or the engine may run 
free. All this is controlled by two small valves in the cab, and within 
handy reach of the driver. 

Two yoke-shaped castings with friction surfaces, partially lined 
with wood, comprise the brake. These surround and act on the out- 
side surfaces or shells of the hydraulic clutches, and arc actuated by 
means of two small shafts (one at each end of the brake yokes) carry- 
ing opposed eccentrics. The shaft near the front has a lever arm. and 
by the use of a bell crank and several links, this is connected to a brake- 
operating lever in the cab. The boiler is of the upright lire-tube type, 



r 9 o STEAM VERSUS HORSE DRAWN TRUCKS 

and is fired as any ordinary boiler from the front ; it is placed to the 
rear of the operator, and in such a position that its weight is directly 
over the front driving wheels. Coke or stove coal may be used for 
fuel, and the necessary draft and regulation of the fire is obtained by the 
forced draft method, air being supplied by a small fan blower, and 
driven by a small vertical engine. The amount of air is regulated by 
the speed of the engine. The heating surface is 125 square feet, and 
the grate surface 3 square feet. 

An independent pump supplies water to the boiler, and an injector is 
also used as an auxiliary feed. The working pressure is 175 pounds 
per square inch, and the safety valve is set at 200 pounds to the square 
inch. The exhaust steam passes into a feed water heater which also 
acts as a muffler, thence into the stack and passes off in an invisible 
state. The water tank is situated at the rear under the frame, and will 
hold approximately 900 pounds of water ; the fuel bunker will hold 
about 300 pounds. The general dimensions of the truck are as fol- 
lows : 17 feet long over all ; 5 feet 6 inches extreme width ; wheel 
base is 9 feet 8 inches, and the gage 4 feet 6 inches (center to center 
of tires) ; the platform is 12 feet long by 5 feet 6 inches wide, giving* 
66 square feet of available platform area ; the height of the platform is 
3 feet 7 inches from the ground. 

The Thornycroft Steam Wagon Company of America's truck was 
described quite fully in our last number, and it is scarcely necessary 
to go into details regarding it here. 

The Adams Express Company truck carries 3^ tons, at 5 miles 
per hour. The wheels are built up of metal hubs, wood spokes and 
rims, and all four are of ' ' dished ' ' construction. The front ones, or 
the steering wheels, are 36 inches in diameter, and the rear or driving- 
ones, are 48 inches in diameter. The tires are of steel, and bolted to 
the rims ; those at the front wheels being 3^ inches wide, and those 
of the drivers, 6 inches wide. 

The rear axle is in one piece, and stationary, the wheels rotating 
upon it. It is bent downwards at the end so as to bring the spokes of 
the wheels which are in compression perpendicular to the road surface. 
The front one is straight and in three parts (pivot steering) ; the parts 
outside the pivot support being inclined downward to accomplish the 
same result in regard to the wheels, as with the rear ones. Plain sleeve 
bearings are used for the driving wheel (the hubs being of gun metal) ; 
the width of the bearing is 7 y 2 inches, and the axle at this point is 2 y? 
inches diameter. The front wheels have the same type bearings, ex- 



STEAM VERSUS HORSE DRAWN TRUCKS 



191 



cept a little smaller, 6^ inches being their width, and 2^ inches the 
diameter of the axle. All of the springs are of the semi-elliptic type, 
and are fastened rigidly to the axles, but are free to move at both ends 
where they are connected to the frame. The steering is effected by 
means of the pivot-support system of the rear trapezium variety, and 
is actuated by a hand wheel from the operator's seat through a system 
of spur-gears and rack on the rod connecting the two steering arms. 
The shaft carrying the hand wheel is placed perpendicular to the ground. 
The frame is built up of wood, partially covered with steel plates, on 




Adams Express Company's Truck — Load Three and a half Ton* 



the top of which is placed a wood platform. Two " reach " members 
are used made of steel tubing with a flexible joint, and suspended to 
the frame at their centers, but the whole connects the front and rear 
axles rigidly together. The engine is horizontal, and is connected 
rigidly to the frame, and is of the compound with two cylinders 4x8 
x 6 inches, being entirely encased. The throttle valve, the variable 
cut-off and reverse motion, like the Massachusetts and Thornycroft 
wagons, are within easy reach of the operator from his scat. The en« 
o-ine shaft is extended through the intermediary of a universal joint 



i 9 2 STEAM VERSUS HORSE DRAWN TRUCKS 

This extension runs in two bearings fastened to the frame, and carries 
two spur-gears of different diameters, either of which may be slipped 
along the shaft and made to engage with either of two spur-gears on 
a first countershaft, which carries in all, three spur-gears. The first 
countershaft is supported by three bearings, and is in one piece ; the 
smallest gear on this shaft meshes with a gear on the exterior of the 
differential, which is carried on a second countershaft ; this is sup- 
ported by four bearings, and carries pinions at its extremities which 
mesh with the internal gear rigidly fastened as near to the periphery 
of the driving wheels as is practical. Two universal joints are used in 
the make-up of this secondary countershaft to permit of some flexi- 
bility, and to allow the extremities to incline downward at the same 
angle as the ends of the fixed axle. The boiler is a combination water 
tube and shell with special provisions for obtaining dry steam and heat- 
ing the exhaust ; it is fired centrally from the top, is located directly 
over the front axle, and extends through the floor of the frame, so that 
the ash pan and grate are below the floor ; fire is regulated by means 
of a damper in the stack ; coke or stove coal may be used for fuel. 
The heating surface is about ioo square feet, and the grate area, 6.76 
square feet. The main feed is from a direct connected pump, but an 
auxiliary feed pump is provided. The working pressure is approxi- 
mately 140 pounds to the square inch, and the safety valve is set at 
200 pounds per square inch. The water tanks have a capacity of about 
1 , 600 pounds. The general dimensions are as follows : total length over 
all, 17 feet ; width over all, 7 feet 4 inches ; the wheel base is 8 feet 
6 inches, and the gage 5 feet 6 inches (center to center of tire) ; the 
platform is 1 1 feet long by 5 feet wide, giving 55 square feet of avail- 
able platform area for load ; the height of the platform is approxi- 
mately 3 feet 11 inches from the ground. 

The carrying capacity of these three steam trucks is about the same ; 
•otherwise their general construction and principles vary greatly. It 
would be out of the sphere of this article to enter into a discussion or 
criticise the various parts or details of the different constructions, and 
that will be left for future articles especially devoted to that side of the 
subject. No total weights of the trucks have been given, as this is a point 
which is rather difficult to get at without a scale to verify the weights 
given by those interested. Weights of motor vehicles, by the way, is 
a very much discussed subject, and without specifically going into the 
discussion, I should like to say that, if it is necessary to make parts 
heavy to be consistent with durability and long life, they should un- 



STEAM VERSUS HORSE DRAWN TRUCKS 193 

doubtedly be made so, considering that our actual operating expenses 
are very small as compared to the fixed charges ; therefore, it would 
certainly be more economical to increase that slightly than to greatly 
increase the depreciation account by having a truck which had been 
shaved down so as to make it light, even though it were inconsistent 
with good design. No statement has been made in regard to hill 
climbing, for this, as with the case of dead weights, it is very difficult 
to get at comparable facts. Such and such a statment is made that a 
truck will climb a certain per cent, grade with so and so many tons, 
but rarely any mention is made, however, regarding conditions of road 
surface or rate of speed at which it was accomplished. The writer is 
convinced, however, from personal observations and numerous trials 
that, under fair conditions of road surface, ordinary grades, such as 
are traversed by horse-drawn trucks, the steam truck will work and 
at a higher rate of speed than the horse. The average compar- 
ative costs of operation that are given in the following tables are de- 
rived from various sources, including trials conducted by the writer, 
and from the manufacturers themselves: 





Distance traversed per day of ten working hours. 




LADEN. 


UNLADEN. 


A 
B 
C 


35 miles 

50 " 
25 " 


Nil. 

25 miles 



(A) and (B) are intended to correspond with what should be 
realized in a service between points where a full load can be provided 
in both directions, while (C) is probably the worst average of the 
light load contingency that would be likely to occur: 

Table A. 

Prime cost, $3,000 

Interest at 5 per cent, per annum , 150 00 

Depreciation at 15 percent, per annum 450 00 

Fuel — 15 pounds coal per vehicle mile 

15 X 35 X 300 days 

— — — = 70.3 tons 

2,240 

Coal at $4.50 per ton 316 35 

For lighting fire and raising steam 25 o 

Water — 11 gallons per vehicle mile, u X 35 X 300= 115,500 gallons 

@ 15 cents per 1,000 gallons ^7 33 

Repairs, material and labor 300 00 

Wages of driver t>v> ^ v ' 

Oil, waste, etc 40 00 

Insurance 54 ^ H> 



Total per annum 






i 9 4 STEAM VERSUS HORSE DRAWN TRUCKS 

Thirty-five miles per day X 3^ tons X 30° days = 36,750 net ton miles 
per annum. 

'95 — — r -ii cents per net ton mile. 

36,750 

Table B. 

Prime cost, $3,oco 

Interest at 5 per cent, per annum $150 00 

Depreciation at 15 per cent, per annum 450 00 

Fuel— 15 pounds coal per vehicle mile. . 

i5X5oX3oo = Ioa - 

2,240 

Coal at $4.50 per ton 451 80 

For lighting fire and raising steam 2500 

Water — ri gallons per vehicle mile, 11 X 5° X 300 = 165,000^ 15 

cents per t,ooo gallons 24 75 

Repairs, material and labor 300 00 

Wages of driver 600 00 

Oil, waste, etc - 4° °°- 

Insurance 54 °° 

Total per annum 12,095 55 

Fifty miles per day X3^ tons X 3°° = 5 2 ,5°° net ton miles per annum. 

2^95^55 __ cents per net ton mile. 

52,500 d yy F 

Table C. 

Prime cost, |3,ooo 

Interest at 5 per cent, per annum $150 00 

Depreciation at 15 per cent, per annum 450 00 

Fuel — 15 pounds coal per vehicle mile 

.5 X 2 5 X3°° = ns ; 

2,240 

Coal at $4.50 per ton 225 90 

Two-thirds of this consumption for running unladen 150 60 

For lighting fire and raising steam 25 00 

Water — 11 gallons per vehicle mile, 11 X 25 X 300 = 82,500, @ 15 

cents per 1,000 gallons 12 38 

Two-thirds of this consumption for running unladen 8 25 

Repairs, material and labor 300 00 

Wages of driver 600 00 

Oil, waste, etc " . . 40 00 

Insurance 54 00 

Total cost per annum $2,016 13 

Twenty-five miles per day X 3/4 tons X 300 = 26,250 net ton miles per 

annum. 

2,016.13 

=7.68 cents per net ton mile. 

20 ^ 

In conclusion it can be said that a two-horse truck will accomplish 
approximately 12,000 net ton miles per annum, at an average cost of 
13 cents per net ton mile. A four-horse truck wall accomplish 20,000 
net ton miles per annum, at an average cost of 12 cents per net ton 



STEAM VERSUS HORSE DRAWN TRUCKS 195 

mile. Comparing these average results with the figures in tables 
A, B and C the unquestionable advantage in point of economy of the 
steam truck is obvious. 



Boston's newest automobile club, the Automobile Club of New 
England, had its organization meeting on the evening of December 
19, at the Hotel Somerset. Mr. Arthur W. Stedman, a well-known 
merchant and one of the leading members of the Brookline County 
Club, was chosen president ; Mr. Francis R. Hart, of the Old Colony 
Trust Company, a Milton man, vice-president ; Mr. George E. Mc- 
Questen, a lumber dealer, of Brookline, secretary ; Mr. Royal R. 
Sheldon, well known in trotting-horse circles as well as in business 
life, of Boston, treasurer. The management of the club is vested 
practically in an Executive Committee to consist of these officers and 
eight members elected at large every year. This committee will choose 
a Race Committee of five, which in turn, will have full charge of all 
race meets, even to the fixing of dates. The annual dues of the new 
club are to be $50, with $50 for the entrance fee. The club has taken 
the land and buildings of the old Suburban Club, just across Clyde 
Street from the Country Club, in Brookline, for its home, and the site 
and buildings are ideal for its needs. It will be one of the very high- 
est types of gentlemen's clubs. 



A great deal of talk is heard about the probable reduction in price 
of automobiles during the coining season. People are heard to make 
such remarks as " Oh, they will soon come down in price, just like the 
bicycle." They may come down in price, but it does seem that the 
reduction will not be nearly so rapid or as great as in the ease of the 
wheel. The final automobile has not yet been produced: manufac- 
turers are finding out, month after month, that marked changes are 
necessary in order to bring the horseless vehicle to its greatest perfec- 
tion. Many makers have decided to increase the price oi 1001 models, 
rather than to bring down their price, and there is every indication > 
that while the reduction will eventually come, it will come slowly. 



The Strength of Wheels 

The first consideration in automobile construction should be 
strength of frame and running gear, as this is of even greater 
importance than the motive power. If this is weak and breaks 
down, or if it is of insufficient power, your machine stops, and 
though it is very annoying it is not often dangerous. But if the 
frame or wheels give out it is a serious question, the damage to 
the occupants depending on the speed at the time of the accident 
and the condition of the road. 

The frame usually receives the most attention and rarely gives 
way, even with severe straining on different kinds of roads, but 
the wheels seem to be overlooked in some cases. While they 
are probably designed to be strong enough for all direct strains 
brought on them, they should be able to stand such side strains 
as they are liable to meet with. Any carriage is liable to slew a 
little at times, especially on a smooth road, and hubs should be 
long enough and spokes strong enough to stand as much of this 
as is apt to occur in ordinary running. Although the rear wheels 
carry the most weight and are usually stronger, the crippling of 
a front wheel is generally more disastrous to the occupants of 
the carriage. The front wheels, too, have to be steered out of 
ruts and car tracks, which imposes a side or twisting strain on 
them and their strength should be closely looked after. 

This may mean added weight, and a wheel that is not quite 
as neat in appearance, but the question of safety should be upper- 
most in the mind of both designer and purchaser. A few pounds 
of weight here is often an improvement in many ways, and the 
extra work on the motor is not worth considering, while the looks 
are of minor importance. Whether you prefer wire or wooden 
wheels, be sure they are strong enough for the service required. 



The race inaugurated by the New York Woi'ld intended to 
welcome the end of the old and dawn of the new century was won by 
J. M. Paige, who operated a Locomobile, his running time between 
the Harlem office of the World and the main office being 38 minutes 
21 seconds. 



196 



About Good Roads 

THE more general introduction of the automobile for cross- 
country runs will perhaps do more to solve the problem 
of good roads than anything else. The automobile 
requires a smooth road for its successful operation, and this being 
so it is only a question of whether that kind of a road will be 
supplied or not, and we cannot but think that it will. 

Perhaps the greatest opponent the automobilist has is the 
farmer, and it is quite difficult to convince the average farmer of 
the great saving good roads would result in to his horses and 
wagons, to say nothing of the much neater appearance of his 
adjacent land. The mechanism of certain makes of automobiles 
are more likely to be affected by jolting on poor roads than 
others, and such service cannot but be hurtful, in some degree, at 
least, to automobiles of any construction. 

It is again probable that could automobile manufacturers 
know positively that good roads were generally to be encountered 
they might be induced to make a lighter construction and so 
reduce the weight which it is now necessary to have in order to 
meet the more severe strain caused by bad roads. 

It is reasonable to expect that the efforts for good roads which 
are being made by the various automobile clubs throughout the 
country will result in a general stirring up of this important 
question and a better condition of things along these lines. This 
question does not appeal to owners of automobiles who confine 
their operations to the limits of our big cities where smooth 
asphalt roads are general, but it is our belief that the automobile 
will become more and more popular as conveyances from one 
city or town to another, and will, in this respect, catch a portion 
of the traffic now obtained by the trolley. 

Automobiles are somewhat different from the bicycle when 
it comes to country roads. The latter can get along if a narrow 
strip a few inches wide is reasonably good. The automo- 
bile, however, must confine itself to the roadway, taking the 
bumps and jars and stretches of sand as they come. The 
operator cannot get off and lead his machine around a bad strip. 
either, as can a wheelman. The popularity of the bicycle has 
done much for good roads, and the automobile should do more. 



A good solution for uniting two pieces oi India rubber can be 
made by dissolving ten parts of finely shredded India rubber in bisul- 
phide of carbon, add to this one and one-half parts rosin, and one part 
of shellac. 

IQ7 



The Automobile Index 



Everything of permanent value published iii the technical press of 
the world devoted to any branch of automobile industry will be found 
indexed in this department. Whenever it is possible a descriptive sum- 
mary indicating the character a?id purpose of the leading articles of cur- 
rent automobile literature will be given, with the titles and dates of the 
publications . 



Illustrated articles are designated by an asterisk (*). 



"Air Motor Vehicle, The Tripler — 
Hugh Dolnar. ( See under Liquid. ) 

Alcohol, The Utilization of — 

Leon Massion. This article is in 
French, and goes into the merit of 
alcohol in its application to the op- 
eration of automobiles. " L'Avenir 
de L' Automobile," Paris, Novem- 
ber, 1900. 

"* Autocar, Its Use and Management, 
The- 

Henry Sturmey continues his in- 
teresting articles on this subject. 
"The Autocar," London, Decem- 
ber 15, 1900. 

Automobile, The — 

Harold H. Eames. An article de- 
voted to the past and possible future 
of the automobile industry. " Elec- 
trical World and Engineer," January 
5, 1901. 

^Automobile, The Darracq — 

This is a most interesting sample 
of recent motor vehicle construction. 
"La Locomotion Automobile," 
Paris, November 29, 1900. 

"Battery, The International Storage — 

( See under Storage. ) 
Bicycles, Motor — 

An address delivered by Mr. 
Joseph Pennell before the Automo- 
bile Club of Great Britain, in which 
he relates his experience on a trip he 
made to Switzerland. " Motor Car 
Journal," London, December 15, 
1900. 

Brakes — 

P. M. Heldt. An article in which 
the author goes into the construction 
problems connected with the mak- 
ing of automobile brakes. " Horse- 
less Age," New York, December 
12, 1900. 

*Break, The Daimler — 

Description of a three-seated break 
suitable for public service. " La 



Paris, 



Locomotion Automobile, 
December 13, 1900. 

^Business, Motor Vehicles in — 

W. H. Maxwell, Jr. Deals with 
the early developments of the auto- 
mobile, as applied to purposes of 
business. "Automobile Magazine," 
January, 1901. 

"Delivery Equipment of a Large New 
York Store, The* Max Lowenthal — 

The author goes into the practica- 
bility of the electric automobile for 
light delivery service. "Electrical 
World and Engineer," New York, 
December 29, 1900. 

Design and Construction, Gasoline Auto- 
mobile — 

Jas. F. Hobart. ( See under Gaso- 
line. ) 

^Electric Automobile, Gasnier — 

Description of a complete outfit 
for electric vehicles. There are two 
armature windings and two collect- 
ors. " LTndustries Electrique," 
Paris, October 10, 1900. 

"Ele:tricity for Motorists — 

Chapter 2 of a series of articles 
by J. W. Roebuck, in which he gives 
a resume of the elementary princi- 
ples of electricity. The articles are 
interestingly written, and ought to 
be of value to automobilists gen- 
erally. "Motor Car World," Lon- 
don, December, 1900. 

Engines, Lubrication of Internal Heat — 
Hugh D. Meier. (See under Lub- 
rication. ) 

"Fete at Paris- 
Article showing a number of the 
more interesting vehicles which took 
part in the recent floral fete at Paris. 
' 'L'Avenir de L' Automobile, ' ' Paris, 
November, 1900. 

France, Heavy Motor Traffic in- 
Opening address of the Fifth Ses- 
sion of the Liverpool Self-Propelled 



198 



THE AUTOMOBILE INDEX 



' ii 



Traffic Association, December 3, 

1900, by M. Georges Forestier. 
"The Autocar," London, Decem- 
ber 8, 1900. 

Garments for Fair Automobilists — 

By Chaffeuse. Articles in which 
are described various costumes suit- 
able for ladies while out automobil- 
ing. " The Autocar," London, 
December 8, 1900. 

Gas Engines, Compounding of — 

Part 2 of an article by C. P. 
Malcolm, in which he points out sev- 
eral advantages obtained as a result 
of compounding. " Horseless Age," 
New York, December 26, 1900. 

Gasoline Automobile Design and Con- 
struction — 

Jas. F. Hobart. An article in which 
the author undertakes to point out 
the mistakes made by the gasoline 
vehicle designers, and offers sugges- 
tions whereby the gasoline motor 
may be made more satisfactory. 
"Age of Steel," St. Louis, January, 

1901. (See under Design.) 
^Gearing — 

E. C. Oliver, M. E. Part 1 of 
an article in which the author goes 
into fundamental principles relating 
to gearing. " The Horseless Age," 
New York, December 19, 1900. 

Holland, Automobilism in — 

G. A. Von Hunteln. An article 
in which the author goes into the 
status of the horseless vehicle in 
Holland. "The Horseless Age," 
New York, December 19, 1900. 

*House, An Automobile — 

F. C. Hudson. Article giving plans 
and elevation of a house suitable for 
storing an automobile. " Automo- 
bile Magazine," New York, January, 
1 901. 

^Liquid Air Automobile, The — 

A letter penned by Hugh Dolnar, 
in which he criticises some of the 
wild statements by the manufactur- 
ers and propagators of this particular 
vehicle. " The Autocar," London, 
December 15, 1900. 

Lubrication of Internal Heat Engines, 
Piston — 

Hugh D.Meier. An article in which 
the author discusses the merits of 
various lubricating systems. ' ' H orse- 
less Age," New York, December 
26, 1900. 



"Motor Car Industry, A Short Review 
of the— 

C. H. E. Rush and Basil Joy. 
"Coach Builder's and Wheel- 
wright's Art Journal," London, No- 
vember, 1900. 

:; Mors Motor Vehicle- 
Description of a five horse-power 
vehicle which is very popular, and 
which in recent tests has given an ex- 
cellent account of itself. " The Auto- 
car," London, December 8, 1900. 

"Motor Vehicle, The Schandel — 

Description of a vehicle which 
represents a sample of recent French 
practice. "Horseless Age," New 
York, December 19, 1900. 

Pavements, Automobiles and City — 

Geo. E. Walsh. The author goes 
into the relative merits of different 
forms of pavements. "Electrical 
Review," New York, December 26, 
1900. 

Power, The Driving — 

E. J. Stoddard. Continuation of 
an article in which is given a num- 
ber of formulae for finding the power 
of various working parts of an auto- 
mobile engine. " Horseless Age," 
New York, December 12, 1900. 

*Road Building in United States, Prog- 
ress of — 

Part 3 of a series of articles by 
Maurice O. Eldridge, devoted to a 
history of the development of good 
roads in this country. " L. A. W. 
Magazine," Cleveland, Decembci. 
1900. 

Road Traction — 

Paper read before the Society or 
Arts on December 5, 1900, by Prof. 
Hele-Shaw, L L. D.. F. R. S. 
"The Autocar," London. December 
8, 1900. 

•Run, The 1,000 Miles Non-Stop, Abso- 
lute- 
Description of a run which took 
place at the Crystal Palace. "The 
Autocar," London. December . 
1900. 

"Show at Crystal Palace, National — 
Article devoted totheshou which 
was recently held in London. "M 
Car Journal," London, December . 

1900. 



THE AUTOMOBILE INDEX 



'Steering Wheel, A New — 

In this wheel a receptacle is pro- 
vided for gloves, glasses, maps, etc. 
"The Autocar," London, Decem- 
ber 22, 1900. 

'Storage Battery, The International — 
Description of a battery, in which 
it is claimed that, owing f ja peculi- 
arity in construction, it ; lighter, 
has a lower first cost, and is more 
durable, and less J rirrer of disin- 
tegration caused by jolting. " Elec- 
trical World and Engineer," New 
York, December 22, 1900. (See 
under Batten*. ) 

"Tell-Tale, A Circulation — 

Description of a small device de- 
signed to show at a glance whether 
the water used for cooling is circu- 
lating properly. It may be intro- 
duced into the circulating system 
between the engine and pump. It 
is made by the London Autocar 
Company. "The Autocar," Lon- 
don, December 15, 1900. 

Tests of Automobiles — 

Kallmann. The author gives an 
account of the tests of electric auto- 
mobiles which were carried cut in 
the spring of 190c at Berlin. 

•Tour from John O* Groats to Lands 
End- 
Short description of a run made by 
Hon. Mr. Egerton. " Motor Car 
Journal," London, December 29, 
1900. 

"Touring by Automobile, Long Dis- 
tance — 

W. H. Stemmerman, M. D. An 
interesting account of what took 
place on a tour covering over 600 
miles. The article is written in a 
most interesting manner. "Auto- 
mobile Magazine," January, 1901. 

Traction, Road — 

Paper read before the Society of 
Arts on December 5, iqoo, by Prof. 
Hele-Shaw, L L. D.^ F. R. S. 
" The Autocar," London, December 

8, 1800. 

Traffic in France, Heavy Motor — . 

Opening address of the Fifth Ses- 
sion of the Liverpool Self-Propelled 
Traffic Association, December 3, 
1900, by M. Georges Forestier. 
"The Autocar," London, Decem- 
ber 8, 1900. 



"Transmission Device, A New — 

A. H. Chadbourne. Description 
of a new devrce which possesses a 
number of new features. "Auto- 
mobile Magazine," New York, Jan- 
uary, 1901. 

Tricycles, Some Defects and Remedies, 
Motor— 

A. E. S. Craig. " Motor Car 
World," London, December 1, 1900. 

'Vehicle, The Turrell Light — 

Description of a new type of motor 
vehicle. Article presents working 
drawings of parts. " The Autocar," 
London, December 15, 1900. 

"Voiturette, The Bertrand — 

Description of a new vehicle which 
has extremely graceful lines. 
' 'L' Avenir de L' Automobile, ' ' Paris, 
November, 1900. 

'Voiturette, The Knowles-Chair — 

Description of a machine in which 
the Panhard system of transmission 
is used. " The Motor Car Journal," 
London, December 8, 1900. 

"Voiturette, The Legrand — 

Description of a new type of 
French carriage which has given 
much satisfaction. A de Dion Bou- 
ton motor of three horse power is 
used. "La Locomotion Automo- 
biie," Paris, December 13, 1900. 

■'Voiturette, The Marot Gardon — 

Description of a new style of 
French carriage. " The Autocar," 
London, December 22, 1900. 

•Voiturette, The Petit- 
Article giving illustrative descrip- 
tion of a carriage of this name. A 
striking feature is low seating of the 
vehicle. Detailed drawings are also 
given. "La Locomotion Automo- 
bile," Paris, December 20, 1900. 

"Wagon, The Postel-Vinay Electric — 

Description of a wagon possessing 
some highly interesting points, and 
calculated to carry loads of 10 ions. 
" Automotor Journal," London, De- 
cember, 1900. 

Water for Automobile Boilers — 

E. J. Stoddard. Discussion of 
some effects produced by the use of 
water containing various substances. 
The article is quite interesting and 
ought to be read by every user of 
steam vehicles. " Horseless Age," 
New York, December 26, 1900. 



The Automobile 
magazine 




Vol. hi MARCH, 1901 No. 3 




A Few Suggestions on the Operation of a 

Voiturette 

THE voiturette is becoming a favorite with the American public, 
just as it has with the French, and as a number of American 
builders are inclined to follow in some degree their general 
appearance, we give below a few extracts from a series of articles which 
recently appeared in The Motor News, and written by R. J. Mecredy, 
who is well known as an automobilist. He says : The beginner who 
takes up motoring is face to face with one serious difficulty. The 
various manufacturers think it sufficient to issue an ordinary stereo- 
typed catalogue, and perhaps a few brief suggestions, but they publish 
nothing in the shape of explicit hints and tips as to the actual driving 
of the vehicle. Unless the beginner has an expert friend to coach him, 
the result of his lack of information may prove very serious. 

In getting ready to start he warns beginners to make sure suffi- 
cient gasoline is carried. This can be estimated by putting a clean 
piece of stick or wood through the aperture at top of tank. After 
starting, the sparking should be retarded to prevent it from racing. 
After getting into a steady swing, experiments should be made with 
the mixture until a normal pace is reached, say of twelve miles an 
hour, when it is giving best results. The operator should endeavor to 
get the best possible mixture, and should ever remember that if he is 
in doubt it is better to err in the direction of too much air than of too 
much vapor. 

When turning corners retard the ignition to slow off the pace. 
If, however, the corner is approached at a big pace or is reached unex- 

203 



2o 4 SUGGESTIONS ON THE OPERATION OF A VOITURETTE 

pectedly the most satisfactory way to turn is to disconnect the engine, 
put on the brakes to the required extent and as the car swings round 
the corner whip the engine into gear again. 

The beginner has reason to be very careful in thick greasy mud. 
If traveling fast a too sudden application of brakes or a swerve to 
avoid collision may cause the car to swing round bodily and face in 
the opposite direction. When knocks are heard and no other cause 
is apparent it is very probable that a fresh charge of oil is needed. 

Oil is very apt to get on the drums of the brakes, in which case 
the brakes become comparatively inoperative. They should be care- 
fully cleansed with petrol — a tooth-brush will be found useful for the 
purpose — and a small quantity of fresh resin should be applied. Lime, 
also, will be found excellent for this purpose, as it dries up the oil 
rapidly and gives a good bite. 

The bearings of the wheels should be examined from time to time, 
to see if they are properly adjusted, and for this purpose it will be 
necessary to lift the wheels off the ground by means of a small jack. 
Any unusual grinding noise should be at once seen to, as it may mean 
a broken ball. 

A little petrol squirted into the compression tap in the cylinder, in 
addition to facilitating starting, serves another good purpose, for it 
tends to clean the piston rings and the cylinder ; in fact, unless this is 
done regularly, it is necessary periodically to flush the cylinder thor- 
oughly down with a tablespoonful of either paraffin or petrol, prefer- 
ably the former, working the piston up and down by means of the 
handle at the same time. About every five hundred miles it is advis- 
able to open the cylinder and scrape the sooty deposit off the top of it, 
also to thoroughly clean the piston rings with a tooth-brush and petrol 
to prevent all chance of their sticking. The top of the cylinder can 
then be scraped with a knife, and afterward cleaned with a tooth-brush 
and petrol. 

The operator should be very careful not to let the scrapings drop 
into the crank chamber. In case misfires take place resulting in bad 
combustion, not only will the valves be covered with a sooty deposit, 
but the piston and cylinder will suffer in the same manner, and there- 
fore will require more frequent cleaning than when the car is running 
perfectly. To get at the piston it is necessary to let the water out of 
the tank. This can be done by disconnecting the joint close to the 
pump, then all the water pipe connections running to the water jacket 
should be carefully disconnected, the nuts securing the jacket to the 



SUGGESTIONS ON THE OPERATION OF A VOITURETTE 205 

crank chamber should be unscrewed, and then the jacket and cylinder 
can be lifted off in one piece. 

From time to time it will be found that the circulating pump will 
leak. To stop this it is necessary to adjust the bearing. In the De 
Dion it is held in position by a catch working in a ring with depres- 
sions in it. This catch will, of course, at first have to be undone and 
the bearing then screwed up. In process of time, it will be found that 
the bearing has been adjusted to its utmost, but that the pump still 
leaks. It will then become necessary to renew the asbestos packing, 
and at the same time the opportunity should be taken of thoroughly 
cleaning out the pump. It is difficult to explain the operation here, 
and, therefore, we fancy it will be best for the owner of the car, after 
he has made two or three adjustments, to bring it to an expert, and 
get the latter to renew the packing in his presence, so that he may be 
able to do it in future himself. 

The advice generally given is to pump tires hard, and undoubt- 
edly it is the safest, for a soft tire is liable to puncture on the rim, and 
will also wear much more rapidly through excessive flexion at the 
sides, than will one pumped hard. At the same time, there is a happy 
medium. If the tires are pumped board hard they shake both car 
and rider terribly. The best practice is to have the tires pumped to 
such an extent that when the car has got its load on board the depres- 
sion where the tires touch the ground is just appreciable. 



Porto Rico a Paradise for Automobiles 

MANY automobilists make a practice of spending the wintei 
abroad, in parts where the climatic conditions are not so 
severe and trying as here. Among the places most 
frequently visited is Southern France, not only on account of its 
beautiful climate, but for the good roads which abound there, together 
with the beautiful scenery. Others go to Bermuda and Florida, but 
recent reports indicate that Porto Rico is fast coming to the front as a 
winter resort. While the majority of the roads are not perhaps 
adapted to automobiles, what is known as the Coamo Springs Road 
is a veritable dream, and it is predicted by those who are familiar with 
the condition of things down there that the island will, in a very few 
years, become a paradise for automobilists. 



Interesting Use of Electric Vehicle 

IN this magazine for February, Dr. E. C Chamberlin in his article 
referred to the uses which physicians had been known to make 

of their electric automobiles in supplying current necessary to the 
carrying out of certain operations incidental to their practice. Be- 
low we reproduce a letter which recently appeared in the Medical 
and Surgical Journal. The letter has direct bearing upon Dr. Cham- 
berlin' s statement, and will doubtless be read with interest. 

Jamaica Plain, Mass., January 17, 1901. 

Mr. Editor : It may be interesting to the medical profession to 
know of a new use to which the electric automobiles can be put, that 
will be valuable not only to physicians, but to their patients. For the 
past two months I have been using an electric automobile, to the 
exclusion of the horse. On the afternoon of January 10, on visiting 
a patient, I found it would be necessary to operate upon her that 
evening. Realizing the seriousness of the case and the delicacy of 
the operation, for it would have to be a laparotomy, it troubled me a 
little to know how to provide sufficient light to enable us to explore 
the abdomen thoroughly and safely, as etherization by gas or lamp 
light is not without its dangers. About 5.30 p. m., while riding 
around in the automobile, the thought came to me suddenly that I 
might utilize the electricity in my carriage to provide light for the 
operation. I immediately arranged for a long insulated wire about 
40 feet, to which was attached an incandescent light with a reflector, 
using a 52-volt 6-candle-power lamp, also a 100-volt 16-candle-power 
lamp. I also had several spare ones in case one of them should burn 
out during the operation. 

The automobile was run up on the patient's lawn by the side of 
the house, under the window, and the ware attached to the battery. 
We then drew the other end into the second story window, and run- 
ning a strong line across the room, suspended the lamp from it over 
the operating table. On turning on the power, we had a most bril- 
liant light, and coming from a storage battery, it was steadier and 
more uniform than the ordinary incandescent light, lighting the whole 
room — a large one — and giving perfect light to the operator, so that 
the laparotomy was performed with ease and comfort. In fact, the 
light w r as as good as in any operating room in Boston, and proved 

206 



INTERESTING USE OF ELECTRIC VEHICLE 207 

very successful in every particular. We burned it for over two hours, 
and could have burned it all night if necessary. It was a very rainy 
night with snow on the ground, which had no effect on the light or 
battery. 

It seems to me that the results of that evening will prove valuable 
to physicians, because now we may have perfect light in any house, 
whether in the country or in the city, with no trouble, and the most 
delicate operation may be performed as easily and safely in the night 
as it could be by daylight. An automobile may be taken anywhere 
for such purposes, and surely this makes the electric carriage of even 
more value to physicians. Other fields are thus opened up for their 
usefulness to us which I will not enlarge upon at this time, but will 
simply mention the possibilities of utilizing them for cauteries, giving 
electricity to patients, etc., by attaching the proper appliances to 
them, which can be done easily and readily. 

Very truly yours, 

Joseph C. Stedman, M.D. 



Sixty Miles for Sixty Cents Over Long 
Island Roads 

By H. B. FULLERTON 

ROADS there are of every description — clay, sod, sand, loam, 
cinder, shell, gravel and stone. These, like everything else, 
divide up into two classes — good and bad, and while there may 
be many degrees of badness, there certainly is but one kind of good- 
ness. As applied to roads the goodness must not be intermittent, but 
remain good the year through. 

Vehicles like roads are of many kinds, but unlike roads cannot 
so easily be separated into two great classes, principally because of the 
many men and their many minds. The ox cart, the sulky, the bicycle, 
the automobile, and even the baby carriage, each has its loyal sup- 
porters. The practical automobile, however, is a vehicle on which all 
eyes are at present centered. Its possibilities are marvellous. Per- 
haps the greatest good to be accomplished by it is in the improvement 
of the health statistics of great cities, inasmuch as it undoubtedly, 
when perfected, will do away with the horse for transportation oi hum 
chandise. Next perhaps in importance is its value to the agncultur- 



2o8 



SIXTY MILES FOR SIXTY CENTS 



ist or producer in carrying his crops or products to the railway or 
steamship line, and its use on stage lines for transportation of pas- 
sengers. However, it seems no more than proper to place its second 
great point— utility as a feeder to the great railroad systems of the 
United States. It will always have strong competition from the horse- 
drawn vehicle as a source of pleasure, but in touring, especially for 
long distances, it will undoubtedly be a tremendous success. Like the 
railroad train, which is very closely connected with the automobile, in 
many, many ways, it can make shift to get along over a bad road, but 
to be at its best, again like the train it must have a good roadbed on 
which to travel, consequently a territory presenting a large mileage of 
improved highways, together with varied scenery and good hotel ac- 



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On Long Island for Pleasure 



commodations, will be sought for and become the Mecca of the auto- 
mobilist or chauffeur. (Can we Americans not find an English word, 
or coin one, to do away with such awkward words as these?) 

Long Island presents conditions that fulfil in every respect the re- 
quirements of the user of the motor vehicles. Its great system of fine 
hard highways, good at all seasons of the year, its three main or trunk 
lines, together with the many roads crossing the Island, give a tour- 
ing ground, that while close to America's greatest city, enables one to 
travel a country unique in its attractions. The Merrick, or South 
Shore Road, being almost level, running through many beautiful vil- 
lages, almost constantly in sight of the ocean and Great South Bay, 
with its numerous inlets. The Jericho Pike, passing through farm land 



SIXTY MILES FOR SIXTY CENTS 209 

and fruit sections of the Island; the Sound Road of the rolling North 
Shore with its beautiful wooded hills, quaint villages, magnificent views 
of the Long Island Sound and the New England shore, and the 
beautiful bays and headlands of the Sound shore. 

A tour of between 250 and 300 miles can be laid out, at no time 
carrying the traveler more than 35 miles away from the city, and with- 
out retracing or doubling back over the same road. 

The writer recently made a trip, which was virtually a test of a 
new motor vehicle traveling over the improved streets of Brooklyn 
and good roads of Long Island. This vehicle was a four passenger 
surrey built by the Long Island Motor Vehicle Company, which desig- 
nates its various vehicles by well known Long Island names, the 
surrey, for instance, being called ' ' Montauk. ' ' 

Mr. F. G. Webb, Chairman of the Technical Committee of the 
Long Island Automobile Club, handled the steering lever throughout 
the run. Mr. Charles Rockliff, the engineer of the company, was one 
of the party, and had everything necessary to make any ordinary re- 
pairs. Not once in the trip, however, was his knowledge called into 
requisition. The run of 63 5-10 miles was made without a mishap, 
without stop of any kind except to take photographs or make a 
call, and, of course, the usual dinner stop. As the writer has had 
several most unsatisfactory experiences traveling in motor vehicles, 
many notes were kept which may prove of interest to your readers. 

The absolute mileage, which has been checked many times by 
cyclometer and odometer, was 63 5-10 miles. The number of passen- 
gers carried was four, the fourth one being Mr. A. R. Pardington, oi 
the New York and New Jersey Telephone Company. The actual run- 
ning time was 5 hours and 12 minutes. The total weight of carriage 
including top, robes, filled tanks, etc., was 1,800 pounds. Weight of 
passengers, 690 pounds; average miles per hour, about 14 J 4 ; total 
amount of gasoline consumed, 4^ gallons; cost of gasoline, 14 cents 
a gallon; average number of miles per gallon, about 14 T s. With the 
figures herewith given it is easy to compute the cost per mile in full, 
which was a little under one cent. Several miles, where the roads 
were free of horse-drawn vehicles were made in very close to throe 
minutes. This included slight grades and rounding of curves. No 
attempt was made to drive the vehicle at its full speed. Through 
villages, etc., it was slowed down to about eight miles an hour. No 
special running ground was selected, the regular route being followed 
from Brooklyn City Hall to Jamaica. Here Hillside Avenue was taken 



2io SIXTY MILES FOR SIXTY CENTS 

to Hollis, Long Island, then by the Old Plank Road, or Hempstead- 
Jamaica Turnpike, as it was known (now Fulton Street, paved with 
brick and Macadam) to the Y at Queens, where the Jericho Pike 
branches to the left and the Hempstead Road continues to the right. 
The Hempstead Road was followed to its intersection with the Spring- 
field Road, then over the Springfield Road to the Merrick Road, and 
over the Merrick to Rockville Centre, side runs being made toward 
Long Beach and Rockaway. The vehicle backed, turned sharply and 




On Long Island for Glory 

took sharp grades from the highway into private carriage roads. 
During the whole trip no horse was unduly alarmed, in fact the horses 
of Long Island seem to be growing used to the automobile, or, at least, 
automobiles do not seem to create as much consternation as the bicycle 
did in 1896 and 1897. 

Many who only know of Long Island as a racing ground for all 
sorts of vehicles, have an idea that all its roads are absolutely level. 
Let those who think this turn left at the Old City Hall at Jamaica and 
take the road through Flushing to Bay Side, Little Neck, Roslyn, 



SIXTY MILES FOR SIXTY CENTS 211 

Wheatley Hills, and run down to Oyster Bay or on through Cold 
Spring to Huntington. They will find grades with magnificent trees 
that will astound them. Let them take the cross road from Spring- 
field through Queens and up the Rocky Hill Road, let them turn off 
at Hyde Park and take the road that passes by Lake Success, a resort 
famous in revolutionary days. In fact let them cross where they will, 
in going from the South Shore to the North Shore they must climb 
over the backbone of Long Island. From the top of many of these 
hills they can see both the ocean and the Connecticut shore, and like 
the cyclists who love the beauties of a hilly, wooded country, they will 
find that a brake is a most valuable article to possess. 



The National Capital Automobile Club 

THE National Capital Automobile Club was organized at Wash- 
ington, D. C. , February 1, Lieutenant General Nelson A. 
Miles being chosen president, and a constitution and by-laws 
was considered as reported by a committee consisting of General 
Miles, Colonel Henry May, Dr. Aspinwall and Lieutenant H.H.Ward. 
The chairman, Mr. Charles E. Foster, called attention to the fact that 
the County of Hertford, Maryland, had just come into a bequest of 
$50,000 for improving its roads, and suggested that efforts should be 
made to secure the application of the appropriation to the main road 
between Baltimore and Philadelphia ; also that the largely increasing- 
appropriations for rural free postal delivery would demand the im- 
provement of roads and that efforts to secure such appropriations 
might be made dependent upon county or State improvements of the 
roads used. 

A committee was appointed to protest against the bill taxing and 
tagging automobiles in the District of Columbia and to advocate the 
Senate bill 5,427, permitting the transport on steamboats of automo- 
biles storing gasoline. 



Thirty-two of the sixty available spaces at the Chicago automobile 
show to be held in March, this year, have already been applied tor, 
although the blanks were not mailed before November 23, last. The 
applicants who have already expressed a desire to show will exhibit 
steam, gasoline and electric vehicles, and acecssories. Application 
has been made to the traffic associations for reduced rates from all 
parts of the country, it being probable that there will be a large attend- 
ance of dealers. 



Experiences With First Machine In a Con- 
necticut Town 

By F. W. MANROSS. 

THREE years ago I had the pleasures of a pioneer in introducing 
the first automobile seen in this vicinity. Needless to say it 
attracted much attention. It was a novelty that appealed 
strongly to everybody, and afforded the Connecticut Yankee an op- 
portunity to open his famous question box. Possibly my experiences 
may prove helpful and interesting to others. It was in the fall of 1898, 
when I purchased a Winton automobile, and at once put it into active 
and hard service, running it over all sorts of roads, until October, 
1899, when it was sold. In the meantime the machine had made a 
record of 3,500 miles. Another automobile of the same make was 
immediately purchased, and up to date, has been run 4,000 miles. 
All this distance was covered without mishap of any kind, without ac- 
cident, injury or repairs. Our roads are extremely hilly, often rough 
and sandy, but the machine was never stalled by mud, sand, snow or 
heavy grades. The total casualties were: one hen killed and one run- 
away of a milkman's horse that had been left unhitched by the road- 
side. 

On good roads an exhilarating speed was quickly attained, a 
speed to the limit of safe highway travel. On one occasion the dis- 
tance from my home to Hartford, 18 miles, was covered in 55 min- 
utes. At another time I made the run from Forestville Center to New 
Haven City Hall, 32 miles, in 1 hour and 51 minutes. My best con- 
tinuous run was 40 miles, without stopping to take on water or gaso- 
line. On another occasion I made a trip of 63 miles on 13 quarts of 
gasoline, costing 54 cents, an average of about 8-10 cents per mile, 
which also covered cost of lubrication. My average running time has 
been 15 miles per hour, over all sorts and conditions of road. 

At the time of the ' ' Post ' ' automobile parade, in Bridgeport, last 
summer, my machine was the only one in line, from a distance, that 
made an actual road run to that city. And the road from Forestville 
to Bridgeport, about 50 miles, is a very hard one much of the way. 
After the event the journey was continued to New York. Return trip 
was made on a very hot day, the thermometer registering 98 degrees. 

212 



EXPERIENCES WITH FIRST MACHINE 213 

It was one of the hottest days of the summer, but we easily made the 
run, without any " record " idea, from New York city to Morris Cove, 
New Haven, Conn., in actual running time of 6 hours and 10 minutes. 

I have found the cost of gasoline for power so small as to be of no 
moment. The chief item of expense and the leading problem is that 
of tires. 

At first, in extreme cold weather, some difficulty was experienced 
in starting, but I soon discovered that a little hot water poured over 
the carbureter and inlet valve made a wonderful improvement and 
obviated all difficulty. I would emphasize the importance of keeping 
the automobile in a reasonably warm place in cold weather, so that the 
machinery and gasoline will not become filled with frost. If a moder- 
ate temperature is maintained and a little hot water used in coldest 
weather, as suggested above, the machine will be found always ready 
for instant use, and no delay or inconvenience will be occasioned. 

When the machine first appeared on the road horsemen evinced 
considerable timidity, but a little consideration and thoughtfulness soon 
brought confidence to driver and horses. It was noted that thorough- 
bred animals paid little attention to their latest rival, while plugs and 
farm horses became wildly excited and furnished many laughable inci- 
dents. On meeting children or ladies driving it was always the rule to 
stop the machine and lead the horse by, if necessary. Once two ladies 
and several children incontinently jumped from their carriage and fled 
over the fence as I approached and stopped the machine, while their 
horse looked calmly on. Their excuse for their actions was: "We 
were afraid he would run away! " It occurred to me that they had 
given the animal a mighty good chance. One Sunday my wife and 
myself — for she runs the machine successfully —were out for a spin on 
the Southington Road, when we met an aged couple driving to church. 
The old gentleman was so intent on gazing at the automobile that he 
turned the horse into the ditch, and he and his mate were spilled out. 
The old lady was provoked, and shrilly declared, as she picked her- 
self up : 

"Ye have no bizness on th' road drivin' wan of thim things 
widout a horse. ' ' 

" They do have a right on th' strate," protested the old man: M I 
have seen thim before." 

"Ye have not, thin," she retorted. "It was a throlley car ye 
saw ! ' ' 

just then a friend in the rear came upon the scene with another 



2i 4 EXPERIENCES WITH FIRST MACHINE 

machine. The old lady threw up her hands, and said in a tone of 
utter helplessness: 

" Oh, my Lord, there is another wan! What will I do, what will 
I do!" 

While this little drama was being enacted the horse was comfort- 
ably eating grass. We left the pair hotly arguing as to whether or not 
the old man had ever seen ' ' wan of thim before. ' ' 

On another occasion, while en route through Cheshire, we noted 
two men in the distance holding a seance with a horse. Getting nearer 
we saw that they had hurried the sorry equine, that would' nt have 
been surprised at an earthquake, to the roadside, and covered its head 
with a blanket. 

Passing over the Hartford turnpike one day we wheeled by a 
farmer plowing. He did not see us, but his horse did, and promptly 
bolted, broke the harness and fled, while the farmer, amazed and be- 
wildered at the unheard antics of the always placid beast, continued 
his grip on the plow handles, unable to realize the cause of the out- 
break, and helpless astonishment pictured in his face. 

One of the most amusing roadside experiences, and one that illus- 
trated the frequent folly and unreasonableness of drivers, happened 
while returning from New York. Along a narrow country road we 
encountered a fellow driving a colt attached to a hay rake, that re- 
quired the full width of the road. We called to him to turn into a 
near-by lane, but he declared that his horse had got to pass that 
machine. But the colt felt otherwise. Despite a lively whipping, it 
backed up a steep bank, the rake doubling up on the driver and shut- 
ting him in a trap. As we shot by we got a fleeting glimpse of a ma- 
chine, horse and man in a wild tangle, from which issued a volley of 
emphatic expletives. 

Another humorous incident happened on the Harlem bridge, in 
New York. As we rolled over it we encountered a diminutive pony, 
drawing a little cart, in which were two heavy men. The pony refused 
to face the automobile, and suddenly turned about and darted back 
over the bridge, despite the efforts of the driver. After quite a long 
chase we overtook the outfit, the occupants of which looked black. 
We could' nt resist the temptation to ask: " Why didn't you sit on the 
pony ? ' ' The indignant reply was not caught. 

Such experiences might be recorded indefinitely. They undoubt- 
edly add to the enjoyment of a ride. But as automobiles become 
more numerous and commonplace these features of a run disappear. 



EXPERIENCES WITH FIRST MACHINE 



215 



The use of my machine has not been confined wholly to ordinary 
road use. It has proven itself admirably adapted to hunting and fish- 
ing trips, a fact that should interest sportsmen. On these journeys it 
was run over all sorts of woodland paths, through brush and woods, 
and was found to be more easily handled under adverse circumstances 
than a horse. 

In conclusion I can only add that we have derived much pleasure 
from our Winton. We have found the automobile practical for busi- 
ness and for pleasure; under all conditions of weather and road it has 
met the demands placed upon it. It furnishes an ideal method of 
travel. With intelligent and careful use the automobile will prove of 
real benefit and utility to the fortunate possessor. 



A Handy Tire Pump 



PERHAPS there is no one part of an automobile which is the 
cause of so much anxiety and annoyance as the tires. It does 
not matter how perfect running a mechanism you may have, 
you are bound to fall heir to troubles if you do not have good, reliable 
tires. The tire problem is the burning question of the hour, and manu- 
facturers would do well to give it all the attention it deserves. 

The writer has had a number of unpleasant experiences, all more 
or less due to tires. Inasmuch as this is true, the next thing for an 




Frmp Arrangement on " Sir Charles " 

automobilist to do is to be well prepared to rectify any trouble emana- 
ting from his tires. In this connection we take pleasure in presenting 
an illustration of a tire pump which E. W. Kennard, the well known 
English automobilist, has had fitted to " Sir Charles," the winner of 
the second prize in the 1,000-mile trial, held last year under the 
auspices of the Automobile Club of Great Britain. 

Anyone who has been compelled to inflate a 4-inch tire on a cold 

216 



A HANDY TIRE PUMP 217 

day, equipped with only an ordinary foot pump, knows it is anything 
but a pleasant task, and the pump used by Mr. Kennard not only does 
this without the expenditure of exertion, but in much less time. The 
pump is operated by means of the eccentric, which is fitted on the 
main shaft of the engine. When it is necessary to "pump up," the 
hose is connected with the tire in the ordinary manner, and the engine 
started. This device saves a great amount of trouble, and illustrates 
how individual automobilists may, by the cultivation of their inventive 
faculties, make their vehicles more convenient, and less liable to pro- 
duce trouble. The idea is an excellent one. 



Bicycle Show at Madison Square Garden 

THE recent Bicycle Show at Madison Square Garden was in 
every respect successful, and as one entered the spacious area 
a very pretty and striking scene struck the eye of the visitor. 
The array of wheels was very complete. Most of the old, reliable 
makers exhibited, such as Columbia, Rambler, Cleveland, Crescent 
and many others. The decorations were exceedingly pretty, and 
very tastefully arranged. 

Souvenirs were the order of the day and night. These were of 
different kinds — from badges to carnations, the latter being pinned to 
each souvenir hunter by two pretty young ladies. 

There seemed to be a greater seriousness on the part of visitors 
than in former years. 

Conspicuous by its absence was the racer. Most of the wheels 
shown were of the roadster type. Perhaps the most notable features 
of all the wheels were the use of gears instead of chains, the cushion 
frame, and the adoption of the coaster brake. 

The automobiles present were not numerous, and came from the 
following concerns : Mobile Company of America, Grout Brothers, 
Loomis Automobile Company steam vehicles, American Bicycle Com- 
pany, Manhattan Automobile Company, Boston Motor Carriage Com- 
pany electric carriages., and the Warwick Company, which had a 
gasoline machine on exhibition. No track was provided, and in this 
respect the manufacturers were hampered, it not being possible to 
show the machines in motion. 

There were a number of motor bicycle and tricycle makers repre- 
sented, as well as manufacturers of both automobile and bicycle ac- 
cessories. 



Motor Vehicles for Public Service 

THOSE familiar with automobiles will recognize that the appli- 
cation of motor vehicles to the carrying of passengers much 
in the same way as do omnibuses, is receiving much attention 
at present. It is, of course, true that there are localities where auto- 
mobile 'buses can be used to advantage. In view of this, we take 
pleasure in presenting the paper of Mr. Rowland Outhwaite, read by 
him recently over in England. The author has, since 1897, been in- 
terested in this phase of the automobile business. The title of his 
paper was, " Motor Cars as a Substitute for Tram Cars for Public 
Conveyance. ' ' 

He said : ' l In July, of 1897, I entered first upon my motor car 
career, buying from Stirlings, of Hamilton, a four-seated Daimler 
wagonette. In this car I covered in the following eighteen months 
over 20,000 miles — in fact, having little else to do at that time and 
being anxious to gain experience, under all conditions of weather and 
roads, in an industry I felt sure was bound before long to be a large 
and important one, I left no stone unturned to attain my object. I 
merely state this by way of preface to show what led me up to asso- 
ciate myself with the company with which I am now connected, when 
the same came before the public in May of 1899, to run motor cars on 
the same lines as street cars. I do not want, however, to trouble you 
now with the history of our individual company, but showing as we 
do after eighteen months' business, I am only too sorry to say, a loss, 
I would like to point out, so far as I am able, the reasons for it, and I 
would then, with your kind permission, make a few suggestions for 
the future. 

" In view of the fact that representatives of various manufacturing 
firms are present, I would ask them kindly to remember I do not wish 
to speak pointedly or with special reference to any one firm, and I 
would ask them to accept the suggestions made in the spirit in which 
I can assure them they are given — for our mutual benefit. 

" One other point, gentlemen, I would ask you to remember, and 
that is that I am dealing solely with the one type of car — that driven 
by oil. To come back to the point again — viz. , ' The causes of 
failure. ' 

' ' Firstly — The cars as at present built for public service work are, 

218 



MOTOR VEHICLES FOR PUBLIC SERVICE 219 

as regards strength, out of all proportion to the work they are called 
upon to do. To put it a little more graphically, it is like going into 
action with a gun mounted on a ' Victoria' and drawn by a pony. I 
am sure, gentlemen, you will agree with me when I say that the labors 
of Hercules were nothing to those of anyone running to-day twenty 
or thirty cars for public service — unless of course it was done abso- 
lutely regardless of cost. We are to-day attempting to run at a profit 
cars, originally designed for four passengers, with loads of eleven and 
twelve persons, to say nothing of a hood in bad weather. The same 
engine, the same gearing, the same sized bearings, the same section of 
rubber tire, the same chains, are to-day fitted to my largest public ser- 
vice car as are fitted to my own two-seated car. It is obvious, then, 
gentlemen, one of them is wrong, and it is obvious which it is when I 
tell you that the former costs me nearly as many pounds to keep up 
in one month as my car costs me shillings in a year. 

" Secondly — Even though the existing type of oil public service 
car was built heavier throughout, and a more powerful engine substi- 
tuted, I find from experience the design in many vital points is not 
suitable for this particular class of work, owing to ( 1 ) constant varia- 
tions in load ; (2) incessant starting and stopping ; (3) lack of really 
competent drivers, the latter being a point I will touch on later. 

" Take point No. 1. A driver adjusts his brakes and chains before 
leaving the depot. He procures a full complement of passengers — 10. 
With what result ? Chains go out of adjustment and the brakes rub on 
the tires. This must be obvious to the makers, gentlemen. 

" Point No. 2. Except with careful drivers, the continual starting 
and stopping, compulsory in street traffic, is a severe strain on nearly 
the whole of the car, and I believe this factor has almost more to do 
with the rapid deterioration of the cars than anything — very often, too, 
it is absolutely necessary to pull up suddenly to prevent accident. 

' ' Lastly — Drivers. I have given this question most careful thought 
and attention. Not being able to alter the defects in the cars, I tried 
the only other remedy, to improve the drivers. In this I was par- 
tially frustrated, for I found — after carefully training men and giving 
them every possible encouragement to make themselves efficient, not 
only as drivers but mechanics, other small companies started up with 
three cars here and three cars there, and by means of an extra shilling 
a week and the promise of a new car, I found my best men Leaving 
me, and then I had to start at the bottom of the hill again. 

" I firmly believe the motor industry, and motor public services, 



22o MOTOR VEHICLES FOR PUBLIC SERVICE 

have suffered more through bad drivers than anything, and I would 
take the liberty of urging you, gentlemen, not to certify a man to be 
an efficient driver when he is far from it. I can honestly say I have 
had many men come to me with excellent characters, who when I 
asked them the simplest question were absolutely at sea. After a 
driver has been with me a considerable time, and besides being a good 
driver, is capable of doing his own repairs, I give him a printed cer- 
tificate which, so far as his efficiency goes, is his character. 

' ' There is one other important point which I must not omit — tires. 
I think I have tried almost every make at every price. The tire which 
to-day gives me by far the best results is the ' Castle ' vulcanized 
tire, supplied by the North British Rubber Company. If the ordinary 
'Clincher ' section is used, I should most certainly advise nothing under 
a 3-inch section on the driving-wheels — and would even prefer 3^-inch 
or 33^ -inch section. I think I have said enough about the bad points. 
With your permission I would throw out a few suggestions for a future 
car suitable for the work, and with which I am confident it would be 
more than possible to compete with any existing tramway company in 
the country. The carrying capacity of the car should not be under 
fourteen passengers, so as to admit of a conductor being carried. 

" To cam- this number of passengers I do not think anything un- 
der a 12-b. h.-p. motor should be used, but I am strong on the point 
that only an engine with two cylinders be employed. All working- 
parts should be encased, and while electric ignition might be used to 
advantage, I certainly am of opinion tube should be fitted as well. 
It should be made impossible for the driver to increase the speed 
of the engine above normal. All wearing parts must be accessible, 
adjustable and easily and cheaply replaced. One of the greatest 
drawbacks of the present public service car is the time lost gaining 
access to various parts. I think a good many of the present-day evils 
could be got over by having the existing shaft stationary horizontally, 
and instead of sliding the shaft and friction clutch together, slide the 
clutch itself along the shaft. The connection to the road wheels 
would, I think, be better with gearing in place of chains. 

' 'As regards lubrication, this should be done from one oil reservoir 
with pipes leading to all the journals. While I have always found the 
' ' Stauffer ' ' lubricator very efficient, the time taken to grease twenty 
cars is very considerable. A car on these lines being built, let us con- 
sider the advantages of the motor car for street traffic, which is obvi- 
ous. You have all the advantages of the 'bus, in that your cars can 



MOTOR VEHICLES FOR PUBLIC SERVICE 22: 

run on any route according to the requirements of the traffic, and 
moreover you take your passengers direct from the pavement. 

" It is not necessary to upheave your streets and spend hundreds 
of thousands laying rails, building power stations, etc. With the 
finest mechanical tramway system yet produced, one accident at once 
disorganizes the whole system, as we see very forcibly in Edinburgh 
nearly every day. 

■ ' The cost per mile of running a good car is about two-thirds of 
a cent,* which I think compares quite favorably with any tramway 
system. For suburban traffic motor cars seem particularly suitable, as 
passengers can be conveyed with safety at a greater speed than would 
be possible or safe with any other vehicle. For three months last 
winter I ran such a service to a small village three miles from Edin- 
burgh, with a time table, and as I brought people into town in twenty 
minutes, as against forty by ' bus, I charged an extra halfpenny over 
the 'bus fare. This the people resented, so I withdrew the cars for 
another service. 

" I have already taken up too much of your time, gentlemen, but 
in two words I would like to tell you the means adopted by my com- 
pany to overtake and check repairs and fix responsibility. When each 
car comes in at night, the driver is given a ' report ' sheet with a list 
of all the main parts of the car printed. Opposite any part which 
needs attention he makes his remarks. The foreman makes an extract 
of these, and allocates the work among the night engineers. The 
head engineer hands a report to the foreman in the morning, stating 
all the work done, and by whom each respective job is done. When 
the driver takes over his car in the morning, he is given back his 
previous night's report sheet. On the bottom of this is a place for 
him to fill in any items which he reported which had not been given 
effect to, and that clears him from responsibility in case of accident. 

" My company has carried over 5,000 passengers in one day, and 
over 1,000 in one car in one day. We had cars last year as far north 
as Inverness and as far south as here, and, I am pleased to say, with- 
out a single exception, we have never injured in the slightest degre< 
any passenger — which is a tribute to the men employed by our com- 
pany. 

" I would again thank you for your kindness in giving me your 
attention, and I can only trust that the motor industry, in all it- 
branches, will prosper as it should and is bound to do." 

*Mr. Outhwaite here referred to cost of petroleum spirit only. 



222 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR PUBLIC SERVICE 

At the close of the address, the paper was very freely discussed 
by Messrs. Richardson, Hutchings, Edge, Morris, Rollo, Gretton 
and French. 



A story has been going the rounds of the automobile papers to 
the effect that Harvard University has found it impracticable to con- 
tinue its veterinary department, there being only seventeen students 
who care to devote themselves to the ailments of the horse. This is 
owing to the fact that the young men, recognizing the growing popu- 
larity of the automobile, believe it would be better to study mechanics 
than the poulticing of horses. One of our English contemporaries, 
the Motor Car Journal, in commenting upon this, says that this state- 
ment, like many reports from the United States, seems hardly credible. 



Senator Piatt recently introduced a bill to Congress which pro- 
poses to remove the difficulties and inconvenience caused to owners of 
automobiles, caused by an act which practically prohibits the taking 
of machines using gasoline across on ferryboats without first throwing 
out the gasoline. The bill, as introduced by Senator Piatt, if carried 
through, will remove this difficulty. The wording of the section 
covering the point in question reads: 

' ' Nothing in the foregoing or following sections of this act shall 
prohibit the transportation by steam vessels of gasoline or any of the 
products of petroleum when carried by motor vehicles (commonly 
known as automobiles) using the same as a source of motive power; 
provided, however, that all fire, if any, in such vehicles or automobiles 
be extinguished before entering the same vessels, and that the same be 
not relighted until after said vehicle shall have left the same. ' ' 



fi ft {$> 



One Season's Experience With a Steam 

Carriage 

By P. T. REES 

I HAD some new experiences during the summer of 1900; some 
have been of the most delightful sort, others have been provoca- 
tive of remarks which were positive evidence of good faith, but 
not meant for publication. It all depended upon whether the 'bile 
worked according to catalog or according to the perversity of inani- 
mate objects, perversity in inanimate objects really meaning faulty 
design, poor material, or poor workmanship, or all of them. 

I prefer in this case to designate my machine as a 'bile; it will do 
as well as to give the correct name; it's shorter, and besides doesn't 
inform the reader as to which particular one it is of the half score or 
so of steam carriages, all cut off the same stick and subject to the same 
disorders. 

I have run my machine, during the past summer, more than 2,500 
miles, over all kinds of country and all kinds of roads, and although I 
have at times felt inclined to dynamite the thing, I've had pleasure 
enough when it did work smoothly, to compensate me for the troubles 
— especially after the troubles were past. I can say, however, as the 
result of my experience, that no one should start on a tour with a 
steam carriage, as steam carriages are known to commerce at the 
present time, who is afraid of soiling his hands, and, in fact, when go- 
ing on a long trip, a suit of overalls under the seat cushion may and 
probably will be found very useful. Nor should any novice undertake 
a lengthy tour in one of these machines with expectations of unalloyed 
pleasure. 

Unless the operator has had previous experience with steam ma- 
chinery, or has at least studied and familiarized himself with the ma- 
chinery of his carriage, his chances for an enjoyable trip arc slim. It 
is a pity that this should be the case, for steam engineering is hardly 
in the experimental stage, and there is no reason why these steam car- 
riages should not be designed and built so as to be free from the petty 
troubles with which the present productions are likely to mar the most 
enjoyable recreation I know of. And yet, in spiteof the petty defects, 
the result of my observation and experience convinces me thai steam 
is the proper power for a carriage in which to travel at will throughout 
the country; if the steam machines were designed and built as they 

223 



224 ONE SEASON'S EXPERIENCE WITH A STEAM CARRIAGE 

could and should be, I feel confident that the ranks of the steam sect 
would be swelled rapidly with proselytes from the faiths of internal 
combustion and electricity. 

When I purchased my machine, I started to run it home myself. 
I had had some experience, theoretical and practical, with steam; I 
have even ridden a few miles in the cab of a locomotive, and I felt my- 
self competent to handle anything that went by steam on dry land. I 
had talked with a number of different ' ' demonstrators ' ' and ' ' in- 
structors ' ' representing several different makes of the same kind of 
machine, and I didn't really feel that they had any light to impart to 
me that they were likely to impart — and I think so yet. I have seen 
but just one ' ' instructor ' ' who seemed to be anything else than an ex- 
pert bicycle rider who had become equally expert in handling a steam 
carriage, so long as everything worked as it should. The one excep- 
tion was evidently a practical and competent mechanic, who was really 
capable of instructing; he was sent out from a local agency. 

It was late in the afternoon when I started, with a companion, 
and darkness soon overtook us, bothering me to see the height of the 
water in the glass; just one instance of the convenience of having 
gage cocks, but I got along fairly well by reflecting the light from the 
side lamp with a small hand mirror purchased at a roadside country 
store. We were assured, before starting, that the water tank held 
sufficient water to run twenty-five miles. We climbed some hills, 
ploughed through some sand and found the tank empty in about twelve 
miles. But we didn't get home that night; we stabled the 'bile at a 
hotel, and I went to bed to dream until morning of driving a steam 
carriage at phenomenal speed over strange roads in which huge rocks, 
trees, stone walls, and other formidable obstacles were constantly ap- 
pearing directly in front, but which were always most miracuously 
dodged. It was an entirely strange road we had been traveling. 

Next morning it took over half an hour to get up steam enough 
to turn on the main burner; something had clogged the "torch," 
and as there was present during the operation a numerous, inquisitive 
and suggestive audience, we did not enjoy it as thoroughly as we 
might. When I reached home I took the torch apart, cleaned it 
thoroughly, and when put together again it would get up steam in 
four or five minutes ; but I find it is subject to such stoppages, which 
sometimes can be removed by forcing air through it with a large air 
pump, and sometimes can't. 

We got started finally, and after covering four or five miles of 



ONE SEASON'S EXPERIENCE WITH A STEAM CARRIAGE 225 

macadam at a good rate, the pump stopped working, or at least failed 
to keep up the water, which began to fall steadily in the glass. I kept 
going as long as I dared, then stopped, turned off the fire and began 
to investigate. I soon found by opening the drain cock in the expan- 
sion loop of the feed pipe, that water was not running from the tank 
to the pump, and as the tank was nearly full of water, and the tank 
valve was open, it was obvious that the passage was somewhere ob- 
structed. I couldn't reach the opening to pipe from the filling hole 
as the wash boards were in the way, but I finally discovered another 
hand-hole in the front of the tank, under seat, and directly over the 
pipe. Here I found an exceedingly fine gauze strainer, brazed in and 
covered with dirt of various kinds, which I scraped off as best I could 
with my finger nails, then punched the strainer full of holes with a 
wire nail. In its place I have had a fine gauze strainer made to fit 
the filling hole of the tank — kept the dirt out of the tank after that, 
and ripped the original strainer out altogether. There was no provi- 
sion made for washing out the tank when the thing was built, all the 
dirt in the waters of creation had a fair chance to get into it, and the 
strainer put in by the builders, who boast in their literature of the vast 
amount of gray matter expended upon each one of the several hun- 
dred parts of the machine, wouldn't let a molecule of such dirt get 
out again. 

The pump is one of the most troublesome features of these ma- 
chines. The ' ' auxiliary ' ' hand pump, put on avowedly to pump up 
the boiler when standing or when cold, is used by the fellow who has 
it to do a portion of the work which the feed pump should do, but 
doesn't, while the fellow who has neither the auxiliary hand pump nor 
an injector, raises up the back wheels, or one of them, or else blows 
off the steam, siphons the boiler full, and fires up again. Either oper- 
ation is very amusing — to the spectators — and the fact that nearly 
everyone who is watching the process tells of some other fellow he 
saw just the other day in just the same predicament, doesn't seem to 
have the tranquilizing effect on one's mind and language that the nar- 
rator appears to expect. The stroke of the feed pump is too short 
and the speed too great to be effective, and it is almost impossible 
sometimes to work out a bubble of air which gets trapped, especially 
on a hot day when the water gets low in the tank and too hot to bear 
one's hand in it for longer than a moment. Although 1 soon learned 
to gage the consumption of water quite accurately by the road over 
which I was traveling, I seldom allow my tank to get more than half 



226 ONE SEASON'S EXPERIENCE WITH A STEAM CARRIAGE 

empty when touring, and seldom pass a good place to fill up ; thus 
keeping the water cooler in the tank and avoiding some trouble with 
the pump. At its best, the pump on my 'bile will not supply water 
to the boiler as fast as used on continuous hard pulling, as up long 
mountain grades, or through long stretches of sand, while on good 
and fairly level roads I can set my by-pass and not disturb it for miles 
unless the pump quits altogether. 

I had heard and read of several instances of steam carriages run- 
ning backwards on steep grades and was puzzled to account for it; but 
on a trip among the mountains of Northern New jersey, far from 
macadam roads, I discovered the reason. I attempted to climb a hill 
which looked easy, without having full pressure of steam. These little 
machines are great climbers, so long as they hold their steam (which 
isn't long on a hard hill) and with an extra large sprocket wheel on 
the driving axle and without a passenger, I could run my 'bile up the 
face of Madison Square Garden tower without an incline, providing she 
could get toe-hold, and the steam lasted. This particular hill proved 
steeper than it looked, and the surface was far from smooth; steam went 
down to about no pounds, and I stalled, with the throttle wide open. 
Knowing the inefficiency of the common band brake for the backward 
motion, I left the throttle open to assist the brake in holding the car- 
riage until the steam ran up again, and paid no attention to the slight 
backward movement, as I expected the combined efforts of the brake 
and throttle would stop her in a few inches. 

My companion made some remark about getting out to push, and 
I turned my head to reply, when suddenly the 'bile gave a leap back- 
wards and started down the hill again at a surprising rate. Fortunately 
the road was straight at that point and I had time to see that the re- 
verse lever had jumped back and that my machine was going down 
hill backwards with the throttle wide open. I quickly threw it ahead 
again and held it there until we stopped; by which time we had steam 
enough to go on. With a link motion engine the valves have a ten- 
dency to drag the reverse lever forward when the engine is moving 
forward, and backwards when turning the other way, and it was clear 
to me then how the man I had been told of a day or two previous, had 
been run away with backwards on a steep hill, and had brought up into 
a mill race beside the road. When I got home again, I drilled some 
holes in the quadrant, against which the reverse lever bears, just large 
enough for the pin which projects from the inner side of the lever to 
enter; now my reverse lever stays where I put it. 



ONE SEASON'S EXPERIENCE WITH A STEAM CARRIAGE 227 

My 'bile has the single bar or " slipper " guides, and they and the 
crossheads are too small— not enough bearing surface, wear rapidly and 
run dry in a dozen miles. They should have oil cups. The other 
bearings, under ordinary circumstances, will easily run twenty-five to 
thirty miles with a drop of oil. 

With a companion, I made one trip of nearly 500 miles up the east 
side of the Hudson to Albany, thence to Troy and Bennington, Ver- 
mont, and back by the same route to Albany. From Albany we re- 
turned via the west side of the river to Kingston, thence via Ellen ville 
to Port Jervis, along the Delaware to the Water Gap, and home across 
New Jersey. It is a delightful trip, through a most beautiful country 
and over roads good, bad and indifferent. In this trip, we stopped 
over night at Peekskill, and in the morning found that rain had fallen 
during the night. We climbed the hills in the Highlands (of which my 
companion said that some of them were so steep that they leaned over 
backwards on top) with some help in pushing on his part, and got 
along fairly well until above Fishkill. Above Fishkill the road is a 
beautiful one in good weather, with magnificent trees arching over it 
much of the way; but the rain had been heavy during the night and the 
roadbed was covered with slimy mud an inch or two in depth, through 
which, owing to the side slipping, it was impossible to make any kind 
of time, and we didn't strike dry roads again until we were near 
Hudson. At Hudson we took a supply of gasoline and started for 
Albany, which we were desirous of reaching that evening; but the ma- 
chine would' t make steam a little bit. I couldn't get more than eighty 
pounds at most, and our progress was necessarily slow; we didn't reach 
Albany until 10 P. M., and there was no good place to stop between. 
The next morning I went to the stable intending to take down the 
burner and clean it before starting, but I found that our trouble had 
been caused by mud, thrown apparently by the wheels into the netting 
under the burner, where it had baked, choking up the netting and stop- 
ping the draft. A stiff wire brush removed the baked mud and the 
difficulty, and we had plenty of steam that day; when but a few miles 
out of Troy we overtook a machine just like mine, except for the 
maker's name, and we lost two or three hours helping its owner out 
of several troubles in which he seemed hopelessly involved. 

On the return part of this trip I broke a water glass, and after re- 
placing it, refilling the boiler and firing up, I had trouble with those 
wonderful check valves, which closed promptly when the glass broke, 
but were thereafter disposed to close regardless of the condition of the 



228 ONE SEASON'S EXPERIENCE WITH A STEAM CARRIAGE 

glass, and I had considerable trouble in locating the exact level of the 
water in the boiler in consequence. At Kingston, next morning, I 
took those check valves out of the cases and threw them away. Then 
I knew the passages between the boiler and the glass were free — had to 
blow the boiler off anyway, if a glass broke, and the only difference was 
the danger of spoiling the varnish on the wagon body with the hot 
water from a broken glass. The next day everything went lovely as 
could be desired, but in the afternoon of the second day I noticed that 
the water in the glass responded very sluggishly to the motion of the 
carriage, and finally became almost stationary — an infallible sign of 
stoppage somewhere. I stopped, blew off the boiler, took out the 
water glass and found a piece had broken off the bottom end and 
dropped down, practically closing the bottom opening, while a portion 
of the rubber gasket had worked over the top end and closed that open- 
ing, too. A new glass was put in, and then it was necessary to raise 
the back wheels and turn them by hand to pump the boiler full. The 
' ' Books of Instruction ' ' tell you that the boiler will fill by gravity in 
from 10 to 15 minutes, but from my experience I should say that by 
gravity alone, 10 to 15 years would be more nearly correct. 

This time when I got home I put a small globe valve in each con- 
nection, and now I don't have to blow off my boiler if a glass breaks, 
neither do I have "safety " checks seating themselves at the wrong 
time. 

A bad feature about these water glasses is that they are located 
too far from the boiler, and the long connections add to the angularity 
of the water level on grades, and should be taken into consideration 
when running low in water. They also have a peculiar effect when the 
boiler foams; the reverse of what is usual on ordinary boilers. The 
glass and the long bottom connection contain water which does not par- 
ticipate in the foaming, and the water in the boiler being less dense 
while foaming, that in the glass and connection rush partly back into 
the boiler, at such times, and what is left in the glass is solid in appear- 
ance. In touring where many different kinds of water are used during 
the day, the boiler should be blown off every night if foaming is to be 
avoided. 

On another trip of about 400 miles, I had a great deal of trouble 
with the boiler foaming one day. It was so bad that I stopped two or 
three times to blow off the boiler, syphoning it full of fresh water and 
firing up again, only to have it act worse, if possible. I was puzzled, 
until I discovered that my companion, after washing his hands, had put 



ONE SEASON'S EXPERIENCE WITH A STEAM CARRIAGE 229 

the soap, usually carried in the tool box, on top of the tank, where the 
heat, the moisture and the slopping from the tank when full, had soft- 
ened it, and it had worked into the tank through a vacant bolt hole on 
top, and perhaps past the cover of the filling hole. The soap was re- 
moved from that place, the top of the tank carefully cleaned, and after 
one more blowing off and a fresh tank of water, my trouble ceased. 

On one of my trips, the joint under the steam chest cover blew out 
— it was only rubber and couldn't be guaranteed for any length of time 
at high pressure. 

On another trip the joints blew out of both cylinder heads, and, 
although I was assured at the factory that these were ground joints, 
on taking off the covers I found remains of some sort of joint, I 
couldn't tell what, which I carefully scraped off and replaced with 
common brown wrapping paper and boiled oil. Another time I had 
just got up steam when I noticed that the throttle lever, which I knew 
was in the closed position when I started the fire, was now in an open 
position, and upon taking hold of it found it was free from the valve. 
Upon investigation, I found the stem broken in the thread ; it was 
very light and of the poorest brass, and scarcely any metal was left to 
hold it together where the thread was cut. 

The chain is one part of the machine which requires careful atten- 
tion, especially on a tour ; and it is surprising how much "stretch" 
will develop and in how short a time. All bicycle rules for chain ad- 
justment fail to fit the case of a 'bile. I tighten my chain until it is 
almost rigid — the weight of two persons will depress the springs 
enough to give it all necessary slack. -If left slack when the carriage 
is empty, the load is quite certain to add enough more by the depres- 
sion of the springs to make it a possible source of danger. There is 
little likelihood of trouble while using steam and the chain is under 
tension, but when running shut off, as down a hill, it will get swaying 
from side to side if loose, and as there is a constant change of length. 
due to the motion of the body on the springs, it only requires the 
proper combination of sway and depression to cause the chain to 
mount the sprocket — then there's trouble. It happened with me on a 
tour, before I had learned to tell by the sound, when running, that the 
chain was getting slack. Fortunately, I was down the hill and moving 
quite slowly on the level, for the chain jammed between the sprocket 
wheel and the frame strut which encircles the compensating gear. It 
stopped the wheels instantly, and had our speed been greater would 
have been far from beneficial to the tires, to say nothing oi thechances 
of my companion and myself taking a header. 



230 ONE SEASON'S EXPERIENCE WITH A STEAM CARRIAGE 

A very simple improvement would be to have the brake so ar- 
ranged that it could be fastened when applied, when desirable to do 
so. This would be a safeguard against running away when the car- 
riage is left standing alone, and would be a great convenience when 
the operator has occasion to stop on some steep hill, and has no com- 
panion to hold the brake while he dismounts. 

There are some very gratifying things about traveling in a 'bile, 
to one who has ridden a bicycle for years and has, not so long ago 
either, encountered some of the rural prejudice against that ' ' silent 
steed. ' ' One thing is, that the road-hog who maneuvres his team so 
as to crowd you into the gutter with your bike, gives you room to 
spare when he meets you in your ' bile. Another is the friendly feeling 
manifested everywhere I have been with my machine by all classes of 
people. The farmer, who used to cuss the bike and its rider, now 
says when he meets the 'bile, " Great things, ain't they? Guess I'll 
have to get one some day. Never mind these old hosses, I'll take 
care of them — they've got to get used to them machines, and they 
may as well begin now. ' ' At any suspicion of trouble, willing ones 
are numerous and prompt in their offers of assistance. Caught unex- 
pectedly by nightfall, on one occasion, with no oil in the side lamps, I 
stopped at a country store to get them filled. The proprietor filled 
them for me himself, and in doing so ran them over and wasted three 
times the oil that went into the lamps ; but when it came to compensa- 
tion, I had to force it upon him. 

As I said before, I've run my machine over 2,500 miles during 
the past season, and I haven't caused a runaway — not one. I must 
plead guilty to ' ' letting her out ' ' once in a while, and have covered 
ground at a lively rate sometimes, on good road, but the sight of a 
horse coming, or standing beside the road is a sign for me to slow up, 
and I never pass one until I see that it is not going to give its driver 
trouble, and if a horse is disposed to act badly, I find that the best 
course is to stop my machine and insist upon having the horse driven 
past. I haven't much faith in horses anyway, and I don't care to do 
anything which is likely to aggravate the non-'bile public, and lead to 
annoying restrictive legislation against the coming vehicle. 



A French Racing Car 



THERE seems to be every indication that this spring and summer 
will witness the importation into this country of a number of 
foreign built racing machines. Every little while one reads 
in his daily newspaper that some well known American automobolist 
has just ordered from some European builder, a special car which it is 
expected will be much faster than any other vehicle ever built. 

It is not the purpose of this article to go into the causes for the 
apparent favor with which American automobile enthusiasts look upon 




Darracq Racing Carriage. 80 Horse-Power 

French racing cars. That it does exist is evident. Perhaps it is 
because the American manufacturer is more practical and does not 
consider that the average person wants a fast vehicle, and therefore 
has not given it the thought and study accorded it on the other 
side of the Atlantic. 

Be that as it may, there can be no doubt that France has pro- 
duced some phenomenal machines so far as power and speed arc con- 
cerned. For some time past rumors have been rampant to the effect 
that many builders over there have been engaged quietly in construct- 
ing powerful machines, and in this connection it gives us pleasure to 

2^,1 



232 A ERENCH RACING CAR 

present an illustration of the Darracq racing car, the photograph for 
which was taken specially for the Automobile Magazine at the 
company's works at Suresnes, near Versailles. 

The carriage is fitted with an 80 horse-power motor and has been 
built to take part in the great race of 1901, between Paris and Berlin. 
It is claimed to be the most powerful and fastest machine actually in 
Paris. There are four cylinders. The machine is fitted with both 
tube and electric ignition. Lubrication is accomplished from a central 
box which is seen at the front of the mechanician's seat. 

It will be noticed that the driver brakes with both feet, and his 
position in the seat admits of the application of great power to the 
brake. The arrangement of sprocket drive is similar to the Panhard 
and other French machines. The spokes of the rear wheels are rein- 
forced where the rear sprocket is bolted to them, and are fitted 
with 5" Michelin tires, while the front wheels have 3" tires of the 
same make. 



D 



A Few Dont's 

ON'T light a match to see if your gasoline tank is full or empty. 
A friend who did so is minus a $ r , 200 machine — he expects to 
be out of the hospital next month. 



Don't hunt for a leak with a match or any kind of a light except 
an incandescent lamp. Even then it's safer to let the other fellow do 
the hunting. Shut off all the valves you can find and wait till morning. 

Don't smoke a cigar or pipe when filling your tanks or when 
around them in any way. The servant girl and the kerosene can fur- 
nish material enough for the paragraphers. 

Don't bother with your machine, except to clean it, as long as it 
is working well. Continued " fix in' " when it didn't need it has 
ruined many a good machine. 

Don't race on the public roads. You may get beaten, thrown 
out or arrested — possibly all three, and either one is bad enough. 
It's against the law, and it brings discredit on automobiles in general. 



The Man with the Mileage 

Bowed by the weight of ' ' centuries ' ' he leans 

Across the tiller wheel and gazes on the ground. 

His is the emptiness of the mileage face ; 

His back might bear the burden of the world. 

Who made him dead to needfulness and caution, 

A thing that looks not and never cares, 

Stolid and stunning, a brother to the trolley car ? 

Who slanted down those gleaming controlling bars ? 

Whose breath blew out the light within that lamp ? 

Is this the thing the vehicle maker gave 

To have dominion over street and boulevard, 

To trace the paths and search the suburbs for a road, 

To feel the joy of swift locomotion ? 

Is this the dream dreamed by the maker of the machine, 

Who stiffened that strong running frame of steel ? 

Down all the stretch of road to the road-house 

There is no shape more terrible than this — 

More tongued with censure of the world's pedestrians, 

More filled with signs and portents for the passer by, 

More fraught with menace to the universe. 

What gulfs between him and Apollo Belvedere ! 

Slave of the tire of rubber, what to him 

Are rules of parks and swing of coppers' clubs, 

What the long reaches of the law's strong arm, 

The broken leg, the reddening nose ? 

Through this dread shape the scorching age looks down, 

Fast time's tragedy is in that steersman's stoop. 

Through this dread shape, humanity betrayed, 

Twisted, bent over and all humped, 

Cries protest to makers of the motor, 

A protest that is also prophecy. 

O, manufacturers, dealers in all lands ! 

Is this the chromo that you give the world, 

This monstrous thing, distorted and awry ? 

How will you ever straighten up this shape, 

Give back the proud and upward-looking head, 

Make right the awful sinuosity, 

The parabolic incurvation, deflection serpentine? 

How will the future reckon with this man ? 

How answer this brute question in that hour 

When he is bent just like a boomerang ? 

How will it be with makers of the motored one, 

With those who turned him to the thing he is. 

When this bent terror tries to straighten up, 

After he has reeled off all his centuries ? — Motor U b 



The Roads of Our Country 

THE following extracts, taken from an address delivered by 
Honorable Martin Dodge, at the Good Roads Convention, 
held at Denver, October 29, 1900, may prove of interest to 
automobilists. Mr. Dodge is Director of the Office of Public Road 
Inquiries, United States Department of Agriculture. 

The author has, for many years past, made a thorough and ex- 
haustive study of the question, and anything he may have tosiy on 
the subject we may be assured is reliable. He is in entire sympathy 
with the movement for the improvement and better maintenance of 
our highways. 

To those who may be interested in roads connecting centers of 
population, between which the transportation of freight by self-pro- 
pelled vehicles may be carried on, his remarks ought to prove of 
value. We quote : 

' ' In the early history of the Republic, the Government of the 
United States undertook to build and maintain national roads. It was 
the thought and expectation of the early statesmen, that a system at 
least as universal as the railroad system now prevailing, should be 
built and maintained by the general Government out of the common 
funds of the general revenue. But that policy was abandoned about 
two generations ago, mainly because the railroad system was found to 
be a much better and much cheaper method than could ever be ob- 
tained by improvement under the ancient system. As a consequence 
of this change in the Government policy the construction of the com- 
mon highways was turned over, first, to the States ; also, the national 
road which was built by the Government before that time, was turned 
over to the various States in which it lay, and by the States it was 
again turned over to the counties ; also, the policy of each State soon 
resulted in turning over to the localities the entire jurisdiction of com- 
pleting the highway system. 

' ' It is very remarkable that the cost of transportation over the 
highway is at the present time almost as great as it was two genera- 
tions ago, and yet in reference to all the other means of transportation 
there has been such an unexpected increase in the facilities that it is 
really marvelous that we are able to have our transportation so rapid 
and so cheap. It may be interesting to you to know that it costs 25 

234 



THE ROADS OF OUR COUNTRY 235 

cents per ton mile for moving freight by animal power over the com- 
mon roads, while it costs only about one-half a cent a mile for moving 
the same amount over the better system, which is so commonly used 
all over the country, and wherein the inanimate power is substituted 
for the animal power that was so universal. You will notice that in the 
matter of ratio it is fifty to one. In other words, it costs as much to 
transport a product one mile by the ordinary system of animal power, 
as it costs to transport it fifty miles by the prevailing system in this 
country. That may not be exactly correct, but it would be approxi- 
mately so. ' ' 

In another part of his able paper, Mr. Dodge refers to the liberal 
manner in which the Government has contributed to the River and 
Harbor Commission, looking to the deepening of water in rivers and 
harbors, arguing from this that the Government ought to support in a 
much more liberal manner than it does, the improvement and mainte- 
nance of its highways. 

The paper is replete with points of interest, and refers to the 
growing popularity of the automobile as another reason for a more 
aggressive and liberal policy on the part of the Government. 



O ! Thou most faithful of brutes 

And beast of burden, 

Thou friend of women and children, 

Victim of the summer fly 

And divers other annoyances 

Which made 

Thy use an uncertain quantity, 

It now doth look 

As if thy days of service 

Approached their close. 

For I ! The horseless vehicle, 

The herald of the " horseless ago," 

Will put thee out of business. 

Man may love thee well, 

But t' would seem as though 

He loves me better. 



International Automobile Exhibition at 
Agricultural Hall, London 

THERE cannot be any doubt that the interest in automobilism is 
world wide. American vehicles are seen upon European streets, 
European wagons are popular in the United States. This be- 
ing so, the International Exhibition of Motor Cars to be held in 
Agricultural Hall, London, from May 4 to 11, of the present year, 
ought to draw from all corners of the earth. 

This great show is to be held under the auspices of the Automo- 
bile Club of Great Britain and Ireland. The hall selected is the largest 
in the United Kingdom. So far all the space on the ground floor has 
been taken, and for the first time exhibitors will be compelled to use 
the gallery. 

The demonstrating arena, in which hundreds of vehicles can be 
accommodated, will be used for showing the speed and reliability of 
cars, and also provide inventors and drivers an opportunity of showing 
their skill in steering. Altogether considerably more than a thousand 
machines will be on view. On previous occasions the presence of ex- 
hibitors from the United States has been a feature, and again there is 
extended a hearty welcome to all interested in automobilism on this 
side of the Atlantic. All visitors from the States will have personal 
attention, and whether they go as exhibitors or sightseers, they will 
be interested and instructed. The entries already received justify the 
statement that the exhibition will be the most representative display of 
motor vehicles ever seen. 

Mr. Cordingley, who organized the first automobile show held in 
Great Britain, is to have charge, and that is saying enough. It is to 
be hoped that the American exhibits will be larger than ever before. 



An Irishman was driving an automobile puffing laboriously up a 
steep grade when a passer-by hailed him and shouted that the brake 
was on ; but the driver, with an accent of contempt for such ignorance, 
replied: " Begorra, can't you understand that? 'Tis to keep the ma- 
chine from going backjiown the hill ! ' ' 




( We desire those interested in both the manufacture and operation of Auto- 
mobiles to send in for use, in this department, whatever they think may be of 
interest to us or our readers. — Editors. ) 



Automobiles on the Installment Plan 

NOW that the automobile business has practically passed through 
some of its most trying seasons, demonstrating to the general 
public that it is stable, and as an oft-repeated expression 
puts it, has "come to stay," why is it not an opportune time for 
capitalists and manufacturers to turn undivided attention to its 
development? 

As a matter of fact there are not many men earning, say from 
three to five thousand dollars per year, who unhesitatingly feel like 
paying out all the way from seven to fifteen hundred dollars at one 
time for a motor vehicle. This being so, it would seem as though 
immense business is assured to any company with wise directors and 
businesslike methods which can place on the market good, reliable 
vehicles, to be paid for in regular installments, say within a period of 
three or four years. 

If it was possible to market sewing machines, pianos and other 
commodities in this way, why should it not be feasible with automo- 
biles? Upon inquiry it will be found that most of the articles referred 
to (sewing machines, pianos, etc.) are not sold direct, but on the in- 
stallment plan, much as some people may be averse to that method oi 
doing business. 

Could such apian be made to work satisfactorily, needless to say 
it would give a great impetus to trade. 

Winchester, Mass. Alfred Lamsdon. 



Know Your Gasoline 

1 BELIEVE much of the grief and disappointment with gasoline 
motors comes from the quality or condition of the gasoline at 
the time it is used. There is gasoline and gasoline. Some will 
give excellent results, while other qualities will not work at all satis- 
factorily. 

I find it pays to strain it while pouring into tanks, by putting a 
piece of cheese-cloth over the funnel. You will usually find quite a 
little dirt or sediment on the cloth which is less harmful there than in 
the carbureter or motor. 

Then I carry a hydrometer in my tool kit just as much as a monkey 
wrench, and test every new lot of gasoline. The Winton Company 
recommend 76 for summer and 86 for winter use. Get whatever the 
maker of your machine suggests as being best, then the fault, if any, 
isn't on your side. Then sometimes water gets in your tanks or cans 
and it doesn't work well in the cylinder or the burner either. When 
you are out on a trip, of course, you usually have to take whatever 
you cm get, but, even then, it's well to know what you are getting, 
and act accordingly. I believe the more a man knows of his machine 
— as of his horse — the better service he will obtain. J. R. F. 

St. George, S. I. 



The Factor of Certainty of The Horseless 
Vehicle — Automobiles for Summer Hotels 

HOW often do we hear prospective purchasers complaining of the 
uncertainty of the automobile. They would not hesitate to 
buy a vehicle, if they could only feel sure that they would 
not break down when out on the road, and cause a good deal of in- 
convenience thereby. 

I am reminded of this subject by a statement made to me recently. 
It was made by a friend who owns and operates a gasoline motor. I 
say operate, because I happen to know that, if there is one man 
who is " getting his money's worth " out of an automobile, it is my 
friend. He is, in every sense of the word, a user. You know what 
I mean, one of those fellows who get their machine out on the street 
instead of keeping it in the barn ' ' where moth and rust doth corrupt, ' ' 

238 



FACTOR OF CERTAINTY OF THE HORSELESS VEHICLE 239 

and, " thieves sometimes break through and steal." That's the way 
a good many of us treated the old wheel ; kept it down the cellar for 
weeks at a time. 

Well, to get back to the subject. This friend told me the other 
day that he had within the past few weeks made seven trips to a cer- 
tain point 44 miles distant, and returned, and that in making that num- 
ber of trips he was delayed but twice and that for a very short time. 

Now, it looks to me as though that machine was pretty ' ' cer- 
tain " as compared with a horse. The vehicle used was not of special 
make, but a stock carriage. Personally, I think many remarks made 
as to the unreliability of the automobile to ' ' get there ' ' are mere 
twaddle, for, as a matter of fact, when you come right down to it, there 
is perhaps as great uncertainty surrounding the horse vehicle as the 
horseless, to say nothing of the other advantages possessed by the 
latter. 

Being situated up here in a section of the country which is fre- 
quented by large numbers of summer visitors, people who leave the 
cities in order to spend some time in the mountains which abound here, 
it has often occurred to me that the automobile could be used to advant- 
age by the proprietors of our summer hotels. 

In most cases these hotels employ 'buses or wagonettes which meet 
the in-coming and out-going trains, and convey passengers and bag- 
gage to and from the hotel. If, instead of horses, automobiles were 
used, it would mean a saving of time, as it would not be necessary to 
' ' hitch up ' ' at all. 

The automobiles, when not used for carrying guests to or from 
boats or trains, could be used to take parties out to see the various 
places of interest in the neighborhood. Joel Smith. 

POUGHKEEPSIE, N. Y. 



Should the Motor Be in Front? The Ques- 
tion of Lightness 

WHY is it that so many of our American automobile builders 
seem to fail to recognize the advantages of having the engine 
placed in front ? That, it seems to me, is the proper place for 
it to occupy. Some may object to the long drive, either belt, rope or 
chain, which such an arrangement would necessitate, but that, it does 



240 SHOULD THE MOTOR BE IN FRONT ? 

not seem to me, would make sufficient difference in general efficiency 
of any carriage to justify sticking to the idea of putting the motor in 
the body of the carriage, as is so common. 

It cannot be denied that when it comes to getting at the mechan- 
ism, the placing of the engine in front offers exceptional facilities. This 
.is a point which is worth thinking about, for while some owners are in 
a position to hire men to do that part of the work for them, many 
of us are compelled to do much of it with our own hands. 

Then again, if the motor be placed in front, if any air is about 
at all it is more likely to get it than if placed in the body or at 
rear. I am not here advocating any pet form of motor, but 
merely what position it should occupy on the carriage. It does 
seem to me that if there is any choice in the matter at all, it should be 
in favor of the front end. 

There may be good reasons, however, for not putting the motor 
in front. If so, it is hoped some reader will state them. No one of us 
knows it all., and I shall hope this short letter may call out some inter- 
esting points on the subject. 

The question of the weight of automobiles is one which is con- 
stantly coming up. There is great difference of opinion as to the 
happy medium in this connection. Unquestionably some vehicles 
are built so heavy as to be altogether out of proportion to the 
work for which they are intended. My observation leads me to 
believe that this matter of weight is somewhat of a fad with a good 
many. 

I heard lately of an eminent French automobile engineer who had 
devised a scheme which was calculated to be, and was in fact, quite a 
desirable improvement, and applicable to any gasoline motor. It had, 
however, the serious drawback of increasing the total weight by about 
fifty pounds. That fact killed the probability of his device being taken 
up with any degree of enthusiasm. If he had invented something 
which would have reduced the total weight fifty pounds, the public 
would have, to use a familiar phrase, ' ' fallen over themselves in order 
to obtain it. " 

This great tendency on the part of people to reduce weight was 
characteristic of the bicycle. The weight was gradually reduced until 
almost absurd. People seemed to consider that they did not own a 
wheel worthy of the name unless it weighed less than twenty pounds 
or so. Since those days a reaction has taken place, and gradually 
the heavier wheel is coming into use again. 



SHOULD THE MOTOR BE IN FRONT? 241 

This is probably true to some extent of the automobile. Light- 
ness seems to be desired particularly. There is no objection to this, 
of course, but when undue emphasis is placed upon it, then it is wrong, 
and manufacturers would do well, and users also, other things being 
equal, not to place too much importance on this matter. 

Seattle, Wash. Ned Galliday. 



The following paragraph is taken from a recent number of the 
Pall Mall Gazette : 

"It was stated at Bow Street Police Court yesterday that a 
motor car driven by a drunken man, was careening madly through 
the Strand the other day, swerving from side to side of the street, at 
the rate of from twelve to fifteen miles an hour. The constable had 
fro difficulty apparently in arresting the mad thing, and there seem to 
have been no accidents. It is incredible. Fifteen miles an hour is 
about the rate at which a, fire engine dashes through the streets. Now, 
supposing the engine, which, is incredible, of course, to be driven by 
a drunken man, and to take up the whole breadth of the street, how 
in the world could a constable arrest its progress, and in what way 
could what the Yankees call an ' eternal smash ' be averted? With- 
out calling into question the arithmetical attainments of the policeman 
who arrested the motor car, we should like to know how he calculated 
the speed at which it was traveling. ' ' 

I Here we have another sample of the mistakes often made by offi- 
cers of the law. It is true the blunder was made by a London police- 
man, but human nature is pretty much the same all over the world, 
and such a mistake is not beyond some of our American policemen. 



The Post Office Department has decided upon the design For 
stamps to be used during 1901 in commemoration of the Pan Ameri- 
can Exposition at Buffalo. It is interesting to note that one design 
shows a motor vehicle among the various means of transportation. 



Mechanism of the Duryea Motor Vehicle 

THERE are few names which are more synonymous with automo- 
bile development than that of Charles E. Duryea. In 1896, 
it was his gasoline vehicle which won the race organized by 
the Cosmopolitan Magazine. The course on that occasion was be- 




Mechanism of the Duryea Vehicle 



tween New York City Hall and Tarry town-on-the- Hudson. Ever 
since 1891 Charles E. Duryea has been engaged in the manufacture of 
motor vehicles. 

Knowing this, it gives us pleasure to present to our readers 
some facts concerning the mechanism of the machines manufactured 

242 



MECHANISM OF THE DURYEA MOTOR VEHICLE 243 

by the Duryea Power Company, of Reading, Pa. We recognize 
that as the public become more educated to the automobile, nat- 
urally more interest will be centered in the wheels which ' ' go 'round. ' ' 
The illustration accompanying this article shows the entire mechanism, 
with the exception of the mixer, which is below and behind the cen- 
tral post of the seat, and the muffler, which is below and behind the 
motor. The motor occupies the major portion of the body and con- 
sists of triple cylinders, fed by a single fuel pipe leading from the 
mixer. The fuel tank is under the floor and the filling opening may 
be seen at the rear left hand corner. The exhaust chamber, like the 
fuel pipe, lies across the top of the motor and delivers the gases to the 
muffler through a pipe near the right hand side of the body. The 
exhaust valves and sparkers are on top of the motor, operated by a 
cam shaft inside the crank case ; the cam gears being visible near the 
side of the body. The crank case cover is quickly removable, expos- 
ing the cranks, bearings, pistons and other parts. The hill-climbing 
gear is on the left side of the fly-wheel, occupying but a space of about 
four inches between the fly-wheel and the driving sprocket. The 
large self-oiling chain connects this sprocket with a 15-inch one on the 
rear axle, in which the brake is placed. These large sprockets insure 
long life to the driving parts. There is no countershaft and no gears 
are run at ordinary speeds. The speed of the carriage is varied by 
throttling the motor, much as a steam engine is throttled. This throt- 
tling effect is secured by twisting the controlling handle, while raising" 
or lowering same sets the clutches by means of a lever passing from 
the fly-wheel near the forward edge of the body. The brake pedal 
may be seen at the front of the floor, just between the panels which 
have been removed from the front of the body. A reverse pedal is at 
the rear of the floor. The water tank connections are apparent, and 
the seat is provided with removable panels, which permit inspection of 
either side separately and without raising the seat if preferred. While 
this arrangement gives complete accessibility and any part may be re- 
moved in ten to twenty minutes, further accessibility may be had In- 
removing the side panels or a rear panel. 

By this arrangement nothing around the mechanism is difficult to 
get at and yet when the parts are in place a neat looking American 
carriage-like effect is secured, without any odor rising from the motor 
in front of the operator and without danger of getting oil on the finest 
clothing-. The feature of ease of control by either hand of either 
rider is also an important point. 



Foraging for Fuel 



By I. B. RICH. 

DEACON EBENEZER BARTON had been known for years in 
the town of Weston as an uncompromising conservative in all 
matters, religious and secular. He lived about a mile out of 
the town, but never was there weather severe enough to keep him from 
the meeting house on Sundays and prayer meeting nights — and some 
of the unregenerates used to say, ' ' It was easy tellin' Deacon Ebene- 
zer was a Baptis' 'cos he never carried an umberel in any weather." 

Now, Ebenezer had taken to himself a second spouse in the days 
when bicycles began to be in vogue, and though she hadn't "drove 
him distracted ' ' by wanting one — or at least saying that she did — one 
of her pretty nieces was an early devotee and pretty nearly made the 
deacon forget all his words of piety. 

Being a forceful man and a leader in the learned councils of the 
aforesaid town he forced his ideas against the new-fangled machines as 
far as possible and actually passed an ordinance prohibiting the peace- 
ful tourist from wending his way through the town awheel on the Sab- 
bath day. Some of the latter-day wheelmen will probably scan this 
with doubting eyes, but there are many who remember this form of 
persecution when wheeling out from staid old Boston, say sixteen 
years ago. 

And the deacon hadn't grown liberal to any alarming extent in 
spite of the numerous pilgrimages which the many admirers of his 
niece made awheel to the Barton abode. He tolerated them now, 
however, really couldn't help it, with the rapid multiplication of their 
numbers, and his Sunday anti-riding law soon became a thing of the 
past. 

It was this same Deacon Ebenezer who stood aghast in the meet- 
ing house yard on a fine Sunday afternoon to see a carriage go flying 
past and not a horse in sight. No sight of anything but a faint trail of 
steam out behind in rather a ghostly fashion. 

"Well, I snum, Marthy, what' 11 they be doing next. Must be 
one of them automobily kerridges I've read about in the Ploughman. 
Bisikls was bad enough, scarin hosses and raisin' ractions generally, 
but this is wuss. Chasing round the country when they otter be home 
or at church. Now I draw the line at these kerridges, and I won't 

244 



FORAGING FOR FUEL 245 

have none of them hanging round our place nohow. 'Twas a reglar 
bisikl headquarters when Edith was with us, but if Louise has anything 
to do with any automobily fellers there'll be trouble." Louise was a 
younger sister who was now stopping with them. 

>i< ^ ^ %. 

Mr. Joseph Walker was a live young man of Wayland — next town 
to Weston — and about as full of pranks as a college boy can be. He 
hadn't any specially bad habits, but when there was any fun going 
around he usually had his share. His chum, Harry Wilkins, was visit- 
ing him, and had brought his new Winton with him. 

" She's a bird, Harry," exclaimed Joe, as they went rolling along, 
"wish I had one like it. Must get the Governor interested. 'Praps 
he'll get one then. Ever have any trouble getting gasoline when you 
are out on a trip ? ' ' 

" Never have yet. Don't know what the deuce I'd do if I did. 
Lay up 'till I could get some I suppose — don't know where — what 
town is this anyway, Joe, mighty pretty road this. ' ' 

"This is Weston, Harry, and we are on the back road — used to 
ride this way on my wheel to see old Deacon Ebenezer's niece. 
Mighty pretty girl was Edith, too, other fellow got her though. Her 
sister Louise isn't half bad either, may see her if she happens to be out 
of doors. ' ' 

' ' Any law about stopping, hate to see a girl on the fly, Harry. ' ' 

"No law, exactly, but a whole heap of gospel in this case. 
Deacon Ebenezer is plum full of Baptist, and if we stopped to-day 
with this thing I'd never get within gunshot of Louise, if he could help 
it. If you'd lived in the next town to the Deacon a few years ago, 
you'd know more of the Deacon. Worst anti-bicycle crank in the 
eastern part of Massachusetts. He's a terror from Terrorville. 'New 
fangled contrivances for people too lazy to walk,' as he puts it. Oh. 
no, Harry, my boy, we don't stop at the Deacon's to-day — Sunday — 
may be safe to-morrow, but not to-day, nixie ! " 

They hadn't gone very far, however, before the carriage began to 
slow down, and stopped before they knew it. Joe looked at Hairy, 
and Harry returned the compliment with interest. 

" What's the matter with your old trap, anything wrong? " 

" Give it up, Joe, just seemed to make up its mind to stop. Let's 
look around and see what's up. Everything looks all right. Did you 
fill that gasoline tank? No? Well 1 didn't either, and thought 1 
asked you to; just look in that cubby for that spare can of gasoline. 



246 FORAGING FOR FUEL 

Empty eh? That's a nice pickle. Now what are we going to do any- 
how ? ' ' 

" Jiggered if I know, Harry. Might just as well be in the desert 
of Sahara, except that we can walk home. Nearest house is Deacon 
Ebenezer's, I just told you about. Might just as well apply to St. 
Peter for admittance to the golden gate as to tackle him for gasoline 
for one of these ' gol-darn thrashing machines,' as he calls 'em — 
Sunday, too. Well I guess that we better call the Deacon's off and 
think of some other scheme. If the old thing only used hard cider, or 
even whisky, we might get a little, for I believe he does keep a jug 
handy, but gasoline, never. ' ' 

"Well, if the Deacon's is the only place around here, then the 
Deacon has got to give down on the gasoline, Sunday or no Sunday. 
'Twont do for you to go, and besides I want to s$e that pretty niece. 
Louise, did you say ? Rather like that name. Now, Joe, you stay here 
out of sight. If you see anyone coming back with me you groan and 
hang on to your knee, keep mum as you can, but call me Doctor, if 
you have to speak. Now be a good boy and I'll try not to stay too 
long with Louise. ' ' 

' ' Groan — hang on to my knee — call you Doc ! What the deuce 
are you going to do, anyhow, Harry ? " 

' ' Going to get some gasoline, now remember, ' ' and he walked 
off carrying the spare can. 

It wasn't far to the Deacon's, just up over the hill, but the elm 
trees that lined the road completely hid the carriage from view. Harry 
walked up the road and turned into the dooryard just in time to dis- 
cover a very pretty girl about to enter the house. 

" Pardon, but is this Miss Louise? I thought so from the de- 
scriptions I have heard. Can you inform me if the Deacon, your 
uncle I mean, has a supply of alcohol on hand? A queer thing to ask, 
isn't it, but the case is this: 

' ' A friend and I were out riding along the road, over the hill a 
piece, when we had a slight accident. Nothing serious, I assure you, 
but as a physician I must look out for future complications, and so I 
come to you for a little assistance. ' ' 

; ' Yes, of course, but the alcohol, how much will you need ? ' ' 

" About a gallon, Miss. The new ideas in medicine use it freely in 
cases of this kind. ' ' 

' ' Be you a Doctor ? Don't look like one seems to me, but they're 
turning out some funny ones now days," was the cheerful welcome of 



FORAGING FOR FUEL 247 

the Deacon himself, who had come upon the scene just in time to hear 
the last remark. ' ' What is it you want anyhow ? ' ' 

' ' He wants some alcohol Uncle, friend of his hurt his knee in an 
accident, wants to try a new method of treatment, needs about a gallon 
he says. We haven't got a gallon, have we, Uncle ? " 

' ' Gallon of alcohol ? Guess not. Costs too much to keep. Might 
have a pint, but that's all. Anything else do, Doctor whatsyername ? 
Never want a man to come to me for help and go away with an empty 
can. How'd cider do, even if 'tis Sunday and most time for afternoon 
service ? ' ' 

" No, cider won't do," said the Doctor pro-tem, as he seemed to 
be thinking deeply, "there's alcohol, oil of Bergundy and gasoline; 
haven' t any oil of Bergundy, have you Deacon ? ' ' 

"Nope, never heard of it. Guess we've got gasoline though. 
Take the Doctor's can and fill it with gasoline, Louise, that's a good 
girl, and then we must get ready for meetin. " 

* * * * 

Armed with the needed fuel Harry wended his way back to the 
carriage where Joe was waiting and proceeded to fill his tank without 
delay. 

"How the deuce' d you get it? wasn't the Deacon home? see 
Louise ? ' dye tell them what you wanted it for ? ' ' were a few of the 
questions fired at Harry as they prepared to start again. But the 
only reply was: " Got the gasoline, didn't I ? Isn't that enough? " 

" Now we're off Josie, my boy, and you'd better lie low as we pass 
the Deacon's. I don't want to give the snap away, may have to work it 
again some time," and the way the Winton was pushed by the 
Deacon's was a caution. 

^< ^ >!- * 

The next day Joe happened in the Weston store as the Deacon 
came in with his gasoline can. 

" Give me five gallons more gasoline, Jim, and put a padlock on 
it, too. I'm getting to dern green fer anything in my old age." 

' ' What's the matter, Deacon ? ' ' 

" Wal I'll tell yer. 'Bout a week ago a chap comes to my house 
and says his automobeely is stuck down the road, wants gasoline to 
get home with. Wal I don't have no spechul use tor them things no 
more'n I had for bisycles, ez you may kno, an 1 told him to go to 
blazes and walk home. Sassed me back some, and off he went. 

" Purty soon another feller came along with an officious lookin' 



24 8 FORAGING FOR FUEL 

cap on and a bright new can, and walks up, and, sez he, ' Do you 
keep gasoline on the premises?' sez he. Yes, I sez, and I'm going 
to keep it, too, none of them fellers with l choo-choo ' threshing ma- 
chines going to get it, either. 

" ' Well,' sez he, 'thout seemin to notis my remarks, ' as you're in- 
sured in the Northern Liberties Insurance Company (I wondered how he 
knew, clean forgot that coffin plate of theirs wuz on the house) I must 
either test the gasoline you're using or revoke your policy. There's so 
much poor gasoline being sold that we have to be very careful. ' 

" With that he pulls out a funny kind of thermometer and handed 
me the can. 4 Fill it full,' sez he, ' for a thoro test.' Then he jammed 
the glass into it. ' Seventy-four and eighty-five hundredths,' sez he, 
'a little below standard. Pretty near, but I'll have ter make a clost 
test in my labertory. ' 

" ' Seein's I have to take it, I'll pay fer it,' sez he, and gives me a 
quarter. 

" Wal, I was feelin' kinder shaky over that gasoline stove and the 
insurance policy, when I hearn a racket out in the road, and there 
comes one of them machines. Kinder slows up, and there's the two 
chaps as came to see me, the one I fired and the insurance inspector, 
who sings out: ' Yer gasoline's all right, Deacon, works fine, don't 
worry about your insurance policy.' Then they laffed, and I'd a 
swore if I hadn't been a Deacon. 

"Wal yesterday, Sunday, mind yer, a spruce looking feller 
comes up with a can, same kind of one, too, and began talkin' to 
Louise 'bout an accident to his friend. Sprained knee, or sumthin' of 
the kind. Wanted a gallon of alcohol to treat it 'cording by a new. 
idea. Course I hadn't any alcohol, knew that probably, then he 
wanted oil of Bergundy, or some such stuff, and finally said gasoline 
would do on a pinch. Sed he was a doctor, and I believed him. 

" Wal, he got the gasoline, and 'twasn't long before another one 
of those travelin' saw-mills went flukin by — didn't stop fer nothin'. 
Now I ain't dead sure, but I think it was that doctor and his friend, 
looking pretty chipper fer a feller with a sprained knee though. If he 
had a asked for gasoline first off I'd a spicioned him I think, but when 
he seemed to take it in a kinder disappointed way I never thot of be- 
ing fooled. But the next man that gets any gasoline from me fer any- 
thing, broken knees or episootic, he's got ter have a shot gun and get 
fust aim." 



Bridgeport's Automobile Club 

THOSE members of the Automobile Club of America, and guests, 
who took the ride from New York to Bridgeport on December 
15 last, will remember the royal way in which the automo- 
bile club of that city treated its visitors. 

The Bridgeport club was first formed on September 13, 1900. Its 
second meeting was held September 24. It duly received its charter 
November 7. 

The objects of the club are practically the same as those sought 
by similar organizations. Ever since its inception the club has been 
exceedingly aggressive. Its members are enthusiasts on automobiling 
in all its relations to social and business life. At present the number 
of members is twenty-six, and every one of these gentlemen own motor 
vehicles, of one kind or another, it being in fact a rule that no one 
shall be elected to membership who is not an owner or part owner of a 
self-propelled vehicle. 

Up to a short time ago the efforts to establish an automobile repair 
station and storage room seemed to materialize slowly, but recent de- 
velopments indicate that this will probably be attained by April 1. 
Machines can then be taken care of, and in connection with this, club 
rooms will be provided for members and visiting automobilists. These 
latter ought to be quite numerous. It is a beautiful ride along the 
Boston Post Road from New York, especially in the summer, and 
Bridgeport ought to become a favorite halting place. 

In this connection it gives us pleasure to present our readers with 
illustrations of the officers of this vigorous exponent of automobilism. 

The president, Jonathan Godfrey, is one of Bridgeport's leading 
manufacturers, and is president of the Compressed Paper Box Company. 
He is an ardent and intelligent automobilist, and one who has given 
the matter of automobile construction much earnest thought. 

Vice-President Louis Cassier is shown seated in his machine, ac- 
companied by Mrs. Cassier. Mr. Cassier was bunder of the club, and 
during the past year has driven his automobile a great number of miles. 
He is publisher of Cassier s Magazine, of New York and London. 

Frank W. Bolande, secretary, is also secretary of the Tost Pub- 
lishing Company and managing editor of the Bridgeport Evening Post. 
Mr. Bolande has done a great amount of driving, and is in entire sym- 
pathy with the interests of the club. His efforts in the cause are un- 

249 



BRIDGEPORT'S AUTOMOBILE CLUB 



251 



tiring. He uses his machine daily in going to and from his summer 
residence at Beachcroft, Long Hill. 

The treasurer of the club is Mr. Thomas E. Griffin, who is assis- 
tant superintendent of the Locomobile Company of America, whose 
factory is in Bridgeport. Last year, at Chicago, Mr. Griffin covered a 
mile in 1 :o6, using a Locomobile racing vehicle. He has won a num- 
ber of prizes for fast time, and is generally recognized as the cleverist 
operator in the city of Bridgeport. 




Secretary F. W. Bolande and Wife 



The Board of Governors consists of lour gentlemen, Mr. Thomas 
P. Taylor being chairman. Mr. Taylor was formerly mayor of the 
city, and is a strong advocate of good permanent pavement, and we 
suppose good roads all over the land. He is a manufacturer, and is 
looked upon as one of the foremost public men in Bridgeport. He 
also is the owner of a Locomobile. Other members of the Board of 



252 BRIDGEPORT'S AUTOMOBILE CLUB 

Governors are Dr. Charles C. Godfrey, who uses his automobile in his 
practice; George W. Hills, president of the Post Publishing Company, 
and John C. Spiers, superintendent of the Locomobile Company of 
America. 

Although the club has been in existence but a short time, it hopes 
by enterprise and genuine merit to take a front rank. Judging by what 
has already been done, and the great interest evinced by its members, 
we predict a most successful season's work for this organization during 
the coming spring and summer. 



Endurance Test on Long Island 

THE endurance test, to be held under the auspices of the Long 
Island Automobile Club, and to which reference was made in 
our February number, will not be held until some time late in 
March. The following conditions have been laid down by the com- 
mittee who have had charge of the arrangements. 

The test will be open to three classes of machines — steam, gaso- 
line, and electric, and special prizes will be awarded for each class. 
Should application for entrance of other motor powers be received 
they will be given due consideration. 

The course is to be over macadamized roads on Long Island, and 
include grades and levels. One hundred miles must be covered within 
a 1 2-hour limit. The speed limit while passing through villages and 
towns is 8 miles, while the maximum speed must not exceed 15 miles 
per hour. 

All contestants are to provide their own fuel and water, either by 
preliminary arrangement or transportation, while owners of electric 
vehicles are to make their own plans for battery relays. In the event 
of a tie between two carriages of the same type the best average time 
wins, taking into consideration the amount of fuel consumed, weight 
of carriage and number of stops. 

Between Jamaica and Flushing a hill-climbing contest will take 
place, where there is an estimated grade of 20 per cent, one quarter of 
a mile long. 

The test will be confined to self-propelled vehicles, so constructed 
as to carry not less than two passengers, side by side, and all vehicles 
must carry full complement of passengers. The entrance fee for each 
carriage is $10.00, and full information as well as applications should 
be made to Charles W. Spurr, Secretary Long Island Automobile 
Club, 552 State Street, Brooklyn. 



ENDURANCE TEST ON LONG ISLAND 253 

The committee in charge of this endurance test is as follows: 
L. R. Adams, President of the club and Chairman of Contests and 
Exhibitions Committee; H. B. Fullerton, Chairman of Good Roads 
Committee; H. S. Chapin, Chairman of Runs and Tours Committee; 
F. W. Tousey, R. E. Jarrige and J. E. Savel, members of the Con- 
tests and Exhibitions Committee; F. G. Webb, Chairman of Technical 
Committee; C. W. Spurr, Robert Darling and A. R. Pardington. 



Prospective Purchasers And Free Rides 

THERE are always people who expect a great deal for nothing, 
and the growing popularity of the automobile has proved an 
excellent means for the man who wishes to see the country at 
little expense. Reference is here made to the ' ' free ride ' ' game put 
up by some of those looking for a machine, and sometimes by those 
who have but very little idea of buying. Of course it cannot be denied 
that when a person is called to invest several hundred dollars in a 
motor vehicle, he ought to have some kind of demonstration which 
will satisfy him that the machine will do what its makers claim it will. 
While this is so, it is also doubtless true that in a great many in- 
stances there are those who go almost ' ' too far ' • in this matter, and 
it would not be at all surprising if there were some people who merely 
feigned to be probable purchasers in order to get the rides, which most 
manufacturers seem willing and glad to concede to prospective buyers. 
Some of the makers over in England have checked this thing 
somewhat by making a proposition to those asking for rides. This 
proposition calls for the putting up of a certain small amount, 
enough to cover cost of operation while demonstrating, which is for- 
feited in case of non- purchase, but returned should a purchase follow. 
It certainly is no fun for a manufacturer to get a machine ready, place 
gasoline in it, subject the machine to so much extra wear and tear, run 
risks of puncturing tires, stand the loss caused by the time and service 
of operator, and then ''demonstrate" for a hundred miles or two 
without any prospect whatever of selling a machine, either directly or 
indirectly, as a result of that trial. There can be no doubt whatever 
that this ' ' game ' ' is being worked to an excessive degree by some. 
Instances have been known where apparent purchasers have gone 
from one company to another, treated to long-distance rides, some- 
times going into the hundreds of miles, and in the long run have 
not bought at all, deciding to wait until a more convenient season. 



John's " Orter-mo-beel Cart" 

' ' Dad burn my hide ! ' ' said old Bill Moore 
As he lounged about the grocery store, 

"I've lafled until I'm 'fraid I'll bust 
So guess I'll tell erbout it fust. 

" You know Joe Perkin's boy, John B. , 
Who works in Wash'nton, D. C. ? 
Wal' he's come home from furrin parts 
With one them orter-mo-beel carts ! 

' ' Th' durndest lookin' rig-majig, 
Some like a hearse an' nigh as big. 
Joe says, ' how much d'you pay, my boy, 
Fur that air hors'les carridge toy? ' 

" John sorter smiled, an' looked real glad: 
' It cost me fifteen hundred, dad. ' 
Th' ol' man gasped an' then he said: 
' I guess you've got dam-phool-n-ther-head ! 

' ' ' Now my ol' mare cost thirty-five, 
She'll beat it, sure's you're alive. 
You can't haul wood, ner mow, ner plough, 
Ner do a thing with it, I vow ! ' 

' ' Ol' Perkins looked th' durned thing through, 
An' shook his head, said t' would' nt do. 
Th' more he looked, th' more he scowled, 
An' then he raved, an' cussed, an' growled. 

' ' ' An' injine in th' thing, ' he said, 
'I sh'd think t' would bust an' kill yer dead. 
Big injy rubber wheels, I vum ! 
I shouldn't think t' would eo ner come. 



&' 



' Now, look at them air cogs and chains, 
An' iron rods instid o' reins ! 
To waste that money was a sin, 
'Tain't wuth th' room to store it in !' 

' John says, ' now, dad, bring out th' plow, 
. I'll show you what t'will do, right now ; 
Hitch on behind ; when I say ready, 
Hold the nose down good an' steady.' 

254 



JOHN'S " ORTER-MO-BEEL CART" 255 

' ' He started tearin' down th' field, 
His dad hung on, he wouldn't yield. 
Gee whiz ! he made th' speed increase, 
An' ploughed them furrers slicker' n grease. 

' ' Then next he hauled a load o' wood, 
Bigger' n my two horses could. 
In fact, he proved it to us there 
That he could beat his dad's ol' mare ! 

' ' I'll give it up,' his ol' man said, 
' In pullin' loads that thing's ahead ; 
It duz th' work so slick an' neat, 
That on that pint I'll 'low I'm beat. 

' But when it comes down to er race, 
Yer durned ol thing takes second place. 
I'll give yer forty rods th' start, 
Then beat yer orter-mo-beel cart. ' 

" John laffed, and said, ' though that ain't bad, 
I'd ruther start in even, dad. 
Le's go to Barlow's store an' back, 
As that's a sort o' circ'lar track.' 

' ' They started out, jest side by side, 
Each laffin' fit ter bust inside. 
Th' ol' man started up th' mare, 
An' John kept right beside him there. 

' ' The ol' mare scooted like er dart, 
So did th' orter-mo-beel cart ! 
I watched them from top th' shed, 
Th' ol' mare couldn't git ahead. 

"An' when they reached th' store down there, 
John kep' beside his father's mare. 
As they swung 'round on th' return, 
Th' ol' mare switched that tail o' hern. 

' ' She lit out then, like all possessed, 
While John leaned back, as though to rest. 
He yanked th' brake, it seemed ter me, 
An' come like light' nin' down a tree ! 

" He left th' ol' mare up th' hill, 
A lookin' s' though she's standin' still ! 
Gee whiz ! how that machine did gain, 
A comin' like a railroad train. 



256 JOHN'S " ORTER-MO-BEEL CART" 

" When John got home he didn't stay — 
The mare was half a mile away — 
John turned his orter-mo-beel cart ; 
Back for his dad I seen him start. 

' ' An' back they come, right side by side, 
But John's ol' man had lost his pride. 
He says, ' I guess it must have wings, 
I'm goin' to buy me one them things ! ' 

Lewis A. Browne. 



Status of Electric Vehicles in France 

MR. Hart O. Berg, of Paris, France, considers that the electric 
carriage in that country is pressing the petroleum vehicle 
hard, and will continue to do so. For some years past there 
has not been anyone over there who seemed inclined to take the risk 
of establishing central stations, which of course are necessary in cities 
where the electric automobile is to be much used. Recognizing this 
condition, and feeling sure that the electric carriage would appeal to 
the Parisians, the Electric Vehicle Company established a central 
station, which is equipped, not for the purpose of taking care of 
Columbia vehicles only, but all types of electrically propelled carriages. 
This growing popularity of electric machines is astonishing petroleum 
enthusiasts. Mr. Berg thinks, however, that not only will American- 
built electric vehicles be far superior to those built in Europe, but that 
American-built petroleum vehicles will occupy first place over those 
built in France. 




I Make a Trial Run 

BY R. E. MARKS 

JONATHAN Gearcase is the son of a prosperous Boston truck- 
man, and has mechanics on the brain. He took a course at the 

Boston Tech. and has a little shop of his own, where he tinkers 
at everything, from flying machines to automatic tack lifters. But he's 
a nice fellow, and I often drop in for a little chat and to see what he 
is working on. 

When the auto fever began to develop he started to work on an 
engine, and got one of his father's heavy trucks to experiment with. 
He informed me very confidentially that he ' ' was going to let the other 
fellows do the experimenting with the light carriages while he got in 
on the ground floor with the steam truck." So he pegged away, 
finally completed a new steam wagon and, like all inventors, he was 
enthusiastic to the last degree. Of course we knowing ones, who 
never invent anything, smile in a lofty way at this enthusiasm, but it's 
a good thing just the same. Half the really useful inventions wouldn't 
have been brought out without it. 

Last Saturday I happened in to look it over, and found him par- 
ticularly jubilant, for it was just completed and all ready for business. 

" Got her done, Marks," he said, " and she's going out Monday. 
Say, wouldn't you like to go along with us on the trial trip. Going to 
take her to Worcester early Monday morning. What time ? Why 
3:30 A. M., sharp, so as to get out of the city before the teaming be- 
gins. Don't want to scare horses, you know. Bring your camera 
and be on hand early." 

To go or not to go — that was the question. Whether to go and 
risk being held as a witness for runaways, and incidentally gain the 
desired experience in motor wagons, or to flunk and lie comfortably in 
bed until a decent hour for rising. Three-thirty A. M. — and Novem- 
ber, too. 

But I rose above thoughts of bodily discomfort, borrowed an extra 
alarm clock, and with one on each side of the bed — both set at 3 
o'clock — I dropped asleep. In due time I awoke, and in a dazed son 
of way pulled on my clothes and made my way to the barn. It was a 
cold, raw morning, and with an overcoat, mackintosh, umbrella, over- 

257 



258 I MAKE A TRIAL RUN 

shoes and camera I arrived precisely at the appointed time. Not a 
soul in sight. So I did the ghost dance till Jonathan arrived, fifteen 
minutes later. 

" Isn't Bill here? I told him to come at three and get her all 
fired up, ready to start. Confound a man you can't depend on. I 
knew I was a little late, but — well if he didn't go home and leave that 
brake only partly done — no earthly use that way, and we won't have 
time to fix it. Guess the engine will hold her, anyway. ' ' 

Slowly — how slowly no one knows who hasn't waited under 
similar circumstances — the clock hands crawled around to six, and still 
no Bill appeared. If I had only been as sensible and had my sleep 
out too. 

For some reason Jonathan would not do a thing without Bill. 
Wouldn't start the fire or fix up anything, and I was on the point of 
bidding him a fond adieu, when Bill dawned on the scene, at 7 o'clock, 
sharp. ' ' Forgot all about the trial, Mr. Gearcase, and came to work 
as usual. Now watch me hustle, ' ' and a fire was started in a hurry. 

In the meantime nature had asserted herself, and the gnawing feel- 
ing from within had prompted Gearcase to go in search of a lunch, 
which soon proved to be rye bread, bologna sausages and cheese — a 
tempting breakfast on a cold morning. Finally, at 8 o'clock, four 
and a half hours after schedule time, we started. And what a start. 

Cold cobblestones, iron tires and a wagon with a comparatively 
light load is a combination that beats the world for noise and jouncing, 
and w r e had all three. The two 4-inch gongs were an unnecessary ex- 
pense, and must have been for ornament only, and for the amusement 
of the operator — neither could be heard ten feet away from the wagon, 
and then only as a different and minor noise, mingled in with the rest. 
The sausage and cheese vied with each other for supremacy as interior 
decorations for our anatomy, and altogether we were hardly comfort- 
able to the point of luxury. But Gearcase smiled grimly and tried to 
be happy — for we were actually moving. 

Horses shied, and housewives rushed to their windows to see 
what all the commotion was about. They had plenty of time to find 
out, between the noise which heralded our approach and the time it 
took us to get out of view, for we were now moving at the exhilarat- 
ing speed of about three miles an hour. As we were to reach Wor- 
cester, forty-four miles away, by noon, it will be seen that we must 
have had plenty of power in reserve. Unfortunately that is where it 
staid — in reserve. 



I MAKE A TRIAL RUN 259 

School children stopped to see the sight or hear the noise, I 
don't know which, and if ever anyone had longed to be away from the 
madding crowd and out on the country road, that was me. Ques- 
tions were fired at us by the score, boys would come along with oil 
cup tops and other sundries we had dropped, and altogether we were 
more prominent than a modest man cares to be. The only redeeming 
feature was that I was a passenger, and not part of the show itself. 

Cobbles, and even Belgian block paving, give one that tired feel- 
ing after awhile, and I longed for some of the famous sarsaparilla, as 
well as bromo-seltzer, to reduce my head to its normal size — it seemed 
to be riveted over from the jarring — probably crystallized — and was 
trying to stretch my hat. But we were nearing the outskirts of the 
Hub at last and better roads were in prospect. 

It is needless to continue the tale. I had my fill of personal ex- 
perience on a trial trip, and as the engine broke a crankpin getting out 
of Hyde Park, I made good my escape by trolley. It was then high 
noon. We had ridden, I can't say travelled, about eight miles in 
four long hours, and Worcester was still thirty-six miles away. 

A trolley took me back to Boston in forty minutes, and I made up 
for lost time by going to bed and sleeping till Tuesday morning. 

Gearcase called on me the next day to say they were ready to go 
ahead, and wanted me to see what they could do out on the road — but 
I had other business on hand, and I always shall have when there is 
anything of the kind going on again. Next time I get up at 3 o'clock 
to start out on a new motor truck just get me a padded cell in the 
nearest lunatic asylum. 



The days of automobile advertising seem to have about passed. 
A few years ago quite a number of our leading dry goods stores pur- 
chased automobiles, not so much because they were cheaper to oper- 
ate than horses, but because of the advertising it gave. At the present 
stage of the game, however, this advertising, in our huge cities espe- 
cially, is very small indeed. Advertising by means of an automobile 
may be all right for concerns that can stand it, but for the small 
advertiser it does not pay. 



A 'Bus Line Experiment 

By O. L. STEVENS 

ALINE of electric automobile omnibuses has been doing business 
in the streets of Boston for a month, and the people have been 
showing a good deal of interest in them. This line was started 
on the afternoon of Sunday, December, 30, 1900, running from the 
upper part of the Back Bay residential district down through aristo- 
cratic Beacon Street, out through Arlington Street, thence around the 
Public Garden and the Common, through those parts of Boylston and 
Tremont Streets which are now devoid of street cars, to the point 
where Tremont street ends in a jumble of street car tracks and subway 
stations in Scollay Square, downtown. The omnibuses used were 
made-over wagonettes arranged to carry ten persons inside and two on 
the seat with the driver, and they were put into service by the New 
England Electric Vehicle Transportation Company as an experiment, 
to see whether there was enough demand for this kind of transporta- 
tion to warrant the introduction of the largest and best vehicles 
available. 

The first trip was made soon after 3 o'clock in the afternoon, and 
from then until about 8 o'clock, three 'buses were kept on the line. 
They carried about 175 passengers in the five hours, many people 
riding from curiosity; and the vehicles advertised themselves well, for 
each attracted a crowd wherever it stopped. 

As reconstructed, the chief defects of the 'buses are too great a 
height from the ground and a narrowness which makes it somewhat 
of a feat for a person to move from a front seat to the door if the 'bus 
happens to be filled. Still, a sign posted inside gives notice to all 
users that if the line is seen to meet a popular demand, new and 
' ' more commodious ' ' vehicles will be put on. 

The following morning the line began operations on a regular 
schedule. Its first trip down town was run at 7:45 o'clock, and others 
followed through the day on what was meant to be a fifteen-minute ar- 
rangement. This was maintained pretty exactly, except that two or 
three times a trip was lost because the power gave out en route or be- 
cause there was delay in replacing exhausted batteries at the terminus. 

260 



A BUS LINE EXPERIMENT 261 

One trip, they say, was left out because a 'bus-crew forgot to get back 
from dinner at the right time, but things like that don't happen 
now. 

As a matter of fact, the arrangements for recharging the 'buses 
were the worst thing about the whole line. There were six 'buses to 
start with, and in order to make a fifteen-minute schedule, four had to 
be on the route constantly. But every time a 'bus was recharged it 
had to be run from the up-town end of the line, across town to the 
company's central station in the South End, a round trip of two miles 
and a half entirely off the route. The route itself measured 4 miles 
180 feet on the round trip. It was found that the original arrange- 
ment, that each 'bus should make three round trips and return to the 
central station on a single charge, was rather more than it was advis- 
able to expect, and after the first day a 'bus went for new batteries 
after every second trip. This worked very well, and in the first week 
of operation there were surprisingly few cases where a 'bus was 
stranded on the route. It was evident that the reputation of- the line 
would suffer if any attempt was made to run the batteries to the limit, 
and the 'bus crews took no chances. 

A week of this kind of work was enough to show that the line 
would have to have a recharging station at its terminus, if it was to 
give satisfaction to the company as well as to patrons, and steps were 
at once taken to install the necessary sub-station near the Deerfield 
Street stopping place. This allowed an increase in the number of 
'buses on the line, and the station will eventually be developed, in all 
probability, for use by all other electric rigs operated by the company, 
as the "Three Roads," so-called, near where it is located, is an im- 
portant point in Boston carriage business. 

But the line was regarded with considerable favor by people along 
the route. It filled a want. The Back Bay section which it served 
was practically without street car service to theatres, hotels, and the 
shopping district, and the new line of automobiles not only runs 
through the Back Bay district, but affords the only direct surface route 
through the lower part of Tremont Street. 

It would be hard to find a route so short that otters more to at- 
tract business. To make the conditions still more favorable, since the 
street cars were taken off Tremont and Boylston Streets, much oi the 
surface has been asphalted. Practically the whole of the route on 
Beacon Street is of asphalt, and the short stretch in Arlington Street 
is of Macadam and brick pavement, so that for all except a short sec- 



262 A BUS LINE EXPERIMENT. 

tion of Boylston Street, the 'buses glide over a surface so smooth that 
there is none of the disagreeable jolting which shakes passengers into 
dishabille and bad temper at one and the same time. 

For the first day or two the 'buses carried an average of ten or 
twelve passengers for each round trip. Later, perhaps the average 
was not more than eight, on some days. But the people kept riding, 
and Manager Neftel figured at the end of the first week that the line 
had carried on an average about seven hundred passengers a day. 
This was on the basis of a ten-cent fare, running the first trip just be- 
fore 8 o'clock in the morning, and the last at about midnight. Busi- 
ness men rode down town in the morning and back at night on the 
'buses, but it was intended to be primarily a "ladies' line," and from 
the first has been patronized largely by the gentler sex. They took to 
it with much curiosity and some signs of satisfaction for morning shop- 
ping trips, and the sociability of a forenoon ride down town on the 
'bus line was something that had not seen its equal in Boston since the 
good old days when everybody who rode in a horse car knew every- 
body else in it. 

The franchise for this line has had an interesting experience. It 
was asked for, with other routes, by the Boston Transit Company, the 
original automobile operating company in Boston, a company which 
was fathered by Colonel Albert A. Pope and incorporated with a capi- 
tal of $100,000 before the Colonel had joined forces with the Electric 
Vehicle Company. This company petitioned for three routes through 
the city before the Board of Aldermen in February, 1899. The fran- 
chise was held up until after the people voted in December, 1899, to 
have the street car tracks taken up in Tremont and Boylston Streets, 
alongside the Common and Public Garden, and was then granted. In 
January, 1900, the company was reorganized, and the shifting of direc- 
tors showed that it had been swallowed up in the Electric Vehicle Com- 
pany' s combination and had become a branch of the New England 
Sub-Company, which thereafter controlled its plans. With the street 
cars off Tremont and Boylston streets, the way seemed open for the 
running of omnibuses a year ago, but the company for months gave 
the excuse that no practicable vehicles could be obtained from the 
builders. 

The final decision to start the line seems to have arisen from the 
fact that the company had the wagonettes on its hands without much 
call for them in business, and from the fact that the two horse cars 
which had been running in desultory fashion on one or two streets of 



A BUS LINE EXPERIMENT 263 

the Back Bay, without providing any through service to the down 
town shopping and theatre districts, were taken out of service perma- 
nently on Christmas Eve. 



They said you wouldn't balk 

Or plunge or rear; 
Yet home I'll have to walk 

And leave you here. 
As gentle as a lamb, 

They said you'd be; 
As vicious as a ram 

You've been to me. 
They said you wouldn't shy 

Or run away; 
Yet here lie you and I, 

Both wrecks, to-day. 
They said you'd never try 

To ' ' take a fence ; ' ' 
You took it on the fly 

And moved it hence. 
The horse's fastest gait 

Was slow for you; 
You had the ass' trait 

Of meekness, too; 
You were with ease controlled, 

Or so they said; 
Yet here but now I rolled 

Out on my head. 
Oh, once more let me feel 

That I'm astride 
The good old horse or wheel 

Fused to ride. 
They never left me sore, 

As here I'm seen, 
Preserved, with bumps galore. 

In erasoline. — Chicago Post. 



Of Passing Interest. 

{Readers will confer a favor upon the editors of this magazine 
by sending in any interesting itejn of news suitable for this depart- 
ment. ) 

Mr. Carl G. Fisher, President of the Indiana Automobile Club, 
while discussing the objects of the club recently, said: 

' ' I made two automobile trips through Indiana last summer, and 
covered nearly a thousand miles. In all this riding I saw but two sign- 
boards. One of these was so weather-worn that it could not be read. 
Signboards are one of the many conveniences that can be added to 
country travel, and our club will have for its object the furthering of 
all such schemes. We want to make country travel a pleasure, and 
all such things as good roads, signboards, drinking places and the like, 
are of material advantage." 



To go out on an automobile for a tour is a little different from 
taking it on a wheel. In the case of the latter, should you for any 
reason chance to be left behind, all the companionship you can enjoy 
is your own, unless you are mounted on a tandem. This is not so in 
the case of the automobile. It is not much of a motor vehicle which 
does not accommodate at least two passengers. If anything should go 
wrong you have at least one companion in tribulation, which, on some 
occasions, is a real pleasure. 



There is something particularly interesting about any race or com- 
petition which is international in scope, as is the Gordon Bennett 
contest. The Automobile Club of France, which has, ever since its 
inception, taken so great an interest in automobile races of all kinds, 
is also vitally connected with this proposed race which is scheduled to 
take place some time during the first week of May. Up to the pres- 
ent time England, Germany and Belgium have sent in challenges. 
In commenting upon this matter the Paris Figa7 r o says : " It is to be 
hoped that the foreigners will have better vehicles than those which 
entered for the race last year. ' ' It may be added that no American 
vehicles are likely to compete. 

264 



OF PASSING INTEREST 265 

It seems as though Norway and Sweden would prove quite a 
profitable field for the American automobile manufacturer. There are 
some countries which look to America from something like force of 
habit, for the best things along certain lines. Automobilists in the 
countries named are looking to America for an automobile which will 
be satisfactory, and perhaps it would be well for manufacturers to look 
further into the matter of being properly represented over there. 



From May 25 until June 6 an automobile exposition is to be held 
at the Prater, Vienna. Motor vehicles of all kinds will be on show, and 
the Automobile Club of Austria is making efforts to have foreign-built 
vehicles entered free of duty, on condition that they be returned after 
the show. 



The automobile is gaining an entrance to all phases of work, and 
in all parts of the world. It has invaded Arizona and will compete 
with the railroad and supplement the stage as a means of reaching the 
Grand Canon. If plans, as at present under way are carried out, it 
will be possible for passengers to leave the Santa Fe Route train at 
Flagstaff, Arizona, and ride over to the Grand Canon, about sixty miles 
away, on an automobile 'bus. The novelty of a ride in an automobile 
more than a mile above the sea level will add immensely to the enjoy- 
ment of the trip. 



The following statement appears on the letter heads of the Na- 
tional Good Roads Association. ' ' Ninety-nine per cent, of every load 
by railroad, steamship or express, must be carried in a wagon or truck 
over a highway. It costs the farmers of the United States nearly three 
times more than those of Europe to market an equal tonnage of farm 
products over primary roads. ' ' Enough said. 



In our February number, the poem entitled ' ' The Dream of the 
Scorcher," also the verses on page 140, of the same issue, should have 
been credited to The Motor World. This was brought about by our 
taking them from a source which failed to give our esteemed contem- 
porary credit. 



A Winton Postal Delivery Wagon 

THE Winton Motor Carriage Co. is the first concern which has 
actually constructed motor vehicles for the service of King 
Edward VII. The first of three of these carriages was re- 
cently shipped from this country to Australia, where it is to be used 
in the governmental postal service. 

The order when first given, called for the letters "V. R." on the 
side, but as in the meantime Queen Victoria died, the letters were 



Postal Wagon for Australian Government 

changed to " E. R. " Three of these machines have been ordered, 
each of them weighing 1,700 pounds. The motor is of 9 horse-power. 
The capacity of the wagons is from 800 to 1,000 pounds of mail. 
The vehicles are beautifully finished, and are really fine specimens of 
motor vehicle construction. The Winton Company is to be congrat- 
ulated upon this triumph, and there are good reasons to believe that 
this first order will be followed by others. 

266 



The Philadelphia Show 

THE Automobile Show held in Philadelphia from February 4 to 
9 proved to be an eminent success from all points of view. 
Considerable skepticism prevailed about the matter, in 
view of the fact that only the week previous a cycle show had been 
held there at which a number of motor vehicles had been exhibited. 

The Second Regiment Armory, in which the show was held, was 
decorated in a very tasty mariner and presented a very gay appear- 
ance, especially at night when the electric lights on the various exhib- 
its were turned on. As to these exhibits, their character and scope, 
nothing but words of commendation should be spoken of them. Their 
arrangement was excellent, and while, perhaps, the show did not bring 
out much that was absolutely new or startling, it must be conceded by 
all that those builders who were represented did themselves credit. 

That the people of Philadelphia are interested in the automobile 
was evidenced by the great numbers who turned out. The evenings 
called out a large attendance, making it somewhat of a task to pass 
around the exhibits. Those in charge of the different exhibits were 
kept busy explaining their various products, and several reported 
excellent results in the way of orders. 

The contests, all of which took place during the evening, proved 
very exciting. The crowd which nightly thronged the building worked 
itself up into a fervor seldom seen on such occasions. The contest- 
ants certainly did not languish for encouragement on the part of the 
visitors. It was very seldom that the track was clear of machines en- 
tirely. One which attracted great attention and was a general favorite 
for those who wished to take their first automobile ride was the 
' ' White Lady, ' ' made by the Automobile Company of America. 
Decorated by a basket filled with choice flowers this machine looked 
pretty and was quite popular. This company was declared winner of 
the first prize and silver cup for gasoline machines. 

The De Dion booth was also the center of attraction at almost 
all times and genial Mr. Craven was kept busy explaining the various 
features of this popular little carriage. The gentleman referred to 
made the trip from New York to Philadelphia in his carriage, and re- 
ported that in spite of the cold weather and snow he had an excel- 
lent run. 

267 



268 THE PHILADELPHIA SHOW 

The Locomobile Company of America had an excellent exhibit, 
which was arranged in a beautiful manner. Just across the way from 
them was the Mobile Company. The machines of this company made 
an excellent showing in several of the contests. Mr. Frank Mullan 
was very much in evidence, and seemed exultant over the reception 
accorded the ' ' Mobile. ' ' The booth of Maurice Loeb was a rendez- 
vous for a great many of the visitors. The space was prettily deco- 
rated, being hung with beautiful tapestry. The Milwaukee Automo- 
bile Company had one of their runabouts on exhibition which created 
quite a favorable impression. Mr. Chester I. Campbell, of Provi- 
dence, R. I., was in charge. Mr. Campbell has charge of the East- 
ern business of this company, which is building a reliable and satis- 
factory line of vehicles. 

It would not be possible for us to go into detail regarding all the 
exhibitors. Each one made a creditable showing. There was not one 
exhibitor who did not make a good impression along his own particu- 
lar line. The makers of accessories were well represented, especially 
the ' ' Neverout ' ' Lamp Company, which had an imposing booth in 
the center of the building. 

The arrangement of the track was excellent. Between the inner 
side of track and the central exhibiting space was an aisle, which ran 
around the whole of the track. This enabled visitors to witness the 
track events without in any way interfering with those wishing to look 
at the vehicles on exhibition. Judging by the character of exhibits, 
attendance and enthusiasm on the part of visitors, together with the 
large number of serious inquiries, there can be no doubt of success. 
A word of congratulation to those gentlemen who had the arrange- 
ment of plans in hand is in order. They worked long and hard, and 
to them is due great credit. 



The Boston Automobile Show, which is to be held at Mechanics 
Building in that city, March 4 to 9, inclusive, will be under the man- 
agement of the local automobilists and members of the Massachusetts 
Automobile Club, and is purely for the purpose of giving prospective 
purchasers an opportunity of seeing all the latest ideas and improve- 
ments in automobiles and their accessories. Full information regarding 
this show may be obtained by addressing Fred. S. Ashley, 216 Wash- 
ington Street, Boston, Mass. This show has been indorsed by the 
National Association of Automobile Manufacturers. 



A New Delivery Wagon 

THE delivery wagon shown in the accompanying half-tone 
possesses a number of new features. The builders, the Kidder 
Motor Vehicle Company, of New Haven, Conn., have put 
into practice in this wagon some ideas which might by some other 
manufacturers be called absurd. Among them may be mentioned the 




The Kidder Delivery Wagon 

discarding of ball bearings. Such bearings are certainly the cause of 
much annoyance and anxiety. If it were possible to secure the per- 
fect ball and cone it might be otherwise, but in the absence of these, 
the element of uncertainty and consequent anxiety is introduced by 
their use. 

The running gear of this wagon consists of a triangular, seam 
less, drawn steel, tubular frame, suitably braced. On this are mounted 
the boiler and the horizontal engines, of which there are two, one on 

269 



2 7 o A NEW DELIVERY WAGON 

each side of the boiler. Below the front elliptical spring is a rocker 
pivot, which provides for uneven ground, without wrenching. The 
transmission of power is direct, by means of a steel pinion engaging 
with the main differential gearing. By this means of driving provision 
is made for the torsional action of the springs without friction. 

The boiler is of the vertical tubular type, 16 inches diameter and 
1 8 inches high. It contains 326 No. 20 copper tubes, giving 56 square 
feet of heating surface. The fuel used is ordinary stove gasoline. 
The tank capacity is 10 gallons. The total weight of this wagon is 
2,750 pounds, while its load capacity is 1,600 pounds, at a speed of 
8 miles per hour. Wooden wheels, 32 and 34 inches diameter respec- 
tively, are used, having solid tires. Wheel base is 66 inches. 

The parts of this whole machine are built on the interchangeable 
plan. The wagon is substantially constructed, with the idea of stand- 
ing up to hard, continuous service over all kinds of roads, and ought 
to commend itself to those contemplating the use of motor-driven 
wagons for such service as this is adapted to. 



The Searchmont Wagonette 

A CARRIAGE which attracted a great deal of attention at the 
recent Philadelphia show, was the wagonette made by the 
Searchmont Motor Co. , 1230 Orkney Street, Philadelphia. Its 
graceful appearance was admired by all who saw it. It certainly is a 
handsome sample of automobile construction. It is an improvement 
of the well known French voiturette, sitting very low, thus rendering 
it easy of access. 

Bicycle spoke wheels are used, but the spokes are of unusually 
large diameter, insuring safety. While the spokes are not by any 
means too great in diameter, it certainly makes one feel less worried, 
because automobile wheels are sometimes uncertain factors. 

These vehicles can be fitted with either a 5 or 10 horse-power 
engine. The workmanship put on them, as well as the quality of ma- 
terial used, is of the best character. The various parts are made on 
the interchangeable plan, and are also readily accessible. This system 
permits of the carrying of spare parts. Anyone familiar with the sub- 
ject will recognize the value of this feature. It is no fun to be stuck 
on the road simply because the part which may have been rendered 
useless cannot be duplicated. The Searchmont is so built as to make 



THE SEARCHMONT WAGONETTE 



271 



many parts capable of being readily duplicated while out on the road. 
What is more, the taking out and putting in of these is so simple as 
to be easily understood by any intelligent driver. 

The wheel base is 5 feet, the gage being standard, 4 feet 8 
inches. The wheels are all 32 inches diameter, thus rendering it nec- 
essary to carry but one size of spare tire, should it be thought wise to 
do so. 

The 10 horse-power motor has two cylinders, vertically arranged. 




The " Searchmont " Carriage 



The cranks are all encased and run in oil, access to the crank chamber 
being by hand-holes, which are closed while the motor is running. 
Ordinary stove gasoline is used, the gasoline tank capacity being five 
gallons, which ought to take the carriage about 100 miles over ordi- 
nary roads. The seat is quite roomy, and should it be desired an 
extra seat for a third person can be put in the front. The control of the 
machine is accomplished by levers, all fitted on the steering column. 
The gearing used will give a maximum of twenty miles per hour, a 



272 



THE SEARCHMONT WAGONETTE 



hill climbing gear of five miles and a reverse speed of five miles per 
hour. The seat is covered with pegamoid, which in the matter of 
wearing qualities is superior to leather. This material is waterproof, 
The body is strongly built and beautifully finished. It is entirely free 
of machinery, this being swung on springs, entirely free from the 
frame. The carriage embodies the latest improvements in motor 
vehicle construction. 



A New Tool Set 

NO thorough automobilist would think of going away on a trip, 
be it a long or short one, without first of all making sure that 
he was well equipped in the way of tools necessary to effect 
any repairs which may be called for on the way. 

Machines need watching. They sometimes fail to do just what 
their builders intended they should. This being so, the next best 
thing for the automobilist to do is to see that he is well prepared. 




The automobile tool set shown in the accompanying illustration, is 
furnished with just the tools necessary, no more nor no less. The 
parties who decided what tools should be put into the case are expert 
operators, and their decision was based on actual personal experience. 
It does not contain a number of tools which are very seldom 
called into service, nor does it lack those tools, such as monkey 
wrenches, etc. , which are so much in demand. The set is kept in a 
suitable case, and when closed up does not occupy much space. This 
set, which is new, is being put on the 'market by the St. Louis Auto- 
mobile and Supply Co., 23d and St. Charles Streets, St. Louis, Mo. 



Automobile Club Directory 

Under this heading we shall keep a record of the motor vehicle 
clubs both of this and other countries, and we hope to have the 
co-operation of club officers in making it accurate and complete. 

Correspoyiding clubs of the Automobile Club of America are 
designated thus *. 



Automobile Club of America, Mal- 
colm W. Ford, Secretary, 203 Broad- 
way, New York ; representative on In- 
ternational Racing Board, Clarence 
Grey Dinsmore ; Substitute, John H. 
Flagler. 

Automobile Club of New Jersey, 
Secretary, Dr. H. Power, Mont- 
clair, N. J. 

Automobile Club of Baltimore, W. 
W. Donaldson, Secretary, 872 Park 
Avenue, Baltimore. 

Automobile Club of Brooklyn, Sec- 
retary, C. Benton Dix, Hotel Claren- 
don, Brooklyn. 

* Automobile Club of Columbus, O., 
C. M. Chittenden, Secretary, Broad 
Street. 

Chicago Automobile Club, Secre- 
tary, H. M. BrinkerhofT, Monadnock 
Block, Chicago. 

Indiana Automobile Club, Indianap- 
olis, Ind. Secretary, August Kabich. 

Long Island Automobile Club, 
Secretary, Charles W. Spurr, Jr., 552 
State Street, Brooklyn. 

Automobile Club of New England, 
Secretary, Geo. E. McQuesten, Brook- 
line, Mass. 

^Cleveland Automobile Club, L. H. 
Rogers, 357 Amesbury Avenue, Sec- 
retary, Cleveland, O. 

*North Jersey Automobile Club, E. 
T. Bell. Jr., Secretary, Paterson, N. J. 

* Automobile Club of Rochester, 
Frederick Sager, Secretary, 66 East 
Avenue, Rochester, N. Y. 

Massachusetts Automobile Club, 
President, J. Ransome Bridge ; Treas- 
urer, Conrad J. Rueter ; Secretary, L. 
E. Knott, 16 Ashburton Place, Bos- 
ton, Mass. 

Pennsylvania Automobile Club, Sec- 



retary, Henry J. Johnson, 138 No. 
Broad Street, Philadelphia. 

^Philadelphia Automobile Club, 
Frank C. Lewin, Secretary, 250 No. 
Broad Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Automobile Club of Bridgeport, 
Secretary, Frank W. Bolande, 208 
Barnum Avenue, Bridgeport, Conn. 

Rhode Island Automobile Club, Sec- 
retary, Frederick C. Fletcher, P. O. 
Box 1314, Providence, R. I. 

San Francisco Automobile Club, 
B. L. Ryder, Secretary, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 

Columbia College Automobile Club, 
Lewis Iselin, Secretary, Columbia Col- 
lege, New York, N. Y. 

"^Buffalo Automobile Club, Secretary, 
Ellicott Evans, The Lenox, Buffalo, 
N. Y. 

Worcester Automobile Club, Wor- 
cester, Mass., Vice-President, J. W. 
Bigelow ; Marshal, W. J. H. Nourse. 
AUSTRIA. 

Budapest — Magyar Automobil Club, 
31 Musem Koriil. 

Innesbruck — Tiroles Automobil 
Club, Rudolph-Strasse 3. 

Prague — Prager Automobil Club. 
BELGIUM. 

Antwerp — Automobile Club Anver- 
soir, 34 r. Longue de l'Hopital ; Presi- 
dent, Baron de Bieberstein. 

^Brussels — Automobile Club de Bel- 
gique, 14 PI. Royale ; Moto-Club de 
Belgique, 152 Boul. du Nord ; Touring 
Club de Belgique, 11 r. des Yauniers. 

Charleroi — Automobile Club de 
Charleroi, Hotel de Esperance. 

Ghent — Automobile Club de Flan- 
dres. 

Liege — Automobile Club, l.iegeois, 
2 r. liamal. 



27; 



274 



AUTOMOBILE CLUB DIRECTORY 



FRANCE. 

Amiens — Automobile Club de Picar- 
die, 36 r. de La Hotoie. 

Avignon — Automobile Club de 
Avignon. 

Bordeaux — L' Automobile Bordelais. 

Dijon — Automobile Club, Bourguig- 
nors Cafe Americanie. 

Lyon — Bicycle et Automobile Club 
de Lyon ; Motor Club de Lyon, 3 pi. 
de la Bouise. 

Marseilles— Automobile Club de 
Marseilles, 61 r. St. Fereol. 

Nance— Automobile Club, Lorrain, 
Thiers pi. 

Nice — Automobile Velo, Club de 
Nice, 16 r. Chauvain. 

*Paris— Automobile Club of France, 
6 pi. de la Concorde ; Motr-Club de 
France ; Touring Club de France, 5 r. 
Coq-Heron. 

Pau — Automobile Club, Bearnais 
Ave. de la Pau, President, M. W. K. 
Thorn. 

Perigueux — Veloce Club, Perigour- 
din, H6tel de Commerce. 

Toulouse — Automobile Club, Tou- 
lousain Cafe" Riche, pi. St. Etienne 
Societe des Chaffeurs du Midi, 25 r. 
Roquelaine. President, M. Gay. 

GERMANY. 

Aachen (Aix la Chapelle) — West- 
deutscher Automobile Club, Hotel 
Grand Monarque. 

Berlin — Mitteleuropaischer Motor 
Wagen Verein, I. Universitatstrasse, 
Herr A. Klose ; Deutscher Automobil 
Club, Liusenstrasse, 43-44. 

^Deutscher Automobil Club, Lius- 
enstrasse, 43-44. President, S. D. 
Herzog, Victor von Ratilin. 

Dresden — Radfahrer-und Automobi- 
listen Vereinigung; Dresdener Touren 
Club. 

Eisenach — Mitteldeutscher Automo- 
bil Club ; Motorfahrer Club, Eisenach. 

Frankfort am Main — Frankfurter 
Automobil Club, Restaurant Kaiserhof . 



Munich — Bayer. Automobil Club, 33 
Findling Strasse. 

Stettin — Erster Stettiner Bicycle und 
Automobil Club. 

Strassburg — Strassburger Automo- 
bil Club. 

Stuttgart — Sud deutscher Automobil 
Club ; XVurtembergischer Motor Wag- 
en Verein. 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

Birmingham — Motor and Cycle 
Trades Club, Corporation street. 

Edinburgh — Scottish Automobile 
Club. 

Liverpool — Liverpool Self-propelle d 
Traffic Association, Colquitt street. 
Secretary, E. Shrapnell Smith. 

^London — Automobile Club of Great 
Britain and Ireland, 4 Whitehall Court, 
S. W. Hon. Secretary, C. Harrington 
Moore. 

Nottingham Automobile Club, Sec- 
retary, A. R. Atkey, Nottingham, 
England. 

HOLLAND. 

Nimegue — Nederlandsche Automo- 
bile Club. 

ITALY. 

Milan — Club Automobilisti Italiani 
6 via Guilini. 

*Turin — Automobile Club d'ltalie 
Via Vittorio Amedeo II, 26. 

RUSSIA. 

Moscow — Moskauer Automobile 
Club, Petrowka, Hauschnow. 

St. Petersburg — Automobile Club 
de Russe, President, M. Delorme. 

SPAIN. 

Madrid — Automobile Club de Mad- 
rid. 

SWITZERLAND. 

^Geneva — Automobile Club de 
Suisse, 9 boul. de Theatre. 



The Automobile 
magazine 

A Live Journal for all interested in Motor Vehicles 
Vol. Ill No. 3 NEW YORK, MARCH, 1901 Price 25 Cents 

Published Monthly by 

THE AUTOMOBILE PRESS, 

95 Liberty Street, New York. 

Telephone: 984 Cortlandt. Cable Address : " Loceng," N.Y. 

Angus Sinclair, President. Jas. R. Paterson, Secretary. 

Fred H. Colvin, Vice-President and Editor. Jas. J. Salmond, Associate Editor. 

Wm, H. Maxwell, Jr., Special Representative. 

Boston Office, 170 Summer Street. Philadelphia, The Bourse. 



Subscription Price, $3.00 a year in the United States, Canada and Mexico. Foreign Countries 
in the Postal Union, $4.00 (gold). Advertising Rates on application. 



Copyrighted, 1901. 
Entered at. New York Post Office as second-class matter. 



For Sale by Newsdealers everyzvhere. 



The Storing of Gasoline 

THE safe storage of a moderate quantity of gasoline — say a 
barrel or two — is a question which every owner of either a 
steam or gasoline machine must meet and solve. It is not 
economical or convenient to buy less than a barrel, and yet this quan- 
tity requires careful storing to make it safe around your premises. 

Safety barrels are on the market, which seem to meet with con- 
siderable favor and allow the gasoline to be stored above ground so it 
can be drawn from the faucet (which is locked) as easily as water from 
the city main. 

Others sink a barrel in the ground and have suitable pipes for 
filling and discharging. The discharging is usually clone by forcing 
air on top of the gasoline, causing it to rise in the discharge pipe. 
Others pump it direct by a lift or suction pump. 

Any practical suggestions for the safe storage of the all-import- 
ant fuel will be welcomed in these columns. 

27 s 



An Invitation 

IN the January number of this magazine an invitation was extended 
to those who had practical automobile experience to send us for 

publication accounts of same. This invitation has been fruitful, 
and called out contributions from some of our friends. There is a 
very strong feeling on our part, however, that there must be many 
more who are from time to time enjoying trips which bring out inter- 
esting facts that would be relished by automobilists generally. 

It cannot but be for the good of automobilism all around if those 
records are made public. Perhaps there are some who hesitate on the 
score of not being able to frame their account in language becoming a 
magazine. What the other man wants are the facts. If you will send 
these in, the editors will attend to the rest. Photographs, which may 
have been taken while on tours, are always welcome. These are 
proof of the practical utility of the automobile, and that it is not 
merely a toy. 

Then again, there are men connected with the manufacture of 
automobiles who might send in contributions relating to the mechan- 
ical problems involved in construction. 

Last, but not least, we desire information from those who have 
adopted motor vehicles for business purposes. This is an ever-widen- 
ing field. Many business houses have already gone into it ; many 
others are just about to do so. Before doing so, much study must 
be given to the comparative cost of horses and the newer methods. 
What we want is some statement as to the facts which led to the aban- 
donment of the horse, as well as particulars about results obtained 
with the self-propelled vehicles. 

Any and all who can give us anything likely to interest our read- 
ers are invited to correspond with us. No one can stand up and de- 
clare he knows all there is to know about the automobile. It is by the 
interchange of ideas that we become better acquainted with any given 
subject, and all we can hope is that the columns of The Automobile 
Magazine will be made use of in the manner suggested. 



Mohler & DeGress, of Mexico City, Mexico, have secured a fac- 
tory at 284 Albert Street (near Broadway and Steinway Ave. ) Astoria, 
L. I. City, and will manufacture gasoline engines, radiating coils, 
pumps, transmission gears and voiturettes. They will also rebuild 
autos. 

276 




t<£r¥ehictes 

IN (Business 



Operation of Electric Delivery Wagons 

BY W. H. MAXWELL, JR. 
PART II 

WITH the last number began a series of articles dealing directly 
with the cost of operating and maintaining automobile de- 
livery services. In succession, electricity, gasoline and 
steam are to be considered, and the actual results obtained by the 
ordinary user will be set forth, accompanied when necessary by exact 
statements of the conditions subject to which the results conform. 

The accompanying" story has for its object the giving of a 
few points, gathered by experience, in regard to electric vehicles. 
In making tests of any other kind of machinery it is very nearly 
always the case that the conditions under which the tests are made 
are held as favorable as possible to the mechanism. The loco- 
motive operates on a smooth rail ; the trolley car ditto, and both 
by persons who have been taught how to run them. All that is asked 
of the stationary engine is that it run, do the work. What are the 
usual conditions under which an automobile is started on the high 
road to prosperity, or more often ruin ? A case in point will illustrate 
much more satisfactorily. 

The writer sold an electric vehicle, delivery wagon, capacity 
about fifteen hundred pounds, to a confectioner on One Hundred and 
Twenty-fifth Street, New York city. The gentleman in question who 
purchased the rig stated in direct terms that he knew nothing what- 
ever about an electric vehicle, and would cheerfully follow any advice 
or instructions given him as to its care, maintenance, etc. It not be- 
ing in the writer's power to do anything further in the matter, the 



278 



OPERATION OF ELECTRIC DELIVERY WAGONS 



company which built and sold the vehicle had a plain duty laid on it 
to see that competent advice was given its customer. Here is the first 
and indeed one of the greatest elements of failure in the operation of 
motor delivery wagons. So many concerns are manufacturing (?) 
automobiles, either to get the immediate profit from the sale of a num- 
ber of poorly constructed vehicles, or are turning out just about a 
sufficient number of vehicles to admit of their being styled manufac- 




Fig. i. — Delivery Wagon Built by the National Automobile and 
Electric Company 



turers and so be bought up by their larger and stronger competitors. 
They make no attempt to serve the consumer, but are simply stock 
jobbing or worse. 

In the case quoted, the confectioner stated that he had engaged 
the services of a competent electrician. Instead of showing the inter- 
est that it might be fairly expected they would in their product, the 
officers of this selling concern made no attempt to test the qualifica- 



OPERATION OF ELECTRIC DELIVERY WAGONS 279 

tions of the man who was to take their product out on the streets and 
exhibit it to the multitude, and to those wavering spirits just about on 
the verge of investing in a motor delivery wagon. The same old 
story resulted. Made by a poorly managed concern, the wagon gave 
trouble from the start. The confectioner was told it was all the fault 
of the driver. The vehicle spent half its time in the shops and now 
the company has put a sixteen or seventeen year old boy on the ve- 
hicle as an expert operator. What can one expect of any mechanism 
so handled ? Added to this are the naturally adverse conditions stand- 
ing as a constant menace to the motor delivery wagon's perfect opera- 
tion — rough pavements, the constant jarring of the mechanism, and 
the gradual depreciation of the vehicle through use. Therefore, in 
making a study of the results shown by any delivery wagon or truck 
it is necessary that the common sense of the user and the honesty of 
the manufacturer be taken into account. 

Fig. 1 is a vehicle so built that it can be used as a light delivery 
wagon or a pleasure vehicle by merely changing the top or superstruc- 
ture. The carrying capacity of any such vehicle is about five hundred 
pounds of paying load. Fig. 2 shows a truck. The capacity of an 
ordinary storage battery truck is about two and one-half tons. But 
few companies in this country have made any determined attempt to 
build electric trucks, and the makers of the one illustrated can be 
said to be the only American firm which has made a success of the 
venture. 

The great difficulty which obstructs the development of the 
heavy electric vehicles is that the wagon itself, because of the exces- 
sive weight of the batteries, must weigh considerably more than the 
load in order to move it. The truck shown more nearly approaches 
a fair proportion between the sustaining force and the maximum load 
than any other yet built, and for that reason its designers are entitled 
to the highest praise. 

In France, the Saye Sugar Refining Company has recently had a 
truck delivered to it by the makers, which tips the scales at 24,000 
pounds or twelve tons. It has a carrying capacity of but ten tons, 
or only 20,000 pounds. In all, the power must be at hand to move 
twenty-two tons or 44,000 pounds. This illustrates the difference be- 
tween American and foreign construction. 

At this time there is a line, because of the present status of the 
battery question, between the points where the electric vehicle is com- 
mercially successful and where it is not. What gives the electric 



2 SO 



OPERATION OF ELECTRIC DELIVERY WAGONS 



vehicle the hold it undeniably has on the commercial world ? First 
of all comes that point in its favor, which is possessed by all ma- 
chinery — its increased capacity for work over animal power. Second, 
its adaptability to design. Third, its ease in management, and lack of 
necessity for any great amount of mechanical skill in its care. Fourth, 



:'. .'.' ••' 



€» I 

I0ET&CHAND0N 

CHAMPAGNE 



nFT a CHANDON 




Fig. 2. — Electric Truck Built by Riker 



its ^inoffensiveness as to odor, vibration, noise, etc. The electric ve- 
hicle with a carrying capacity up to three tons has proven itself all 
that could be wished, and considered as a purely business proposition 
it is a success. 

( To be continued ) 




The Final Automobile 



IV.- 



HUGH DOLNAR 

•Fuels and Combustion 



THE principal fuels now used in motor-driven road wagons are 
coal, coke, shale products, the various petroleum distillations, 
from kerosene to gasoline, and alcohol. All liquid fuels have 
great advantages in the way of handling and moving, and in conse- 
quence some of them are used for firing steam boilers, most commonly 
with the liquid fuel carried in tanks under an air pressure of from 25 to 
40 pounds, this air pressure being needed to force the liquid fuel 
through the small holes usually employed in the burners. 

There are other possible fuels for internal combustion motors in 
the form of finely divided carbonaceous materials, such as wheat flour, 
corn meal, starch, sugar and wood dust. Wood dust, and flour made 
by grinding grain, are well known to form violent explosive compounds 
when mixed with air, a very surprisingly small quantity of flour or 
wood dust having in many instances proved sufficiently powerful, when 
accidentally ignited, to wholly demolish substantially built mills and 
factories. So far as is known to the writer, there are no records of any 
attempts to fire internal combustion motors with any of these powdered 
fuels, but there is no obvious bar to their successful use. Very finely 
powdered wood fiber seems likely to be a cheap fuel, and corn meal, 
here in America, at least, would also have the merit of low cost, corn 
often being used in place of coal on Western farms. 

The powdered fuels would also be clean and safe, as none of them 
can be readily lighted in bulk, although they are very easily tired when 
diffused in hardly perceptible quantities through the air contained in 
the closed rooms of a mill or factory. Wheat flour is the only one of 
these finely powdered fuels which is everywhere obtainable: it can un- 

281 



282 THE FINAL AUTOMOBILE 

doubtedlv be made to form explosive mixtures with air if ground fine 
enough. In the cases where flour mills have been destroyed by ex- 
plosions, the flour dust floating in the air was probably much more 
finely divided than the ordinary flour of commerce. Powdered fuels 
could be very easily drawn into motor cylinders, and the subject is in- 
teresting as a speculation, although the lack of recorded experiments 
deprives guesses in this direction of any appearance of authority. It 
is quite certain, however, that in the near future powdered fuels for 
cylinder fired motors will receive close attention, because there is now 
no wholly unobjectionable fuel known for use in wagon engines. 

Very efficient, and in some ways highly satisfactory burners for 
firing steam boilers are shown in the Stanley, and similar wagons, using 
gasoline for fuel, usually of 76 degrees; the Winton motors use 76 
degree gasoline in warm weather, and 86 degree fluid in cold 
weather. There seems to be no way to make the use of gasoline for 
firing steam boilers really safe. Accounts of the burning of two loco- 
mobiles have appeared in the daily papers quite frequently and it 
seems very difficult to so construct a gasoline burner that it is impos- 
sible to form and light a puddle of this very dangerous fluid. So long 
as any sequence of occurrences can make the production and firing of 
a puddle or tank of gasoline possible, so long accidents may be ex- 
pected to occur, no matter how remote the probability of the possibly 
disastrous chain of events may appear to be. If the fuel is turned on 
in a gasoline boiler firing burner and the flame goes out, then a pud- 
dle of gasoline can be formed, and, an attempt to relight the burner 
may be followed by a flash of flame several feet high, quite sufficient 
to bring panic to passengers, and destruction to the vehicle. Some- 
what similar conditions obtain in the use of gasoline for firing inter- 
nal combustion motors, and in point of fact, gasoline must be held as 
a very dangerous agent under all circumstances. So far, the extreme 
ease with which gasoline vaporizes has made it the favorite fuel for 
cylinder fired motors, but it is certain that the increasing use of these 
motors in wagons will lead to so many serious accidents that fuels 
other than gasoline will be dilligently sought, and that something 
really and certainly safe will be found to take the place of the more 
volatile hydrocarbons in motor wagon driving. Gasoline not only 
vaporizes readily, but it is a very thin and subtile liquid, and leaks 
through an extremely small hole when placed under the air pressure 
needed for boiler burners. For the sake of lightness the tanks are 
made of very thin sheet metal, and many serious accidents have re- 



THE FINAL AUTOMOBILE 283 

suited from leaking gasoline tanks. This whole pressure-containing 
gasoline tank element is fraught with serious difficulties and incon- 
veniences, as well as grave dangers. It is a matter of much labor to 
pump up the air pressure in a good sized gasoline tank, and many 
wagon drivers find this very objectionable. If a mechanically driven 
pressure- governed air-pump is added to the wagon machinery it is a 
costly complication, although the fact that this air pump may also be 
used to inflate the wheel tires, goes far towards warranting its install- 
ment. But no matter what the point of view is, a great many valid 
and forceful objections to any use whatever of gasoline are in plain 
sight. Insurance companies place this fluid under ban, and enforce 
the most stringent regulations against its presence on premises under- 
written ; it is a costly fuel, and it is the cause of very frequent loss of 
life. In spite of all this formidable list of really prohibitive disqualifi- 
cations, gasoline is the principal fuel used in road wagons at the pres- 
ent time, yet it seems sure that its many and great disadvantages will 
cause its speedy retirement from the field of automobilism. 

The least certain function of the gas engine is the lighting of the 
charge, and builders of these motors are constantly striving to obtain 
a sure ignition of the charge. The easiest lighted charge is a mixture 
of fixed gas and air. Air and gasoline vapor come next, and a mix- 
ture of kerosene, or common illuminating oil and air is the most diffi- 
cult of the three to ignite. To obtain a vapor from gasoline and mix 
it with air for the cylinder charge a great variety of forms of ' ' carbu- 
reters " as they are called, are used, many of which depend for their 
action on drawing the air for the charge through liquid gasoline. All 
such devices have the very great disadvantage of vaporizing the more 
volatile parts of the gasoline first, leaving a residue of heavier fluid 
which is less easily vaporized, and thus often causing a motor which 
works well when the gasoline tank is newly filled, to become uncer- 
tain in action when the gasoline supply is only partly used. Penning- 
ton was never in favor of the carbureter in any form, and admitted 
his gasoline directly to his cylinders, gravity feed and needle valve 
regulation, and his "war chariot" at present attracting some atten- 
tion in England, introduces the fluid gasoline directly to the cylinders. 
Secor, maker of the Secor kerosene oil fired motors, also delivers the 
liquid kerosene directly to his cylinders, at a place where the metal is 
only blood warm after the engine is started and working. To start 
the Secor engine it is needful to heat the part of the engine where the 
kerosene is admitted to a black heat, hot enough to vaporize the ker- 



284 THE FINAL AUTOMOBILE 

osene, but not hot enough to burn it, using a hand-moved kerosene 
1 ' Primus ' ' torch for this purpose. By this means Secor obtains a 
hot vapor of kerosene for the first few strokes of his motor ; these 
first strokes heat the combustion chamber sufficiently to vaporize the 
kerosene subsequently delivered in the form of cold liquid or spray to 
the cylinder. It is impossible to avoid the conclusion that no carbu- 
reter whatever is needed for use with the internal combustion motor, 
and it is certain that no possible form of carbureter can be devised 
which is free from serious objections. Hence the conclusion that the 
final automobile, if driven by an internal combustion motor, will not 
use this troublesome and uncertain device in any form. 

Kerosene, common oil for use in lamps, has many and great ad- 
vantages for wagon driving fuel. First, it is cheap, very much cheaper 
for heat units contained than gasoline. Next, kerosene is everywhere 
to be had, since almost all grocers, in town and country alike, supply 
it. Finally, kerosene is safe against accident by fire, absolutely safe 
when compared with gasoline. 

These obvious points in favor of the use of kerosene for road 
wagon fuel seem to found a strong probability that kerosene fired 
wagons will very soon displace all gasoline using vehicles, although so 
far, only a very few kerosene fired wagons have been shown, Koch 
and Root and Venables being perhaps the best known makers of ker- 
osene burning wagon motors. The principal objection to the kerosene 
fired motor is the vile odor of the exhaust, which is due solely to im- 
perfect combustion. 

Everyone knows that a good kerosene burning lamp can be 
lighted and burned in a closed room without the production of any 
perceptible odor. The inoffensiveness of the lighted lamp results from 
the perfect burning of the kerosene oil, and from no other cause what- 
ever. If kerosene oil can be as perfectly consumed in the cylinder of 
a motor as it is in a good lamp, then there will be absolutely no odor 
from the exhaust. So far, this absolutely complete combustion has 
not been produced in a motor cylinder, although a fairly good ap- 
proach to perfect burning is made by some motors for quite extended 
periods of time. 

The conditions needful to ensure the perfect burning of a fuel are, 
first, a sufficient supply of air, and second such a presentation and 
contact of air and fuel as will give every atom of carbon its opportun- 
ity to combine with oxygen in certain exact proportions, which are 
unvarying for each form of fuel burned. Third, there must be enough 



THE FINAL AUTOMOBILE 285 

time for burning to enable a perfect combination of the fuel and 
the air. 

When a compressed charge of air and fuel is fired in a motor cyl- 
inder or combustion chamber provided with a window, a white flame 
is seen to instantly fill the whole enclosed space, no time, apparently, 
elapsing between the firing of the charge and the filling of the charge 
enclosing chamber with a brilliant white flash. It is certain, however, 
that the formation of this flame must take some time, and it is the 
general rule that the more time fuel has in which to burn the more 
perfect the combustion that can be effected. The necessity of this 
time element of combustion is fully recognized in dealing with the 
slow burning fuels, such as coal and wood. The extreme quickness 
with which a compressed volume of air and gas can be made to flash 
into flame, seems to have prevented a full recognition of the fact that 
a certain appreciable time duration is an essential and indispensable 
factor in obtaining such a thoroughly complete combustion of liquid 
fuel vapors derived from either gasoline or kerosene that there shal 
be no odor perceptible in the combustion product. 

In the case of the burner for firing the steam boiler the combus- 
tion is continuous, and occupies all of the running time of the motor. 
Not only is the combustion continuous, but with the form of burner 
used with the Stanley boiler the separate burners may be indefinitely 
multiplied, and hence the combustion time may be extended to any 
required degree for a given fuel consumption. Because of this ample 
combustion time the Stanley burner, and perhaps other steam boiler 
firing devices, are absolutely noiseless in action, and burn the fuel so 
perfectly that when the fire is small enough the current of combustion 
products may be breathed at the uptake, with no other perceptible 
sensations than those caused by breathing a current of pure warm air. 
This is a very different result from that obtained by burning vaporized 
fuel in any form of internal combustion motor known to the writer. 
The exhaust from a gas engine is rarely invisible, and never without 
some odor, and in a vast majority of instances this odor is very pro- 
nounced and highly offensive. 

The lighting of the fuel which drives a motor wagon is a problem 
presenting many practical difficulties. In the steam driven wagons it 
is customary to heat certain parts of the burner by means of a hand 
applied plumber's gasoline fired torch, until the fuel begins to vapor- 
ize, when it may be lighted and thereafter vaporizes its own fuel with- 
out exterior assistance, so long as the fire continues to burn. Since 



286 THE FINAL AUTOMOBILE 

the product of combustion from these burners contains very little or 
no free oxygen the fire is instantly extinguished by the slightest ' ' back 
draught, ' ' or reversal of direction of the uptake current ; after such an 
accidental extinguishment the fire may or may not be lighted again 
without the use of the hand applied torch. This separate portable 
torch is a highly objectionable feature, conducive to accident and 
inconvenient of application, and seems likely to be superseded by 
some built-in device, forming an integral part of the wagon motor 
which shall be safe, of ready and certain action, always in place and 
convenient to use. All of the motors requiring the use of a hand- 
applied torch in starting are slow in action. The Stanley burner can 
be fired quickly, and steam at 25 lbs. can be generated in about 4^ 
minutes from the application of the torch to the burner when the boiler 
is filled with cold water. Some forms of internal combustion motor 
require much more time for preliminary heating. The Secor and the 
Hornsby Akroyd motors require the application of the torch from 15 
to 25 minutes, both these motors using kerosene fuel. On the other 
hand, some of the gasoline burning wagon motors, as the Winton 
and De Dion, start in a very few seconds, four or five, when all is in 
good order, with no preliminary heating whatever, the fuel being gaso- 
line, which is a very great point gained. It is true that the gasoline 
fired internal combustion motors do not always start so promptly, and 
that even experienced drivers are often unable to start such motors for 
a long time, and have much difficulty in finding the cause of delay. 

The first gas engines ignited the charge by the direct application 
of flame to the uncompressed mixture in the cylinder. The next step 
was the use of a hot tube, the interior of this tube being in direct 
communication with the interior of the charge compression chamber. 
The latest form of ignition, as in the Diesel motor, dispenses with all 
auxiliary forms of igniter, the air charge being compressed to ignit- 
ing temperature so that it lights and consumes the fuel supplied dur- 
ing the working stroke by its own great heat due to a very heavy 
compression. This high compression of the air, the pressure em- 
ployed being from 500 to 800 lbs. per square inch, is the cause of the 
unexpectedly slow introduction of the Diesel motor, which although 
extremely economical in the use of fuel, has the almost prohibitive 
drawback of a piston pressure too great to be obtained with ease and 
comfort ; it must always be borne in mind that all workers, mechan- 
ical as well as animal, have their limits of endurance, which cannot 
profitably be exceeded in any direction. The pressures demanded by 



THE FINAL AUTOMOBILE 287 

the Diesel system are beyond the comfortable limit, and seem certain 
to greatly restrict the practical application of the motor, although it is 
absolutely faultless in theory, and has the very great advantage of 
requiring no separate charge igniting device. 

Where the hot tube is used to ignite the cylinder charge a sepa- 
rate burner is required to heat the tube, usually made of platinum or 
nickel, to the high temperature which it must have. When the fuel 
charge is in the process of compression it is constantly made more and 
more easy to light ; hence the time of charge ignition by the hot tube 
is entirely beyond regulation to suit the actual needs of the motor at 
the moment. Again, the hot tube must be hotter than is comfortable 
and durable, and consequently requires frequent renewals ; the sepa- 
rate fire for heating the hot tube is also a source of care and annoy- 
ance to the wagon driver. 

These faults of the hot tube led to the employment of the electric 
spark for charge ignition, and although the spark has not yet been 
produced by any form of mechanism which can be said to be wholly 
without drawbacks, it has the vast merit of being non-existent until 
the time for its action with the best effect. With spark ignition the 
charge may be compressed to far beyond the usual pressure without 
danger of too early ignition. The point of charge firing can be either 
advanced or retarded at the will of the driver, by very simple and 
easily actuated regulating elements. This great advantage of firing- 
time adjustability makes it apparently sure that for ordinary road 
wagon service electric spark ignition will very soon entirely displace 
the hot tube. For war use, in case the automobile should ever be- 
come a recognized detail of army equipment, it is possible that both 
the hot tube and the electric spark ignition may be supplied for the 
same motor, the hot tube to be used when from any cause the electric 
spark fails to appear as desired. At present, the efforts of a multitude 
of inventors and investigators are directed towards the production of 
an entirely satisfactory electrical equipment for road wagons, and it is 
of course certain that such an equipment will soon appear, many as 
are the faults of all spark producing devices in present use. 

The higher the charge compression the more ready of ignition it 
becomes, and the more economical the motor is in fuel consumption. 
It is, however, much more difficult to obtain a fuel compression of say 
70 or 80 lbs. to the inch than to compress the charge to about 45 lbs. , 
as obtained when the combustion chamber cubic content is made one 
half the volume of this piston displacement, which is now a very 
common proportion in vehicle motors. 



288 THE FINAL AUTOMOBILE 

Here, however, the question of charge contamination by burned 
and inert combustion products is introduced. The cylinder is cleared 
of combustion products by the travel of the piston, but the combustion 
chamber in most forms of motor remains filled with burned product at 
the time when a fresh charge is to be introduced, and this inert bulk 
may vitiate the fresh charge so as to render it difficult of ignition when 
compressed. Many attempts have been made to perfectly clear both 
the cylinder and the combustion chamber of burned gasses, none of 
which have come into general use. 

The burned gas content of the combustion chamber is far from 
being an unmixed evil in gas engine operation. The burned product 
reduces the bulk of the fresh charge drawn into the cylinder, and as 
this inert mass is driven before the incoming charge to the less heated 
end of the water jacketed cylinder, it assists in heating the incoming 
charge and so aids in preparing for rapid combustion. The presence 
of the burned products also leads to a lower terminal cylinder pressure, 
and these are valuable features. The spark points may be so placed 
that after the charge is compressed they are surrounded by burned pro- 
duct, in which case the charge ignition becomes uncertain, or fails alto- 
gether. It may be safely assumed, however, that with simple forms of 
combustion chamber, the burned product will be driven into the cylin- 
der ahead of the incoming charge, and that the relative positions of the 
burned and unburned parts of the charge will not be altered during 
compression. If this assumption is correct, then the spark points 
should be placed as near the point of charge admission as possible, as 
they will there be the more likely to be surrounded by the fresh 
charge. 

So far as can now be seen, the final automobile will have electric 
spark ignition, and will also have a sufficient supply of electric current 
to supply white lights in front and a red light at the rear of the vehicle. 
This system of lighting seems a necessity, but demands more current 
than can be readily supplied by the use of primary batteries. Hence i 
seems probable that the final automobile will be equipped with a dyna- 
mo driven by its motor, and with small storage batteries to store the 
dynamo-generated current in sufficient quantity to supply the vehicle 
for at least 25 miles travel, so that in case of failure of the dynamo the 
wagon can run to a base of supplies. This electrical equipment cannot 
be had, probably, under 50 pounds in added weight, and perhaps con- 
siderably more will be required to make a thoroughly reliable electrical 
outfit. The United States Storage Battery Co. supply a small dynamo 



THE FINAL AUTOMOBILE 



289 



weighing only about 20 pounds, which is said to be sufficient for wagon 
motor ignition with any number of cylinders likely to be employed, 
and the same company also furnishes a very light storage battery of 
suitable capacity, the whole outfit weighing only about 45 pounds. 
Some of the magneto spark-producing arrangements are said to be 
wholly satisfactory, with very much less weight than is here specified. 
It is not easy, however, to obtain reliable mechanical results, either 
with electrical appliances or anything else, without the employment of 
mechanical elements of ample weight and capacity, and the probabili- 
ties seem therefore strongly against the acceptability of very cheap or 
very light electrical equipments for internal combustion motor driven 
wagons. 

Returning now to the question of time available for combustion, 
which appears to demand a much more careful consideration than it 





The-Automobile ilaga:i, 



Fig, 18 



Fig. J9 



has received from wagon motor designers so far, a series of simple 
diagrams are here introduced for graphically exhibiting the combus- 
tion time gains which may be had by multiplying the points of charge 
ignition. These diagrams are made to scale, and each figure cor- 
rectly represents to the eye the same bulk of cylinder charge, differ- 
ently ignited, either by multiplying the points of ignition of a single 
charge, or by dividing this charge so that its parts may be separately 
ignited. Koch, who has been a very persevering investigator in the 
use of kerosene for wagon driving, claims to have gained a great de- 
gree of success by the use of a large hot tube, so placed as to ignite 
the single cylinder charge at many different points simultaneously. It 
is also well known that the admixture of burned gases makes the 
charge combustion slower. Very little has been written, however, in 
regard to the value of extending the combustion time in internally 



2 9 o THE FINAL AUTOMOBILE 

fired cylinders ; most designers appearing to regard the firing of the 
charge as an instantaneous operation, and making no direct effort to 
increase the charge burning- time. 

Referring to the diagrams, Fig. 18 shows a charge of given bulk, 
ignited at a single point, in a single cylinder, the Otto cycle being sup- 
posed in all cases here illustrated. In this case the charge combus- 
tion time is one-quarter of the total running time of the motor. Com- 
mon motor speeds in wagons vary from say 400 to 1,000 crank shaft 
turns per minute, calling for from 800 to 2,000 piston strokes, each 
having a time duration of 3-40 of one second for the longest time of 
charge combustion, to 3-100 of a second for the shortest time of 
burning. These are very short periods of time in which to com- 
pletely effect a chemical change in a considerable volume of matter. 
Referring to Fig. 18, it will be noticed that the ignition, taking place 
as shown at one corner of the cube, is at the least favorable point for 
quick action, and that the best place for lighting the charge to obtain 
rapidity of burning is at the central point. This central ignition is, 
however, impossible with most or all forms of motors commonly em- 
ployed, it being quite common to ignite the charge at a point little 
more favorable to rapid burning than that shown in Fig. 18. Fig. 19 
shows the same bulk of fuel hred simultaneously at two points sepa- 
rated as far as possible from each other. It seems only reasonable to 
suppose that perfect combustion could be obtained in half the time by 
lighting as shown in Fig. 19, which would be needed to secure the 
same result in Fig. 18. It will also be noted that with the charge 
burned in a single bulk, as in Figs. 18 and 19, the motor shaft receives 
a turning impulse during only one-fourth of the total time of motor 
action, and hence a heavy fly-wheel must be used to obtain an even 
passable approach to continuous driving action. 

In Fig. 20 the same bulk of fuel is shown divided into halves, 
separately ignited. Here the total charge burning time becomes one 
half the total running time of the motor, and if the pistons are placed in 
separate cylinders, a turning impulse may be given to the shaft dur- 
ing one half the total time of running. It is, however, quite common 
to place two pistons in one cylinder, and have them make simultaneous 
working strokes away from each other, thus obtaining the certain 
advantage of possible perfect running balance, and the questionable 
advantage of a total cylinder clearance of burned product. In this case, 
however, the time of crank turning effect remains only one quarter 
of the running time, same as if only one piston were used. With 



THE FINAL AUTOMOBILE 



291 



two pistons running away from each other in one cylinder, the ignition 
taking place in the middle of the compressed charge and the burning 
proceeding in both directions, the combustion would have double the 
time due to ignition as shown in Fig. 18, and this is the arrangement 
employed by Koch, before mentioned. 

Fig. 21 shows the constant bulk of charge divided into four equal 
parts, separately ignited, thus obtaining the whole time of motor run- 
ning for the charge combustion. It is now common to place 4-cylinder 



motors in wagons, thus obtaining 





Fig. 2* 



The Automobile Magazine 



crank turning impulse for each 
half turn of the shaft, and 
so very greatly reducing 
the fly-wheel weight needed. 
The objections urged against 
cylinder multiplication by 
the single cylinder motor ad- 
vocates, are increased com- 
plexity and increased liability 
of derangement and in- 
creased cost, owing to the 
increased number of parts. 
There is another objection to 
the multiple cylinder motor, 
not commonly urged, but 
valid, in the increased quan- 
tity of electric current needed 
to produce the sparks. The 
production of an igniting 
spark for a small cylinder 
demands as much current as 
for a large cylinder. 



The other objections to increasing the number of cylinders in a 
wagon motor are at least open to question. For efficient light wagon 
driving, a single cylinder diameter of 6 inches is not too much, and a 
cylinder of this diameter is too large to be readily handled through 
ordinary automatic tools. Four 3-inch diameter cylinders, giving 
equal piston area with much less total weight, owing to fly-wheel 
reduction, could be machined probably for less cost than the single 
6-inch cylinder, all parts included. As to liability of derangement 
and certainty of the possibility of continued working, the advantages 
are with the multiple cylinders. If anything goes wrong with a single- 



292 



THE FINAL AUTOMOBILE 



cylinder motor, the wagon must stop, while with a four-cylinder motor 
two cylinders could be out of action while the other two would still be 
able to drive the wagon at a fair rate. The most severe service 
demanded of piston and cylinder motors is in ocean steamers, and the 
cylinders of screw driving steam engines have been increased from the 
original form of a single cylinder driving a single screw, to eight 
cylinders driving two screws, with a great increase in the certainty of 
continuous turning for from 6 to 8 days consecutively. 

Very compact arrangements of four or six cylinders are possible, 
which include perfect running balance among their other advantages, 
and the continuous torque, lightness and certainty of action given by 
an increased number of small cylinders, would seem to render the exclu- 
sive adoption of multiple cylinders for road wagon motors a certainty 
in the final automobile. 








The Automobile Index 

Everything of permanent value published in the technical press of 
the world devoted to any branch of automobile industry will be found 
indexed in this department. Whenever it is possible a descriptive sum- 
?nary indicating the character and purpose of the leading articles of cur- 
rent automobile literature will be given, with the titles and dates of the 
publications. 

Illustrated articles are designated by an asterisk (*). 



* Accumulator, The Heiny — 

Description of a new form of ac- 
cumulator, which is said to possess 
unusually long life. " La Locomo- 
tion Automobile," Paris, January 
10, 1901. 

*Belt Transmission for Automobiles, 
Automatic — 

Description of a motor vehicle, 
where belts are used instead of 
chains for transmitting the power. 
" Horseless Age," New York, Jan- 
uary 30, 1 90 1. 

Bodies, Designing of Carriage — 

A short editorial, calling attention 
to the importance oi paying due re- 
spect to the beauty and gracefulness 
of outline of that particular part of 
self-propelled vehicles. "Automo- 
bile Magazine," New York, Febru- 
ary, 1901. 

*Car, The Centaur — 

Description of a carriage, the 
principal features about which are 
accessibility of parts and simplicity. 
" The Autocar," London, January 
26, 1901. 

^Carburetors, Some New — 

Descriptions of two French car- 
buretors, which are reported \o\ give 
excellent service. "Motor Car 
Journal," London, January 26, 1901. 

^Carburetor, The Georges Richard — 

This is of the constant level type, 
the inrushing air vaporizing the 



gasoline by dashing it between the 
surface of an inverted cone and a 
corrugated surface. "Automotor 
Journal," London, January, 1901. 

Chicago and Vicinity, The Automobile 
in — 

E. C. Oliver. An article dealing 
with the status of the automobile in 
the great Western city. "Horseless 
Age," New York, January 9, 1901. 

^Cleveland to New York, From — 

By Alexander Winton. Interest- 
ing account of experiences through 
which the author passed while trav- 
eling between the cities mentioned, 
on an automobile. " Automobile 
Magazine," New York, February, 
1901. 

Clubs, American Automobile — 

History of the clubs in this coun- 
try which are devoted to the foster- 
ing of automobilism in its various 
phases. "Horseless Age," New 
York, January 9, 1901. 

Cylinders of Hydro-Carbon Engines — 
A short article, calling attention 
to the need of good workmanship 
and proper design. "Automobile 
Magazine," New York, February, 
1901. 

•Daimler Car, How to Drive It, The — 
By R. J. Mecredey. Gives valuable 
pointers for users of Daimler carri- 
ages. "Motor News." Dublin, Jan- 
uary, [901. 



293 



294 



THE AUTOMOBILE INDEX 



Design, Automobile Engine — 

A letter from Charles E. Duryea, 
in which he takes to task Mr. Ho- 
bart's article, published in a former 
issue of the "Age of Steel." In that 
article Mr. Hobart called attention 
to the great mistakes that up to 
the present have been made by au- 
tomobile gas engine designers. "Age 
of Steel," St. Louis, January 26, 
1901. 

*Dick Turpins Awheel — 

By Percie W. Hart. This is an 
interesting automobile story, written 
by one who is a frequent contribu- 
tor to the best monthly magazines. 
The illustrations are by H. J. Wibel. 
"Automobile Magazine, "New York, 
February, 1901. 

Electric Automobile, The — 

Criticism of the articles by R. A. 
Fliess, which were reprinted in the 
Automobile Magazine for October 
and November, 1900. "La Loco- 
motion Automobile," Paris, Decem- 
ber 20, 1900. 

^Electric Vehicle Transportation Co,, 
The New Sta'ion of the — 

R. A. Fliess. Minute description of 
this new plant. " Electrical World 
and Engineer," New York, January 
12, 1901. 

*End to End, From— 

Hubert Egerton. Description of 
a trip taken by the author, between 
John O' Groat's and Land's End. 
"Motor Car Journal," London, 
January 5, 190T. (See under Loco- 
mobile. ) 

^Engine, The Sweet Automobile — 
This is a steam engine, the entire 
control of which is actuated by a 
single lever. "Automobile Maga- 
zine," New York, February, 1901. 

Evolution, Automobile — 

An historical article dealing with 
the development of the electric au- 
tomobile. W. H. Maxwell, Jr. 
"Electrical Review," New York, 
January 12, 1901. 

^Gasoline Carriage, The Turrell — 

The main feature of this vehicle is 



that no attempt has been made to 
construct a rigid frame. " The Au- 
tocar," London. 

*Gearing — 

By E. C. Oliver. This is article 
No. 3 of a series in which the author 
goes into the problems connected 
with the laying out of bevel gears. 
" Horseless Age," New York, Jan- 
uary 23, 1 901. 

Housing of Automobiles — 

By Albert L. Clough. Goes into 
the questions involved in the hous- 
ing of automobiles. ' ' Horseless 
Age," New York, January 30, 1901. 

^Ignition, Electric — 

Sidney F. Walker. First part of 
a contribution in which the author 
gives simple data for those not par- 
ticularly well informed on this sub- 
ject. "The Autocar," London, 
January 5. 1901. 

"Kerosene Motor Driven Vehicle, A — 
Description of the Roots & Ven- 
ables carriage, which is claimed to 
be the only successfully operated 
vehicle of its kind built. ' ' Automo- 
bile Magazine," New York, Febru- 
ary, 1900. 

•Locking Devices — 

Description of various plans in- 
tended to lock machines against 
tampering by those not familiar with 
their operation. " Horseless Age," 
New York, January 9, 1901. 

"Locomobile, From End to End on a — 

By H. W. Egerton. Part 2 of a 
series of articles descriptive of a 
tour from Land's End, in England, 
to John O' Groat's, the most north- 
erly point in Scotland. In this slory 
the author goes into the various in- 
cidents of the trip. " The Autocar," 
London, January 19, 1901. 

-Military Motor Car- 
Description of a wagon designed 
for war purposes. It is fitted with a 
Daimler engine which is placed at 
the front. An intermediate shaft is 
carried from which the rear axle is 
driven by means of sprockets and 
chains. " La Locomotion Automo- 
bile," Paris, December 27, 1900. 



THE AUTOMOBILE INDEX 



295 



*Motor Bicycle — 

A description of the Baines Ma- 
chine, in which a \% h.-p. De Dion 
motor is used. The valve box has 
been moved from the side to the 
front, which reduces the width. 
" Motor Car Journal," London, 
January 26, 1901. 

Motor Cars — 

Abstract of a paper read by J. W. 
Roebuck before the Crewe Mechan- 
ics Institute and Scientific Society. 
The writer describes cars of various 
makes, going into their several in- 
teresting features. " The Autocar," 
London, January 19, 1901. 

*Motor Car, The Bardon— 

i Description of a new French car- 
riage. "Motor Car Journal," Lon- 
don, January 12, 190T. 

*Motor Car, The Vinot-Deguingand — 

Description of a French vehicle 
which is fitted with a two cylinder 
vertical engine. The engine is 
mounted in the front, as is common 
on French machines. "The M6tor 
Car Journal," London, January 19, 
1 901. 

*Motor Vehicle, Construction of a Gaso- 
line — 

The concluding article of a series 
by C. C. Bramwell, which will be 
issued in book form later. " Motor 
Vehicle Review," Cleveland, Janu- 
ary 10, i9or. 

*Omnibus, The First Successful Pneu- 
matic-Tired — 

By Echaude. An interesting ac- 
count of the trial of a De Dion 'bus. 
"The Autocar," London, January 
19, 1901. 

Paris, Automobile Notes from — 

Leopold Canning. "Motor Car 
Journal," London, January 12, 1901. 

Paris, The Electric Automobile in — 
Hart O. Berg. The writer refers 
in his article to the gradual displace- 
ment of the petrol or gasoline motor 
by the electric automobile. He 
thinks the American vehicle will be 
the most popular over there. " Elec- 



trical World and Engineer," New 
York, January 12, 1901. 

Physician, The Automobile for the — 

By E. C. Chamberlin, M. D., in 
which a plea is made for the advan- 
tages of the motor vehicle in the 
conducting of a medical prac- 
tice. ' 'Automobile Magazine, ' ' New 
York, February, 1901. 

-Roads of the World, The— 

L. Lodian. The author goes into 
the construction of early roads, ar- 
guing that they were nearer being 
right than the modern roads. " Au- 
tomobile Magazine," New York, 
February, 1901. 

^Runabout, The Woods Electric — 

Description of a neat and reliable 
carriage, which is beautifully finish- 
ed. "Automobile Magazine," New 
York, February, 1901. 

'"Speed Gear, An Improved Panhard 
Variable — 

A new device whereby is obviated 
the abandonment of the first and 
second speed gears used on Daimler 
and Panhard cars. "Motor Car 
Journal," London, January 5, 1901. 

*Snow, Driving an Automobile through 
the— 

Interesting description of a trip 
taken in a 16 horse-power Napier. 
" The Autocar, " London, January 
26, 1901. 

Springs, Adjustment of Valves and 
their — 

(See under Valves. ) 

-Springs for Automobiles— 

By M. C. Krarup. In this article 
the author goes into the problems 
connected with the design of springs. 
"Horseless Age," New York, Jan- 
uary 30, 1901. 

■Steam Carriage, The Kidder — 

Description of a vehicle which 
embodies a number of new points. 
Two engines are used, one on each 
side of boiler. "Horseless Age," 
New York, January 23, 1001. 



296 



THE AUTOMOBILE INDEX 



Steam Carriage, Three Thousand 
Miles with a — 

By George E. Greenleaf. An ar- 
ticle in which the author gives a 
great many suggestions to users of 
this class of vehicles. " Automobile 
Magazine," New York, February, 
1901. 

*Steam Wagon, The Musker — 

(See under Wagon. ) "Automo- 
tor Journal," London, January, 1901. 

^Trucks, Steam versus Horse Drawn — 

By H. G. Chatain. An article in 
which is given the relative cost of 
operating horse as against steam 
drawn trucks for heavy loads. Con- 
tains a number of tables. "Auto- 
mobile Magazine," New York, 
February, 190 1. 

Valves and their Springs, The Adjust- 
ment of — 

By A. Oulion, in "La Locomo- 
tion Automobile," of December 20, 
1900. (See under Springs. ) 

*Voiturette t The Valkyrie — 

Description of a new carriage, 
having the motor located in the 
front, the transmission mechanism 



being similar to that used on the 
Renault carriages. "Motor Car 
Journal," London, December 29, 
1900. 

* Wagon t Adams Express — 

By Daniel Bellet. Description of 
the truck designed and built for the 
company named, by its mechanical 
engineer, Arthur Herschmann. "La 
Locomotion Automobile," Paris, 
January 10, 1901. 

Wagons, Operation of Electric Delivery — 
W. H. Maxwell, Jr. This article 
treats of the general precautions 
necessary in the operation of such 
machines. "Automobile Maga- 
zine," New York, February, 190 1. 

*Wagon, The Musker Heavy Steam — 

Description of a heavy wagon, 
among the chief features of which 
may be mentioned the peculiar 
suspension of the propelling mech- 
anism and the boiler. The entire ma- 
chinery is carried on separate un- 
derframe, independently suspend- 
ed by springs from front and rear 
axles. ' ' Automotor Journal, ' ' Lon- 
don, January, 1901. (See under 
Steam. ) 




The Automobile 

MAGAZINE s 




Vol. hi APRIL, 1901 No. 4 



The Lights and Shades of Motoring, or Rem- 
iniscences of the Thousand-Mile Trial 

By MRS. M. E. KENNARD 
PART I 

TRUE indeed, it is, that the lights and shades of motoring are 
infinitely varied ; but this fact, instead of detracting from the 
fascination of the pastime, only serves to enhance it. The 
word monotony does not exist in the automobilist's vocabulary. One 
day he may realize unalloyed pleasure. His engine works splendidly, 
and the car is running in its very best form. His spirits rise like 
wildfire. But the morrow brings forth quite a different state of affairs. 
Punctured tires, stale gasoline, imperfect carburation, pump and nu- 
merous other troubles conspire to alter the conditions, and drive even 
the proud owner of a high-powered Panhard well nigh to despair. 
But in spite of mishaps, the distinguishing attribute of every true auto- 
mobilist is his enthusiasm. The uncertainties of the road serve but to 
increase his keenness. As a body, motor car experts are extremely 
intelligent. Their minds are quick and receptive beyond the average. 
They are centuries ahead of the general public, who, ignorant, stand 
aloof and scoff. In England at any rate, the masses have much to 
learn respecting the self-propelled vehicle. Nevertheless, curiosity has 
undoubtedly been aroused, as was evinced by the interest shown in the 
recent trial of 1,000 miles. 

A 3 horse-power De Dion voiturette was kindly placed at the 
writer's disposal by that famous erst-while cyclist, Mr. S. F. Edge, 
It may be said in passing, that the manipulation of this little carriage 

299 



3 oo THE LIGHTS AND SHADES OF MOTORING 

is extremely simple and eminently suited to ladies. From the remarks 
overheard at the various exhibitions, it was evident the fair sex longed 
to overleap the barriers of automobilism much as they had already 
charged and demolished those of cycling. When that time comes 
— and it is not far distant — an enormous demand will arise for light, 
easily-driven cars of the De Dion type. But our dear friends, the 
ladies must be prepared to learn something of their subject, and not 
imagine — as so many do — that cars will run without oil, water, grease 
or attention. Let them remember a motor requires to be both fed 
and cared for if good results are to obtained. If women have the 
wish to learn, they can gradually acquire information. 

Monday, April 23, 1900, saw such a mighty procession of cars, 
quadricycles, and tricycles congregated at Hyde Park Corner as was a 
revelation to this slow-moving country. The tour itself was entirely a 
new departure, and even Mr. Johnson — the admirable secretary of the 
Automobille Club — and others, who had originated it, had no idea what 
measure of success their project was likely to meet with. Despite the 
early hour, an immense crowd witnessed the start. Many cyclists ac- 
companied us, and our little De Dion had the honor of pacing two 
celebrated wheelmen — Messrs. Bidlake and Goodwin. Once clear of 
the town, we took them along at a steady eighteen to nineteen miles 
an hour. They followed in our wake, until Mr. Goodwin's racing tire 
punctured hopelessly. A run of over thirty miles in the sharp morn- 
ing air rendered the liberal hospitality of Mr. Alfred Harmsworth at 
Calcot Park peculiarly welcome. 

Much refreshed, we resumed the run to Bristol, our car run- 
ning grandly, taking nearly every hill on the top speed, and 
causing several six horse-powered Benz and Daimlers to look to 
their laurels. At every town and village through which we passed, 
throngs of men, women and children lined the roadway. Flags 
waved gaily from windows, white handkerchiefs fluttered in the 
breeze, clear young voices hailed us with cries of " Bravo, Hooray." 
It was a surprise to us all, and a very pleasant one to find ourselves 
greeted with such acclamation. Bristol was reached in excellent 
time by the majority of cars, and so ended a most eventful and enjoy- 
able day, which was unmarred by any serious accident. Most of the 
vehicles that left London arrived sooner or later at their destination, 
only a small proportion broke down at this early stage of the journey. 

On Tuesday, the 24th, a halt was cried, and the cars were placed 
on exhibition. A great many people came to see them, including a 



THE LIGHTS AND SHADES OF MOTORING 



301 



large number of fashionably dressed ladies. As an instance of the public 
taste, the following incident may be quoted. My next door neighbor was 
also a De Dionvoiturette, but the owner had introduced sundry small 
alterations, turned the third seat to face the road, added a splash board, 
side wings, and a pair of smart plated lamps. His car was spick and 
span with shining paint and polished nickel. He did not propose 
going the whole distance, and retired from the scene on the following 
day. We, on the other hand, although not officially entered, were in 
full traveling array — a little worn may be by use and weather, but in 



2% 








Fig. 1. A Jolly Procession 



sound running order. Our front seat was abolished, so as to make 
room for a long basket carrying cleaning utensils and other indispen- 
sable necessaries. The smart car was surrounded by a crowd of ad- 
mirers, who pronounced it the prettiest in the show. But ours, which 
possessed the same motor and had proved itself on the previous day 
infinitely the better traveler of the two, was passed by unnoticed. It 
made one ponder, whether it were not worth the seller's while to ex- 
pend a few extra pounds on outward adornment, when finery so 
takes the public fancy. The carriage alone, with its paint and varnish, 



3 o2 THE LIGHTS AND SHADES OF MOTORING 

its cushions and upholstery appeals to the novice ; not the motive 
power which propels it. Of that, he or she thinks nothing whatever, 
and respect for it is only gained by — often bitter experience. 

Wednesday, the 25th, saw us once more on the road, Birmingham 
being the goal. Soon the chapter of accidents began to lengthen. 
Punctures were numerous and delayed many of the cars, while others 
complained of bad petrol. Meanwhile the fast cars forged ahead, 
Mr. Roll's 12 horse-power Panhard leading, with Mr. Kennard's 
8 horse-power Napier (Fig. 2) in hot pursuit, closely followed in its turn 
by the 12 horse-power Daimler of Mr. Holder. And the smaller 
fry struggled gamely on, their drivers nearly blinded by the long 
trails of dust left by the Leviathans. It was a merry scurry, which 
set the blood aglow, much as does a good run out hunting. At 
Cheltenham a halt was cried, and the cars were exhibited for three 
hours in the Winter Gardens. Again a fashionable throng inspected 
them, and many openly wished they were taking part in the expedi- 
tion. We began to feel flattered by the favor with which we were 
received, and no longer felt doubts as to our reception. Tewksbury 
and Worcester afforded the procession a positive ovation, and the 
streets of the latter town were so densely packed with human beings, 
that the cars had considerable difficulty in threading their way 
through the serried masses, who pressed closer, ever closer upon 
them, and if the truth must be told recklessly courted disaster. The 
exhortations of the police were powerless to keep them within 
bounds, and it was fortunate for many that the drivers were almost 
in every instance steady, experienced people, with their vehicles well 
under control. Woe to the luckless autocarist forced to stop for 
a temporary repair. His car was immediately surrounded by a surg- 
ing crowd, pressed upon from all sides, tires prodded by dirty fingers, 
mudguards affectionately pawed, lamps wiped with clammy hands 
which left a stain behind, whilst the children even put out their tongues 
and licked the dust from the wheels. Thanks to the popular eagerness 
to see the interior arrangements of a motor car, the owner could 
scarcely get at a spanner. No doubt such curiosity was not only 
natural but gratifying in a certain sense, nevertheless, it proved decid- 
edly trying, and frequently added materially to the length of a delay 
on the road. 

So far, we had reveled in the sunshine of motoring, but now, the 
shades of evening began to gather round our good little De Dion. 
As we neared Birmingham, she lost her matutinal vigor, and in its 



THE LIGHTS AND SHADES OF MOTORING 



303 



stead exhibited a reprehensible and alarming sluggishness. She took 
to stopping on the hills after the fashion of a jibbing horse, and dis- 
played sundry vagaries, which filled us with misgiving. We got into 
Birmingham determined to have an overhaul on the following morn- 
ing. People are only too prone to blame their motor at the first 
symptom of feebleness, when nine times out of ten, the poor motor is 
only giving notice that its wants are not properly complied with. 
Such proved to be the case in our instance. On testing the dry bat- 
teries with an amperemeter, we found it only showed two and a half 
amperes. A new battery very soon put matters to rights, while our 
fears of a premature break-down subsided. The exhibition held at Bir- 
mingham on Thursday, the 26th, did not apparently meet with so much 

favor from the 
gentry as at some 
of the other 
towns. It was, 
however, well at- 
tended by the 
manufacturing- 
class, who took 
critical stock of 
the various ve- 
hicles and noted 
their points of 
excellence. We 
were glad to 
make a start for 
Manch ester at 7 
a. m. on Friday, 
the 27th. Temporarily forsaking the De Dion, the writer transferred her- 
self to a Critchley-Daimler belonging to Mr. Grahame-White. She had 
already driven it twice and knew it to be a good car when in order. 
We were not in luck, however. Soon after starting, the belts slipped 
badly and required shortening. This operation concluded, we looked 
forward to making up for lost time by some fast traveling. The motor- 
gave out close on 7 horse-power and the car was geared to twenty-five 
miles an hour. But alas ! we were troubled with refractory burners, 
which refused with singular obstinacy to keep alight for more than 
five minutes at a time. Mr. White unfortunately broke his pricker, 
and at last was forced to substitute new burners altogether, one of 




Fig. 



Sir Charles " 



304 THE LIGHTS AND SHADES OF MOTORING 

which behaved just as badly as its predecessor. Consequently, we 
arrived late both at Litchfield and Matlock. The beauty of the scen- 
ery compensated in no small degree for our misadventures. For 
miles the road wound by the side of a celebrated trout stream, while 
the rounded hills were clad with verdure. It was a country to dally 
in with rod and fly. Before us lay a stiff climb, which the Critchley 
accomplished in good style, save for some slipping of the slow-speed 
belt. We emerged on to an open moorland, breezy, blowy and 
health-giving. Thence, by a long descent, with many curves to Bux- 
ton. And now for the first time that day, the car was bowling along 
in really splendid style, and we were congratulating ourselves on our 
rapid progress, when lo ! off flew the rotary friction pump, which kept 
the water circulating supplied to the engine. It rolled ahead of us 
like a tiny hoop, and at the sight our hearts sank, for we knew only 
too well, that with the departure of that miniature circlet, we had en- 
tered the shadow-land of motordom. We gazed despondently at the 
pump, picked it up with mute reproach, then, set to work to cut a 
piece of the rubber out, so as to lessen its circumference. This 
done, we joined the severed ends together with copper wire. Once 
more we started, only for that wretched wire to eat its way through 
the soft surface of the rubber after we had gone but a couple of miles. 
All the afternoon we were kept busily at work on the pump, trying 
string, rope, every device the fertile imagination of my companion 
could conceive. The sun disappeared, the moorland we had so ad- 
mired a short while ago began to loose its bright tints. One by one, 
the colors faded, leaving it cold, gray and dismal. And as if to mock 
at our misery, the wind arose and buffeted us with cold blasts, mocking 
at the ravenous hunger which assailed us. For we had not lunched, 
being anxious to make up for lost time. We struggled slowly on as 
fast as an adverse circumstances would permit of. Suddenly, when 
three miles from the town of Macclesfield, the car stopped dead. In- 
spection showed that we had not a drop of gasoline left in the tank. 
We exchanged glances of blank dismay. Should we have to bivouac 
for the night sans food, sans luggage, sans everything ? The question 
obtruded itself with disagreeable prominence. Courage ! the fates for 
once were favorable. Macclesfield was only three short miles ahead, 
and as good luck would have it, the road descended sharply all the 
way. After a few preliminary shoves, the car ran without fuel on her 
own momentum to the very outskirts of the town. Here we were 
able to replenish our exhausted stock of gasoline, and push on to Man- 



THE LIGHTS AND SHADES OF MOTORING 305 

Chester. All day, we had subsisted on biscuits and buns. The pangs 
of hunger became gnawling. We ceased talking ; conversation only in- 
creased them. Mr. White drove steadily on, while the writer hung 
over the side of the car, and periodically reported on the behavior of 
the pump. It flew off not once but many times, only to be persever- 
ingly replaced. At length Manchester was reached, and just as we drove 
up before the door of the Queen's Hotel, as if in parting defiance, our 
friend, the pump gave way altogether. Thank goodness ! we saw the 
last of that rubber circlet, which had played us such untimely tricks 
and marred the enjoyment of the day's drive. We both felt we owed 
it a grudge. Its behavior was the more aggravating, because from the 
first to the last, the engine had worked magnificently. But the true 
motorist is accustomed to ups and downs, and bears reverses with ad- 
mirable equanimity. It was a day of interesting experiences, if not 
wholly of pleasure. 

We spent the 28th at Manchester, an exhibition of the cars being 
held at the Botanical Gardens. It was largely attended. The order 
of arrival generally proved the same. The Rolls and Napier cars 
heralded their neighbors ; pride of place being occasionally wrested 
from them by a 12 horse-power Daimler. Then followed Mr. Wilson 
on an Ariel tricycle, and Messrs. Cheel and Newton riding a similar 
machine with Whippet trailer attached, This proved throughout a 
very fast combination, and distinguished itself by the excellence and 
steadiness of its running. Close behind it came Mr. Stocks and pas- 
senger, on the former's celebrated Ariel quadricycle, which performed 
so well up Dashwood and Asten hills in the hundred-mile trial ; while 
at respectful distances followed the lower powered cars — the Peugeots, 
Benz, De Dion, International, etc., etc. 

Sunday, the 29th, should have proved a day of rest. Instead an 
enthusiastic company of motorists assembled in the yard of the Boar's 
Head, and in spite of pouring rain lavished manifold attentions upon 
several disabled cars, which had taken refuge there. Among them 
was an Orient Express with a damaged piston, which forced it to retire 
from the contest. 

Monday, the 30th, found the whole company eager for a start. 
The roads were in a horribly greasy condition after the rain of the 
previous day, and for miles we proceeded at a cautious pace along 
cobbles of the roughest description, intersected by tram lines. Preston 
was alive with people, as were most of the neighboring villages 
through which we passed. From Lancaster onward, the road im- 



3 o6 THE LIGHTS AND SHADES OF MOTORING 

proved very materially, and indeed left little to be desired. By 4:30 
most of the cars were assembled in Kendal, preparatory to the hill- 
climbing test of ascending Shap Fell. Mr. Stocks kindly offered to 
drive the writer in his quadricycle — an offer of which she gladly 
availed herself. It proved a magnificent machine, magnificently rid- 
den, and the first part of the ascent was taken at an astounding rate of 
speed. Later on, the surface deteriorated and finally became so loose 
that Mr. Stocks was forced to pedal his hardest. But for the wretched 
state of the road, he would have succeeded in climbing the whole of 
Shap Fell with myself as passenger, but the wheels of our conveyance 
sank deeper, ever deeper in the sandy soil, and although Mr. Stocks 





Fig. 3. "Giving Her a Turn " 

performed prodigies of valor, he was ultimately forced to divest him- 
self of my extra weight for the last half mile. The quadricycle then 
finished the remainder of the journey with consummate ease. Undoubt- 
edly it was the surface, not the hill, which stopped us. Many others 
found the same to their cost. Standing on the summit, it was a most 
interesting sight to see car after car gallantly scaling the steep ascent. 
Mr. Rolls came flying by, as if hills were powerless to stop the speedy 
Panhard. The Napier followed, though in more leisurely fashion, 
and all the three De Dions — the two entered ones and our unentered 
vehicle — gained the top with comparative alacrity. Of the small cars, 



THE LIGHTS AND SHADES OF MOTORING 307 

nothing took the ascent in better form than the Wolseley voiturette, 
which carried its full complement of two passengers. In the majority 
of instances one passenger, if not both, had to walk at the steepest 
gradient. After all, it is no great hardship to have recourse to Shank's 
mare for a few yards, and in process of time every vehicle that 
started for Shap Fell succeeded by hook or by crook in gaining the 
summit. This fact speaks volumes in favor of the modern motor 
car. That it is capable of much improvement, none will deny ; but 
that it has already attained a surprising pitch of excellence, all impar- 
tial persons must admit. A large section of intending buyers say 
1 ' Oh ! I will not buy a car just yet. I shall wait for improvements. ' ' 

Let me assure them, that whilst they are cautiously waiting, they 
are losing precious years of enjoyment impossible to replace. Let 
them take what they can get for the moment. It is good enough for 
infinite fun, infinite pleasure, aye and infinite utility. The absolutely 
perfect motor car, with the cheapness, the simplicity, the total absence 
of noise and vibration, the capacity to burn common paraffin, to travel 
without complicated accessories in the shape of clutches, cogwheels, 
gear, pumps, etc. , may come in the far off future ; but it neither will 
nor can come just yet. The public may as well make up their minds 
to that fact once for all. Great progress has already been made ; the 
pioneers of the movement are everywhere on the alert, eager to seize 
on new ideas and try new experiments, but the final type of horseless 
vehicle has still to make its appearance. Meanwhile, do not stand 
aloof because you cannot get absolute perfection. Rather ask yourself, 
do you get it in your horse, your train, or any other form of transit. 
If honest, the answer will be — no. 

We were off on our travels again on Tuesday, May 1, but only 
having a short journey of sixty-six miles before us, we did not leave 
Kendal until 9:30, a concession for which the majority felt truly grate- 
ful, seeing that a 7 o'clock start entailed rising at 5, if not earlier, in 
order to oil and water the cars, previous to a hurried breakfast. Phee- 
bus shone kindly upon us on the present occasion, and as we passed 
through the beautiful Windermere district, immortalized by Ruskin. 
we were fortunate enough to experience delightful weather. The sun 
gleamed brightly on the smooth shining lakes ; the tender green of 
Spring adorned the country hedgerows, which were just bursting into 
life ; the birds sang joyously and all the hills stood bare and clear 
against the genial blue sky. Our only regret was that we passed all 
too quickly through this lovely region, but the road was broad and 



308 THE LIGHTS AND SHADES OF MOTORING 

tempting for speed purposes. In addition to this, one of the chief char- 
acteristics of the tour was dislike to being left behind. Every driver 
did his utmost to keep as near as possible to the leading vehicles. In 
some respects this promenade of ours resembled a mighty race. We 
were all vitally interested in the doings of our individual car, and 
would not have dropped out for untold gold. And so, we flashed 
past Windermere, enveloped in a whirlpool of dust, merely making 
a mental note to revisit the lake country at the earliest opportunity. 
To do it justice required both time and repose. It was desecration to 
whisk by as we were doing, but what would you ? We were a party 
of motorists with a daily programme to be got through, not a band of 
artists or photographers, who could wander leisurely from valley to 
crag, from mountain to lake. So we heaved a sigh of regret, but en- 
joyed the glorious drive and delicious morning in an unorthodox, auto- 
carist way. "Strange creatures!" the outside public murmur with 
superior disapproval. Poor benighted Public ! We pity you from the 
bottom of our hearts. You know not what you miss. In spite of 
dust and dirt, we were as happy as princes, when we reached Keswick 
and compared our experiences. We stayed here for luncheon, but I 
am bound to state that the good people in this little country town 
were not apparently impressed with the appearance of either Jehus or 
cars. Both were indiscriminately smothered in dust. ' ' A dirty 
sight," they dubbed us. But what signified that, when every face 
beamed with delight ? The road to Keswick was mostly on the down- 
ward grade and had many sharp curves. That no accident occurred 
said much in favor of the drivers. Carlisle was reached considerably 
sooner than anticipated, and all were loud in praises of the day, which, 
thanks to fine weather and beautiful scenery, proved one of unqualified 
enjoyment. Our De Dion comported itself admirably and so far had 
proved a most trustworthy conveyance. 

Wednesday, May 2. Wind, rain and heavy roads greeted the ex- 
pedition when it left Carlisle for the classic town of Edinburgh. It was 
a hard day, especially for the small fry. They, however, comported 
themselves with the utmost gallantry. The ascent of Birk Hill proved 
even more trying than Shap Fell. The road was exceedingly tortu- 
ous, prohibiting high speed, and it was strewn with stones. In ad- 
dition, it was so narrow that only with great difficulty could the faster 
cars pass the slower ones. For miles and miles we plodded our way 
over a detestable surface, momentarily dreading puncture, and refus- 
ing to derive consolation from the mountain scenery, which was 



THE LIGHTS AND SHADES OF MOTORING 309 

shrouded in thick gray mist. Up, up, up, it seems as if the summit 
would never be gained,. At last, reward came in the shape of a grand 
run down to St. Mary's Loch, where luncheon was provided at the 
solitary hotel. The landlady must have blessed the motor cars, for 
she reaped a veritable harvest, charging precisely what she pleased. 
It was a regular case of " pay, pay, pay." But we were too hungry 
to cavil at extortion. The keen Scotch air had made us all ravenous. 
The remainder of the journey was quickly performed, although our 
De Dion no longer traveled in best form. Once or twice we stopped 
to adjust the trembler, without effecting any material improvement. 
At Edinburgh, a monster crowd greeted our arrival and escorted us to 
our quarters at the Waverly Market. Here our cars were housed for the 
night, preparatory to the morrow's grand exhibition. And so ended 
the outward portion of the journey, whose success was now assured. 
All taking part in it agreed that the Thousand-mile Automobile trial 
of Great Britain was an experience which they would not have missed 
for any consideration. It was esteemed a privilege to have accom- 
panied this unique procession, so greatly had the members taking part 
in it enjoyed the trip. 

Three hard days' running rendered a halt for the Edinburgh exhi- 
bition anything but unwelcome. The enthusiasm displayed by our 
brethren of the Northern capital was peculiarly gratifying. The huge 
hall was thronged. During the afternoon of Thursday, May 3, a 
Highland band performed and charmed Southerners with their stirring 
playing of the national bagpipes. Several of the cars went round the 
arena, giving trial rides to those interested, and what between the ' ' teuf 
teuf ' ' of their engines and the penetrating notes of the bagpipes, it must 
be confessed the din was awful. Then Mr. Coles gave an exhibition 
of his skill as driver of a Benz car and went through some of the 
maneuvers recently performed at the Alhambra. The public were 
delighted, and the show proved the best and most successful of any 
held during the tour. Edinburgh possesses a well established auto- 
car service, so the canny Scot has given up looking at a motor car as 
a fearful and wonderful thing capable of all deviltry. With the per- 
spicacity of his race he acknowledges its usefulness, and recognizes 
that it cannot be ousted even by enterprising and courageous County 
Councillors, filled with zeal for their own and the common welfare. 
All honor to the astute Scotsman. 

( To be continued in May number) 



Opening of New Rooms of the Automobile 
Club of America 

EVER since the members of the Automobile Club of America got 
the first inkling of new headquarters there has been a great 
deal of speculation as to just where the location would be. It 
was no easy task which the committee in charge of the arrangements 
was assigned to, but who shall dare to say that when the selection was 
made, it was not the best. 

Saturday, February 16, was a red letter day in the history of the 
Automobile Club of America, the national parent organization. The 
Plaza Bank Building was, on that occasion, alive with automobilists. 
In the afternoon there was tendered a reception to the daily and tech- 
nical press of the city, this being followed in the evening by a recep- 
tion to members and guests. Shortly after 8 o'clock p. m. the mem- 
bers began to arrive, and by 9 p. m. the rooms were comfortably 
filled with ardent lovers of this new sport, which has become so popu- 
lar ; much of this popularity, in this country at least, being due to the 
admirable work done by the Automobile Club of America during the 
short time it has been in existence. When one stops to consider, it is 
remarkable how great an influence this club has exerted upon the auto- 
mobile industry in all its phases. 

President A. R. Shattuck called the meeting to order, and in a 
few happy remarks recapitulated what the club had done, was doing and 
hoped still to accomplish. As what the club has already done is well 
known to our readers, we would only say that Mr. Shattuck in speak- 
ing of what the club hopes to accomplish in the future referred to 
the carrying out of the proposed endurance test between New York 
and Buffalo. This will most likely take place during the last week 
in August or the first week in September of the present year. 

Now, a few words as to the rooms themselves, their arrangement 
and furnishing. Taking the front and largest room first : the windows 
in this room look out both on Fifth Avenue and Fifty-eighth Street; 
seated at either window the outlook is simply charming. One may 
watch the steady stream of pedestrians and carriages, almost in an un- 
broken line. Anyone could sit there and be amused and interested for 
hours at a time. The beautiful plaza is spread out before one as a 
great picture full of life. 

310 



NEW ROOMS OF THE AUTOMOBILE CLUB OF AMERICA 311 

The chairs, couches, etc., in the room are upholstered in red, a 
very appropriate color for an automobile club room. The walls are 
hung with numerous pictures. 

Leading off the large main room is the library and committee 
room. This room, having wall paper of green color and upholstered 
in the same color, forms a very pretty contrast to the one just de- 
scribed. At one end is a very pretty case, containing books on auto- 
mobilism. Placed in the center of this room is a large table with 
lights so arranged as to be excellent for reading purposes. The room 
is exquisitely furnished, and the walls here are also hung with choice 
pictures. The windows are draped with heavy red curtains while por- 
tieres of the same color adorn the doorways. In fact, every room in 
the place is beautifully furnished, and the members have every reason 
to be proud of their new home. 

At the back of the main and committee rooms is the grill room. 
This, too, is furnished appropriately. The floor is tiled, and a look 
of sociability is on every article in the room. Each member is enti- 
tled upon the payment of $5 per year to the use of one of the lockers 
which are in this room. On the opening night the members and 
guests present were entertained to refreshments in this room. 

One very satisfactory feature about the rooms is that the neces- 
sary alterations, furnishing, etc. , has all been accomplished, paid for, 
and a fairly good sum is left in the treasury. There has been no at- 
tempt at extravagance, and the money put into the hands of the com- 
mittee in charge has been judiciously expended. The outlook for a 
still more successful year's work is very bright. There cannot be any 
doubt but that the influence of the Automobile Club of America will 
grow more and more as time goes by. 



Autogo, but Won't 



It was an automobile, 

Began to balk and rant, 
And when 'twas told to move on, said, 

" I auto, but I shan't." — Harpers Bazar. 



My First Road Run Without a Mechanic 

By HERMAN B. BARUCH, M. D. 

FOR Heaven's sakes, Carl, what's the matter ; can't you get that 
nut on right? ' ' Aber die machine " — that' s all right ; now, Carl, 
don't talk — work. After two days' hard work my automobile 
is in good shape again, from tires to sparking plug. A turn of the 
handle and we are off, with a thump and a bang and a clatter. 

These trucks are always in the way ; steady, there, now, do you 
want to punch a hole in me ? ' Phew, that was a close shave, but 
there is safety in rapid motion when controlled by a cool head and 
steady hand. 

At last we are through the crowds and safely wedged in between 
two enormous coal wagons on a Long Island ferry boat. ' ' Need a 
horse?" "Want a tow?" "Say, lend' s a bag of oats," and other 
taunts only served to enliven the passage across the river. 

I had turned off the motor on boarding the ferry and to my dis- 
may could not get her to start again. This had happened to me on 
several occasions, and the only explanation I can think of is that my 
machine was purchased in May, and like a May ' ' colt ' ' will ' ' lie 
down ' ' when crossing a stream ! 

Well, we pushed and pulled her off into a coal yard and after 
some frantic telephoning to New York secured the services of a so- 
called ' ' mechanic ' ' from one of the ' ' stables. ' ' He came over, took 
her all apart, put most of the pieces in again, and said he could not 
find anything wrong. On turning the crank again the motor started, 
as much to his surprise as mine. It was then 6 p. m. and growing dark 
and we were due in Jamaica, 1 2 miles away, for supper. 

How we did buzz along that beautiful stretch of road, past a 
seemingly continuous train of truck wagons bringing produce to New 
York. None of these horses paid the slightest attention to us, nor 
did any take fright until, when nearing Jamaica, we blew out the 
sparking plug packing and sounded like a train of cars with every 
joint leaking. However, we were hungry, and as she still moved did 
not investigate until after we had had supper in Jamaica. 

I began to dilate on the joys of automobiling to my companion 
and told him how I intended to get up at 5 next morning to repair 

312 



MY FIRST ROAD RUN WITHOUT A MECHANIC 



3^3 



the damage done. He began at once to have the most complicated 
set of symptoms I have ever listened to, and you will hardly believe 
that lazy rascal pretended to be so sick all through the trip that he 
could not help me a bit, but gloated over me from the comfortable 
seat every time I got down to sweat in the broiling sun when the mo- 
tor would not ' ' mote. ' ' 

Next morning I was up early, got into a bicycle shop and found 
a piece of asbestos and made a new packing for my spark plug. I 
also found what my ' ' mechanic ' ' had failed to discover the day be- 
fore, that the platinum points of my sparking plug (wipe spark) were 
corroded and worn. I took out the points and replaced them with 
sections of a wire nail and got a beautiful spark. Next I roused my 
companion from a sound sleep, and shortly we were on the Merrick 
road again and clipping it off at a twenty mile gait. There was not a 
horse in sight and we could not resist the temptation. We did a 
measured mile in 2 minutes and 10 seconds, but I will never again try 
to steer a wagon traveling as fast as that unless fitted with a wheel. 

This is, indeed, an automobilists' paradise. The road keeps the 
bay and ocean in sight from time to time ; we pass through beauti- 
fully kept little villages and over as perfect roads as are to be found in 
America. Don't talk to me about horses, this is locomotion idealized, 
a poet's dream. By Jove, that salesman did tell the truth and with 
care the machine can be made to go. 

But hark ! What ominous sound breaks in on this revery ? There 
it is again. She is missing explosions, she jumps, she starts, she 
ceases to move, and with a few preliminary chokes and puffs my motor 
stops with one dull and sickening thud. Here we are, stranded in 
the woods three miles from Islip and not a wagon in sight. John, who 
has up to this time been all animation, is suddenly taken ill again, and 
I must sweat it out alone. 

Now, I am going to do this thing systematically. Each battery 
is tested in turn ; 1.5 volts register the limit of each cell. The spark- 
ing plug shows a blinding flash for one instant and then is dead again. 
Out she comes, new points are inserted. I had made several pair. 
New wires put on, new gasket, still no spark and two hours gone. 
"A horse ! A horse ! My kingdom," etc. 

Thank the Lord, a farmer is coming along behind ns in a ram- 
shackle runabout pulled by a sorry old white horse and agrees to take 
us to town for $5 (the robber!). Well, we got out the tow rope, with- 
out which I have learned never to leave the stable, and hooked on 



314 MY FIRST ROAD RUN WITHOUT A MECHANIC 

behind his wagon, which hardly looked strong enough to stand the 
strain of our 1,750 pound machine. However, that old horse jogged 
along and did more for us than our 1 1 horse-power motor could. 

Finally we arrived in town, and were received with jeers and cries 
by the entire village. I wanted to tow her to the stable and send for 
a ' ' mechanic ' ' or give the old thing away. Just as we got to the barn 
door and were about to shove the old box into the stable John sud- 
denly woke up and yelled, 'Oh, say, Doc, give her just one more 
turn for good luck." Now, mind you, I had turned that cussed 
crank about three thousand times and could not get her to start and 
he had the impudence to make the suggestion again, as I thought to 
mortify me before that gang of " countrymen." However, I thought 
it could do no harm, and without the least idea of having the motor 
start, gave the crank a turn and off she started as merrily as though 
nothing had ever gone wrong. 

John grasped the levers and amused himself by "demonstrating" 
the machine to a batch of about twenty lovely Long Island girls, 
while I was so dirty and grimy with my work that none of them would 
give me a glance, thinking I was John's hired man. That boy raced 
up and down Main Street (there is always a Main Street) and she ran 
better than ever before. He, however, succeeded in picking up a nail 
in the left hind tire and I was in despair until the local bicycle dealer 
made a beautiful repair with red rubber bands. 

After a little delay we headed for Moriches and completed a thirty- 
mile run without missing another explosion. I have since, after spend- 
ing several hundred dollars for repairs (this is no exaggeration), dis- 
covered that my trouble was in the sparking coil. I found this out 
experimentally one day when I had a bad spark and put in the coil the 
electrician had installed in our house for lighting the gas by spark. 
After this my ignition troubles ended. 

I have used the feminine gender in referring to the automobile for 
in her moods, like woman, " she is as variable as the shade, by the 
trembling aspen made. 



International Amenities 

THE following courteous act of the Automobile Club of France 
is evidence of the pleasant relations existing between the auto- 
mobilists of that country and Great Britain. The illustrations 
accompanying this article show respectively the obverse and reverse 
of the medal presented by the Automobile Club of France to English 
automobilists in connection with the 1,000-mile trial of 1900. 




When the French club sent the medals it left the decision entirely 
to the British club. The judges decided that the first prize be awarded 
to Mr. Kennard, who entered his 8 horse-power Napier ; second prize 
to Wolseley voiturette ; third to New Orleans voiturette. The photo- 
graphs from which our half-tones were made were taken by Mr. Ken- 
nard himself, who, as stated above, was successful in carrying off first 
prize. 



A Correction 

IN our issue for December, 1900, we published a contribution en- 
titled, "The Horse's Ode to the Automobile." We have since 
learned that it was originally published in the New York Sun, of 
November 9, and must offer an apology for its appearance in this 
magazine without giving our esteemed contemporary credit. 

3i5 



Bay Charley's Dream 

As I stood in my stable one evening and dozed, 

I lived over the scenes of the day ; 

Felt the jerk of the bit and the sting of the lash, 

Heard the motorman's gong and the iron wheels clash, 

And a fallen horse wistfully neigh. 

But what worried me most was a wonderful sight, 

Supernatural, strange, I had seen ; 

'Twas a carriage, built trimly as carriages are, 

All polished and shining, each wheel and each bar, 

And of stylish and elegant mien. 

It passed me by quickly, and trundled away, 
While I shied, as a matter of course, 
Why the thing was uncanny, bewitched and unreal ; 
For it traveled along on each rubber-rimmed wheel 
Without ever the sign of a horse. 

Hence I stood in my stable and puzzled and guessed, 
In wonder and doubt most extreme ; 

Now where were the shafts ? I would much like to know, 
And who drove the carriage? And what made it go ? 
Till my wondering changed to a dream. 

I thought a procession, most weird, came in view 
From out where the long street recedes ; 
'Twas made up of each kind of a vehicle known, 
From sulky and T-cart to wagons for stone, 
And methought they were all without steeds. 

But as they drew near, my heart flew to my teeth, 
The truth I most firmly endorse ; 
That every conveyance that slowly passed by, 
Brougham, wagon or hansom, or cart low or high, 
Was propelled by the ghost of a horse / 

And so now when I see automobiles pass by, 

As I stand by the old hitching post, 

I know that, in spite of all you may say, 

Each one of the lot, from the coach to the dray, 

Is drawn by a poor tired ghost. 

Katherixe M. Yates. 

316 



A Few Figures on Cost of Operating a 
Steam Automobile 

By GEORGE E. GREENLEAF 

THERE seems to be considerable diffidence on the part of auto- 
mobile owners toward publishing the cost of running their 
machines. This may be caused by the fact that many owners 
do not care what the cost is, and hence do not keep any record of it, 
and in some cases by disinclination to acknowledge how much they 
had been misled by the manufacturers, whether intentionally or not. 
The statements of almost all makers are misleading, from the fact 
that only the actual cost of the motive element is given ; taking no 
account of such items as attendance, repairs, depreciation, etc. 

A notable exception to the above comes sharply before the writ- 
er's memory. The person in charge of the exhibit of a large firm 
building electric carriages informed him, in reply to questions leading 
to the cost of operation and maintenance : " Oh, well ! These car- 
riages are not made for poor people." The questioner subsided for 
fear of being handed over to the police as a suspicious character. He 
was certainly suspicious of some of the statements made to him in the 
course of that conversation. 

It goes without saying, that the automobile should find its 
largest field of usefulness as a pleasure vehicle among people of 
moderate means, to whom the question of cost is of some import- 
ance. One of the ' ' poor people ' ' has kept a fairly accurate account 
of this cost, and the details may interest some of the readers of this 
magazine and lead to the publication of other statements of the cost 
of running and maintaining an automobile. After considerable delib- 
eration and examination of various types of carriages, a steam car- 
riage of well known make was purchased and we started out, like the 
traditional young bear, with all our troubles ahead of us ; anticipating 
many that were not realized and experiencing some which were not 
expected. 

The carriage is a Stanhope runabout, weighing about 950 pounds 
with all tanks filled, the motive power being steam generated in a 
vertical fire tube boiler, heated by vaporized gasoline. The steam 
from this boiler drives a simple, two-cylinder, double-acting, link- 
s' 



3 i8 COST OF OPERATING A STEAM AUTOMOBILE 

motion engine ; the power from the engine being transmitted to the 
rear axle by means of a chain. This carriage has been driven about 
3,000 miles the past season, and a record of the items of cost of run- 
ning and repairs was kept for about 2,500 miles. The record of the 
distance traveled is not exact as the cyclometer went " on strike " 
and did not register for an unknown distance, but certainly not far 
enough to make a very great difference in the total. 

The greater part of our riding has been over the fine Telford 
paved roads of Union, Essex, Somerset and Middlesex counties of 
New Jersey, but on long rides we have had to take the roads as we 
found them, and consequently have been over some very bad ones. 
The cost of 74 gasoline in barrel lots, delivered at the house, was 1 1 
cents per gallon, and there were used 227 gallons. The water supply 
cost nothing, except incidental tips to hostlers when on the road. 

The pneumatic tires with which the carriage was equipped, 
although the best that were in the market, gave a large amount of 
trouble on account of punctures, which averaged one every 300 
miles, until a change was made to a different style of tires, when all 
trouble from this cause ceased. As there was no shop in our city 
which could repair pneumatic tires of this size the tires had to be re- 
turned to the maker by express. The chain wore out in about 1,500 
miles, but the chain put on to replace it has run about the same num- 
ber of miles and shows very slight wear and stretch. A pump lever 
was worn out through carelessness in packing the pump plunger. 

The boiler was badly burned, because the bottom connection to 
the water gage glass was allowed to become plugged with sediment, 
although the makers of the carriage should have provided better 
facilities for keeping this pipe clean. As we did not care to ride after 
freezing weather came, the carriage has been given a thorough 
examination and overhauling. The water and gasoline tanks were 
emptied and thoroughly cleaned, considerable dirt being found in 
both, although all water and gasoline were strained through fine wire 
gauze when filling the tanks. The boiler and burner were taken out 
and carefully cleaned. The boiler will be subjected to heavy pressure 
by cold water before being used again. 

The engine was carefully inspected, all bearings being examined 
and the steam chest cover and cylinder heads removed for examin- 
ation of pistons and valves. 

It was considered best to put on new cones for crank-pins and 
main bearings and a new sprocket on the crank shaft. Although the 



COST OF OPERATING A STEAM AUTOMOBILE 



3i9 



old ones would have run for 2,000 miles more, we did not care 
to be stopped for repairs in the middle of the season. Various small 
repairs have been made by the owner, who has some knowledge of 
machinery. 

He has also made a practice of looking after the carriage person- 
ally; keeping the bearings in adjustment, glands packed, all joints and 
valves tight and the carriage in good running order generally. This 
would be done even if a man were hired to take care of the carriage, 
as the careful automobilist will always wish to know the exact condi- 
tion of his carriage. 

The following detailed statement gives the cost of running the 
carriage the past season : 

Gasoline, 227 gallons @ 11c, . . . $24.97 

Punctures, 5 @ $2.00, . 

Pump lever, .... 

Boiler repairs, 
- :< Engine repairs, 

Gage glass washers, 

Valve rod and piston rod packings, 

Chain, .... 

Rear axle cone, 

Balls for engine, 

Cylinder oil, 3^ gallons @ 85c, 

Engine oil, 2 gallons @ 65c, 

Cotton waste, .... 

Boiler inspection, 

Total, $92.55 

As the distance traveled has been approximately twenty-five 
hundred miles it is thus evident that the cost per mile due to the 
above items is about 3 7-10 cents. Eliminating the cost of boiler 
repairs would leave the total of the above table $53. 10, and the cost 
per mile would therefore be about 2 2-10 cents. 

It will be observed that no mention is made in the above state- 
ment of replacement of worn out tires, depreciation, taxes nor interest 
on first cost, all of which are proper items to include and will increase 
the cost proportionately. These items are as follews: 

Two tires, .... 

Taxes, 6 months, 

Interest, 6 months @ 5%, 

Depreciation @ 2O° ' yearly, 



10 


00 




30 


39 


45 


3 


27 




15 


1 


20 


3 


50 




50 




75 


2 


76 


1 


30 




40 


4 


00 



$40.00 

4-40 
18.75 

75.00 



Total, $138.15 

These repairs need not have been made for at least two thousand miles more. 



32o COST OF OPERATING A STEAM AUTOMOBILE 

It is thus seen that the total amount to be charged against the 
carriage for the past six months is S230. 70, and as about twenty-five 
hundred miles have been covered in that time the cost has been 
9 2-10 cents per mile. Deducting the cost of boiler repairs, which 
would not have been necessary under more careful management, leaves 
the total cost about 7 6-10 cents per mile. 

The wages of a man to care for the carriage are not included as 
the owner preferred to do this himself, although it involved a little 
unpleasant and dirty work to which some persons would object. 

While the cost given may seem high it should be remembered, 
that to do the work this carriage has done would require at least two 
horses, and we have frequently made trips day after day which no 
horse could have made in the same time, nor with the same comfort 
to ourselves. 

A fifty mile ride is only a pleasant afternoon jaunt, and several 
times we have left home between ten and eleven o'clock in the morn- 
ing, stopping on the way from one to three hours for lunch, reaching 
home before six at night, having covered in that time from sixty to 
eighty miles at a leisurely gait. 

In conclusion we would state that this account was begun as a 
record of the mileage made per gallon of fuel and water, solely for 
comparison with other carriages and with no intention of keeping a 
record of the expense of maintaining an automobile. If this article 
should lead to the publication of the experience of others, its purpose 
will have been fulfilled. 



mm, 



1 







#A# 



A New Steam Carriage 



IT gives us pleasure to present to our readers some account of the 
main points of novelty about a steam carriage upon which Mr. 
John C. Blevney, of 132 Orange Street, Newark, has been work- 
ing for some time past. It was the privilege of a representative of 
this publication to recently take a ride in the vehicle, upon which oc- 
casion the photos from which the accompanying illustrations were 
made, were taken. 




Fig. 1. Rear View of Blevney's Steam Carriage 



In designing this particular carriage, the builder has sought to 
improve particularly a number of the little things about a motor vehicle 
which are the cause of so much annoyance but are essential to a suc- 
cessful road carriage. 

The exterior appearance of the carriage resembles in many respects 
other steam vehicles. When it comes, however, to the arrangement of 
mechanism and connections, the builder has struck out on new lines. 

As will be seen by Fig. I, the drive is perpendicular, which is 

321 



322 



A NEW STEAM CARRIAGE 



different practice from that followed by builders of steam car- 
riages. This arrangement, it is claimed, puts all the vibration in a 
direction in which the vehicle is constructed to best take it up, namely, 
in the springs. The engines, of which there are two, one on either 
side of the boiler, are fastened together by means of struts, shown par- 
allel to the main driving shaft of engine. These engines are made in 
one casting and with the exception of the cylinder heads and steam 
chest covers are without screws, nor is adjustment of any kind pro- 
vided or needed. The engines and boilers rest solely upon the 




Fig. 2. Mr. J. C. Blevney in New Vehicle 



springs of the carriage. All ball and roller bearings have been dis- 
carded. Instead of these a metallic film is used. This permits the tak- 
ing out of a piece of film which shows wear and the insertion of a 
new piece which may be cut from a tape-like supply. This film is 
ToWinch of very thin tempered steel. A piece taken from a bearing 
after having run four hundred miles was subjected to micrometer mea- 
surement and the amount of wear was not appreciable. This form 
of bearing has given great satisfaction and is, to say the least, the 
embodiment of simplicity. 



A NEW STEAM CARRIAGE 323 

All main bearings are lubricated from a reservoir formed within 
the engine shaft. A feature which is worthy of attention is the feed 
pump. This delivers the exact amount of water required to replace 
that taken by the steam passing from boilers. It is possible to 
lengthen or shorten the stroke of the pump as may be desired. This 
can be done from the seat, and while the carriage is running, by 
simply raising or lowering a lever placed at the left of operator. Like 
other pumps also, it may readily be converted into a hand pump. 

The boiler and engines are mounted at the back of the carriage. 
This arrangement not only gives greater accessibility to working parts, 
but also obviates the necessity of the driver sitting over boilers, a not 
very pleasant position, especially in warm weather. All machinery is 
within the body of carriage, being dust and dirt proof, but yet easy of 
access should occasion arise. 

Another little point worthy of special attention is the position 
occupied by the water gauge glass. This is placed not on the side 
of the body where it is exposed to the cold, but down near the foot- 
board, in the center of carriage, where it is warmer and less liable to 
cause trouble by freezing. No mirror is used. Instead of this Mr. 
Blevney has inclined his water glass so that the driver may look 
through the same. This is a little thing but it answers the purpose 
without the medium of a mirror. 

The boiler is of the lightest construction consistent with strength 
and safety, and is of the fire tube type. It is practically without 
rivets. Enough water can be carried to take the machine about fifty 
miles. This is made possible by the fact that about two-thirds is used 
over again in the heating of feed water, and for further supply. The 
fuel and air tanks and their connections are all placed within the 
water tank, thus saving space which would otherwise be taken up by 
them. 

Fuel is fed to the furnace by air pressure. This also is under 
control of the operator while in the seat. The flame is started without 
independent appliances from the rear of carriage ; so doing away with 
the necessity of kneeling down in the road to attend to this particular 
function. When riding in the carriage the vibration is very slight 
indeed, while the noise from exhaust is much quieter than in some 
other steam vehicles. The amount of exhaust is also less, owing to 
the fact that it is mostly condensed. 

The brake acts on both the equalizing mechanism and on the 
axle. It acts equally well, both forward and backward. The ma- 



324 A NEW STEAM CARRIAGE 

chinery is light and with tanks full, ready for a fifty mile spin, weighs 
less than fifty pounds per horse power. The machine is the result of 
an experience covering a period of five years. Jt is a practical road 
carriage admitting of the use of either solid or pneumatic tires. It 
has the least possible number of parts. The seat is 36 inches wide, 
giving ample room for two passengers. 

Mr. Blevney has evidently taken good care to cover the devices 
used, judging by the voluminous patent correspondence in evidence. 

The designer has also given some attention to the application of 
his arrangement to business wagons, it being such as to permit its 
duplication, according to the capacity of the wagon to be used. 



Book Reviews 

WE have received from the Nature Study Press, Manchester, 
N. H., a copy of " Plain Facts About the Automobile," by 
Albert S. Clough. The author describes briefly steam, gaso- 
line and electric machines, and enumerates what he considers their 
good and bad points. In his chapter on " The Selection of an Auto- 
mobile " the author says, among other things : " There are two parts 
of every motor carriage which should be subjected to the very closest 
scrutiny by the intending purchaser, as upon their strength and 
efficiency will very largely depend his future safety. They are the 
steering gear and the arrangements for braking. No special harm will 
be done if an engine occasionally refuses to run, but the most disas- 
trous results are likely to arise from any disarrangement of the steering 
apparatus or any failure of the brakes to promptly bring the carriage 
to rest." There is also a chapter on the care and housing of 
automobiles. Price 25 cents. 



TT7E have received copy of "Oil Engines" by A. H. Gold- 
y Y ingham, M. E. The author devotes the entire book to 
matters relating to the oil engine. His introductory 
chapter is devoted to accounts of the various igniters and vaporizers 
used on oil engines of different makes. Chapter 2 is given up to the 
design of oil engines, and contains information which should be of 
value to those having to do with such work. He takes up the various 
parts, cylinders, rods, shafts and fly-wheels, giving proper dimensions. 
Other chapters take up the questions of testing, cooling, and descriptions 
of various engines. The book is published by Spon & Chamberlain, 
12 Cortlandt Street, New York. 



Pandora 



# 



IS the war-horse really destined to disappear from active service ? 
And, as a substitute, shall we have squadrons of cyclists? And, 

if some future Meissonier should paint a famous cavalry charge 
after the manner of " 1813," shall we see the great leader depicted 
motionless on his tricycle and being saluted by regiments of wheel- 
men, pedaling by with drawn sabres ? 

Doubtless, this might be a pleasing sight ; but, re-reading lately 
some reminiscences of the month of August, 1870, at which time we 
were before Metz, engaged in daily skirmishes, there came to me ten- 
der souvenirs of my old war-horse Pandora, who went through the 
whole campaign with me ; and, despite the ingenious article of SeVer- 
ine, affirming that in time one comes to a realizing sense of a soul in 
the ' ' machine ' ' he guides, a sort of active principle acting independ- 
ently of the machinery, and in antagonism to, or unision with, the 
driver, as the case may be, — I doubt that I shall ever love my auto- 
mobile or my wheel, however soul-inspired they may prove, as I did 
Pandora. And alas for the poet who must seek inspiration for a son- 
net from the clang of the ' ' squawker ' ' in place of the neighing of his 
fiery charger ! 

In July, 1870, being suddenly ordered from St. Cyr to Lille to 
rejoin the Fourth Dragoons, the regiment to which I belonged, hav- 
ing been promoted to the rank of sub-lieutenant, I had no choice of 
mount except from the remnant of sorry-looking nags that my com- 
rades had discarded as undesirable. So, he really was not a beauty, 
poor Pandora ! With his enormous head, thick neck and dingy yel- 
low hide that rendered him irretrievably commonplace ; but his chest 
was full, his back short and, most important of all, his legs were ab- 
solutely sound and flawless. Besides, he was prodigiously tall and. 
for an officer just brevetted, as I was, it seemed to me an advantage to 
be thus raised head and shoulders above all the rest of the men in my 
division. Perhaps this superiority of size was a doubtful advantage 
under fire, but one doesn't think of everything at once. 

At last I was en route for Chalons, and from thence to Met/, with 
my giant horse, and it did not take me long to discover that we were 
congenial. In those days we trotted after the French fashion, the 

*Adapted from the French for the A.UTOMOBI1 E M \>. \. i\i\ by A. 1 enalie. 

3 2 5 



326 PANDORA 

' ' English trot " being — no one knows why — absolutely forbidden to 
the troops. Now, Pandora trotted gently, being an old roadster, ac- 
customed to marching in column, keeping his distance, stopping at 
the proper moment of his own accord, in the numberless halts that 
occur unforeseen, in such manner as to escape " telescoping." Being 
also very sure-footed he gave me the freedom of my hands to light 
my cigarette or take a swallow from a flask without halting. In fact, 
I rode on my saddle, between my traps and my knapsack, absolutely 
as though in a rocking chair, and I bore the pleasantries of my more 
dashing comrades with equanimity, as they passed me, shouting : 
" Look at the thoroughbred ! Such a bee-yoo-ti-ful yaller !" 

During our short halts I dismounted, unfastening the check, and, 
passing my arms through the reins, stretched myself out to sleep by 
the roadside, remembering the precepts of our instructor Brock: " In 
the field a good soldier should always sleep and eat at every oppor- 
tunity. ' ' Now, my good Pandora thoroughly respected my naps at 
these times, never moving sufficiently to rouse me, but watching me 
with his great, round eyes till they closed from the effects of heat and 
weariness. 

Under fire, especially, I had reason to appreciate Pandora's good 
qualities. Certainly, his big frame exposed me unnecessarily, but his 
imperturbable serenity balanced that. Nothing disturbed him. On 
August 14, at Borny, we were drawn up in battle behind the poplars 
that bordered the length of the route and the bursting shells having 
ignited these trees, the flames caused great fright and disturbance 
among the other horses ; but mine simply evinced his uneasiness by a 
slight upward jerk of the head each time a shell burst in our vicinity, 
and so contagious his calm manner, in fact, that it imparted to me a 
similar appearance of self-possession, so that the Colonel, observing 
my assured mein as he passed, tapped me amicably on the cheek, cry- 
ing : " Bravo ! young man. Here's a fine baptism of fire for your 
new epaulettes." 

On the 1 6th, towards 4 in the afternoon, the Fourth Dragoons, be- 
ing drawn up in echelon by squadrons before the church of Mars-la- 
Tour, were ordered to charge to the relief of the lancers of the guard, 
who were in rather dangerous shape. I tightened my stirrups, patted 

my horse reassuringly, and then I was never exactly conscious of 

what happened afterwards ; a blinding dust, an uproar of shrieks and 
hurrahs from a flying cloud of pointed helmets and blue tunics billow- 
ing about us ; sabre blows, thrust and parried at random, in utter for- 



PANDORA 327 

getfulness of all the laws that had been so thoroughly inculcated by 
theory — and at a certain moment I saw myself surrounded by three of 
the enemy, with flashing sabres, then Pandora leaped wildly ahead 
without apparent cause and I found myself, all bruised and bleeding, 
yet safe, in the midst of my men. But when the trumpets sounded a 
halt, I discovered, at length, my poor beast was minus his right ear. 
A sabre blow had severed it completely, leaving but a bleeding tatter 
in its place, and I now understood the cause of his fabulous leap, that 
had probably saved my life. 

But one ear, more or less, hinders no one from traveling, so, 
having arrived at camp, I carefully bathed the wound with salt and 
water till it was healed, and, after that, the jokes at Pandora's appear- 
ance were redoubled. 

Needless to say, it gave him a very grotesque expression, his 
lopped head lacking symmetry and appearing longer than ever, 
but his back still remained in perfect condition without a scratch or 
any of those saddle-galls that cause so much inconvenience in the 
cavalry. 

So we had struggled along together swiftly, engaged in active 
service wherever there were any sabre-blows to be exchanged, from 
Saint-Privat to Coincy and from thence to Ladonchamps. Then came 
the period of enforced waiting under the rain, in the mud, encamped 
before Metz near the gates of Mazelle. Provisions were growing terri- 
bly scare and poor Pandora, who was exposed to all the inclemencies 
of the season, grew visibly thinner each day. I had a comrade, 
d'Imecourt, who, with cheerful bluster, in the midst of all this con- 
fusion and general gloominess preserved his elegant habits of former 
happy days. At precisely three he donned his white gloves, always 
saying : 

" Shall we go and take our ' little confection ' at Metz now? " 

This delicate refreshment was, in fact, somewhat of an illusion in 
a place where there was no longer even any bread, but, none the less, 
we vaulted to saddle, brushed and groomed as though for a lunch at 
Frascati's, d'Imecourt going to nibble some abnormally dry crackers 
at a wretched grocery, unknown to me, while I led Pandora to the 
hostelry of the Silver Lion, where, from my slender resources, I pur- 
chased the meager portion of oats that constituted his only supper. 

Thus I sustained him as long as possible ; but in despite of this 
he wasted away very perceptibly, and it would have been an utter 
impossibility for him to have carried me to the front. 



328 



PANDORA 



I visited him often, where he was tethered, patting- him gently, 
and each succeeding visit I was saddened to see his coat growing 
harsher and more staring, his eyes more disquieted and the hollows 
deeper. 

One line morning the veterinary who rendered decision each day 
as to the animals no longer capable for service and, consequently, des- 
tined for slaughter, called to me mockingly : 

' ' To-night we dine sumptuously ; I have ordered your Pandora 
to be butchered, as he could not stand on his feet any longer. " 

Perhaps it was absurd, but I recoiled as though struck and the 
tears rose to my eyes. This seemed like an overwhelming disaster, 
and when at dinner-hour my jeering comrades called me to the wooden 
shanty that served as dining-room for us, saying, " Come on ! There's 
a fine roast to-night — Pandora a la Lucullus — and we have served the 
ear for you, sauce piquante," I crept off to my tent alone, away from 
their jests, and stretched myself on my little cot, preferring to go din- 
nerless to bed. Poor, faithful old Pandora ! 

But when motors shall have entirely superseded horses there'll be 
less of sentiment in all daily routine, and so, less grief from undergoing 
just such scenes as this that my diary has recalled. 




Notes from Abroad 

The membership of the Automobile Club of Great Britain has 
now reached a total of 756. 



In the line of rapid locomotion, the motocyclist, Baras, announces 
an instrument of his own invention that will cover 120 kilometers 
(about 75 miles) an hour. This is to be produced this spring. 



Count Talleyrand- Perigord, the well-known automobilist, has 
just been chosen President of the Central European Automobile Club, 
Berlin. Count Talleyrand is well known as the founder of the Per- 
manent Automobile Exhibition at Berlin, the first of its kind in Ger- 
many. 



General Andre* has courageously created an innovation in army 
routine, by placing two companies of cyclists in garrison at Sedan 
and Reims, calling Captain Gerard the father of the pliante, to com- 
mand them. At length his great conception of the military cyclist 
becomes a reality. 



One of the wreaths sent to Windsor on the occasion of the 
Queen's funeral was from the Automobile Club of Great Britain and 
Ireland. It took the form of a wheel with outstretched wings attached 
to the axle, and bore the following inscription : "A token of the pro- 
found grief of the members of the Automobile Club of Great Britain 
and Ireland." 



The name of the Moto-Club of France has recently been changed 
to L' Union Automobile de France, in order that it may not be con- 
founded with another club of similar title, but less devoted to sports. 
This club has already nearly 800 members, and is comfortably installed 
in its new quarters, 4 rue Meyerbeer, Paris. Many pleasant social feat- 
ures attach to it, such as a dinner at Sylvani's each Wednesday, where 
music and exchange of views on the sports of the day arc enjoyed 
with a spirit of friendly comradeship. 



33o 



NOTES FROM ABROAD 



Some of our English contemporaries have recently published 
articles in which they condemned track racing, as carried on in 
America especially. They take exception, and rightly so, to the oval 
shaped track. To the contestant, a track of such form is anything 
but satisfactory. When the end of the long side is reached he has of 
necessity to slow down to make the curve. This brings an unusual 
strain upon the machine, especially on the wheels. Such high speeds 
as have been recently made on some race tracks in this country ought 
not to be tolerated. The ideal place for a race is a common road, for 
after all what a machine will do on a nicely laid board track and on an 
ordinary road are very different. The short, oval track may be suita- 
ble for obstacle races, but it certainly does not seem to be the best 
place for races calling for high speeds. 



One of the leading French medical papers, Le Progres Medical, 
lately discussed the comparative cost of motor vehicles and horse- 
drawn vehicles m their application to the medical profession. After 
going into the matter thoroughly the publication referred to advises 
doctors to adopt automobiles in preference to horse-drawn convey- 
ances. The figures given as showing the first cost and maintenance of 
both systems are approximately as follows : 





FIRST 


COST. 


HORSE AND CARRIAGE 




AUTOCAR. 


Horse, . . . 
Carriage, . . . 


$240 
300 


Car, .... $1,700 
Plant and utensils, . . 20 


Harness, . . . 
Stable, utensils, etc., . 


100 
60 




Total, .... 


$700 


Total, .... $1,720 




VEARLA 


COST. 


Stable and coach-house, 
Coachman, 
Forage, etc., 

Sinking Fund, to redeem 
first cost in five years, . 


S240 
480 

433 
140 


Stable, . . . $120 
Mechanic and driver, . . 440 
Petrol, at 3 francs per day, . 240 
Tires and car, maintenance of, 120 
Sinking Fund, \o% first cost, 172 



Net cost per year, . Si, 



Net cost per year, . Si, 09: 



The following pointer, from Mr. Reginald Granville and sent to 
the Motor Car World, is suggestive of the many ways in which one 



NOTES FROM ABROAD 331 

automobilist can be of help to his fellows. Mr. Granville wrote for 
the benefit of any motorists that a certain piece of road between 
Avignon and Marseilles in southern France was very dangerous, say- 
ing that while the surface looked well, it was composed of mud on top of 
chalk. He goes on to state that on account of such condition he and 
a fellow club member came near meeting with a very serious acci- 
dent. They were seated in a twelve horse-power car which skidded 
so badly on this road as to cause it to collide with a tree, rendering one 
of the occupants insensible for some time. It was a small act on Mr. 
Granville's part to send this item to our contemporary, but it is just 
this kind of information the other man wants. To be posted on all 
such matters as these insures pleasanter experiences while touring. 



The recent automobile show held in Paris was a decided success 
from every point of view, and a large variety of styles were exhibited. 
Our esteemed contemporary The Engineer, of London, has just pnb- 
lished several articles based upon the exhibition referred to, and in its 
issue for February 22 the publication referred to goes into, in some 
detail, the construction of various French motor cars. In dealing with 
the subject, it remarks: "In order that the progress in motor ve- 
hicle construction may be better understood, it may be as well to con- 
sider the requirements that must be fulfilled by the mechanical carriage 
if it is to replace animal traction on the common roads. * * * A 
motor carriage ought to be practically silent and odorless so far as the 
exhaust is concerned. But an unskilled driver can make the best car- 
bureter work badly, and many an owner renders his silencer worse 
than useless by boring it with holes like a colander, so as to avoid re- 
sistance to the passage of the burnt gases from the combustion chamber. 
The noise and vibration of cars propelled by internal combustion mo- 
tors have been diminished, but not suppressed — and, indeed, it is 
materially impossible that it can be. * * * As the future of the 
motor car depends upon the tolerance of the public, this question of 
noise and vibration must be considered from their standpoint, and not 
from the point of view of the rider, who does not experience it in the 
slightest degree when the carriage is running. A few hundred cars 
will make no difference to the public ; but if the petrol vehicle is to 
supersede animal traction in large towns, the noise and vibration 
caused by a running motor in a standard car must be reduced until it 
is scarcely perceptible This is the direction in which manufacturers 
of motors are now working. 



Pegasus Up to Date 

Ascend, My Love, and take your place 
With queenly air and matchless grace, 
And up to legal-limit pace 

We'll speed our course afar 
Along the highway, straight and clear ; 
Of peril entertain no fear, 
While by your stately side I steer 

My brand-new motor-car. 

No monarch e' er was half so proud 
As I, when through the gaping crowd 
I thread my way with hootings loud, — 

An automobile star ! 
At lessened pace the hill we scale, 
Then madly dash adown the dale ; 
A cloud of dust denotes the trail 

Where whizzed my motor-car ! 

The engine throbs beneath our feet, 
And just as fast my heart doth beat ; 
My joy is perfect and complete — 



But why this sudden jar ? 

I beg you, dear one, not to frown ; 
By rail we must return to town ; 
Alas ! My muse has broken down, — 
So has my motor-car. 

A. J. Wilson, in Motor News. 



A word which is in common use over in Europe, and often ap- 
pears in the automobile press is ' ' petrol. ' ' As there may be some 
readers who do not know what is meant when this word is used, we 
would say that this liquid is simply one of the products obtained by 
the distillation of petroleum. The principal varieties of petrol are : 

Specific Gravity. 

Gasoline, ...... .650 

Moto-car spirit, . . . . .680 

Benjolene, ...... .700 

Benzine, ...... .730 

332 



Foreign Machines at the Liverpool Trials 

IN the recent trials of motor vehicles held at Liverpool, England, all 
the gold medals and all the awards were carried off by foreign- 
built machines. In awarding the gold medals to the De Dion- 
Bouton Company, which captured both gold medals, Prof. Hele-Shaw 
said : 

' ' I regret to have to point out that these are both of foreign man- 
ufacture and design. The De Dion voiturette industry in France has 
now obtained enormous proportions, the firm in Puteaux, near Paris, 
having recently quadrupled their plant, although they now employ 
fully more than two thousand workmen, while the ' Locomobile,' which 
ran the De Dion pretty close in many points and excelled in others, is 
of American design and manufacture, that industry already having 
attained dimensions comparable with the De Dion. The other cars, 
like the Dechamps and Decauville, are obviously of French origin 
and manufacture, the Benz being of German design and make. A 
judge's report is not the proper place to moralize upon these points, 
but I may be permitted to express the hope that we shall make up 
some of the ground so sadly lost in light traffic, and ultimately attain 
to some position of prominence corresponding to that which we at 
present hold in heavy traffic. ' ' 

These words coming from so able and experienced an automobilist 
as Prof. Hele-Shaw certainly mean something. It is true the De Dions 
which won first place in the races were built outside of America, 
yet American automobilists are so familiar with these vehicles as to look 
upon them as purely American. The ' ' Locomobile ' ' is distinctly an 
American product, and the reference of the Professor's to it is pleasing. 



Dr. Stedman, who recently performed a surgical operation in 
light furnished by a bulb attached to the storage battery on his car- 
riage, and to whom reference was made in our March number, has had 
made a regular outfit for use in this direction. It consists of 60 feet of 
electric cord and half a dozen lamps. The doctor never goes out but 
what he carries this apparatus with him. 

333 



Automobiles in Amsterdam 

THE automobile is almost universally used. In a report just 
received from the U. S. Consul at Amsterdam, he states that 
the prospects for American motor vehicles are good. He 
advises, however, that they should be made narrower, as 4 feet 
8 inches would be too broad for the roads over there. 

He also sends a list of the rules which govern automobile opera- 
tion in the city of Amsterdam. These are as follows : 

(1) Drivers (Chauffeurs) of motor cars have to comply with the 
police regulations respecting riding in streets and other places with 
carriages having one or more wheels and other means of transporting 
merchandise, and with the rules on bicycling concerning riding and 
passing streets and places. (2) The velocity may not be greater 
than that of a horse going at a moderate gait. (3) The motor cycles 
must be provided with a continuous-sounding bell or a strongly blown 
horn. (4) The motor shall only be used as motive power for the 
cycle itself. (5) Every cycle must be provided with two lamps 
throwing a clear light to front and sides from half an hour before 
sunset until half an hour before sunrise; one of such lamps will suffice 
at the front of the carriage for a three-wheel cycle. (6) Carriages 
may not be charged higher than i,coo kilograms (2,200 pounds) per 
wheel; if the carriage weighs over 3,000 kilograms (6,600 pounds), 
the rims of the wheels must be at least ic centimeters (about 4 inches) 
broad. (7) Not over 10 liters (103/2 quarts) of oil, at the highest, 
may be stored in the carriage, and the oil must be stored in metal 
reservoirs. (8) The reservoirs, pipes, and valves must be perfectly 
tight to prevent leaking. (9) The residues of the fuel must be 
thrown out without damage to the surroundings. (10) The driver 
must be at least 18 years of age. (11) The driver must, on first call, 
show his permit to the policemen. (12) The number of the carriage, 
as prescribed by Government regulations, must always be visible. 



It is amusing sometimes to observe how often some of the city 
police needlessly hold up drivers of automobiles. It seems to make 
no difference whether the machine is going 8 or only 3 miles an hour, 
the policemen on some of our street crossings seem to have an idea 
that a horseless carriage needs more watching than the horse-drawn 
vehicle, and as a matter of fact discrimination is quite often made 
against the automobilist in this respect. 

334 



A Heavy Steam Wagon 

THE construction of wagons for the transportation of heavy loads 
is receiving considerable attention both here and abroad. 
There are lots of places in which the carrying of loads of from 
three to five tons can be accomplished to advantage by self-pro- 
pelled vehicles, and in this connection it gives us pleasure to present 
our readers with a half-tone illustration and description of a wagon 




The Speedwell Motor Wagon 



built by the Speedwell Motor Car and Cycle Company, of Aberdeen, 
Scotland. As will be seen from the illustration, the engine and gear- 
ing are mounted on a steel frame and suspended between the front 
and rear axles. The engine is of the compound type, of 23 horse- 
power, having cylinders 4." x 7" x 5" stroke, running 500 revolutions 
per minute. At this speed five and a half miles per hour can be cov- 
ered with load on. The gearing used is made of steel and phosphor 
bronze. The platform is made of ash and can be removed very 
easily, thus allowing the use of any style of body necessary tor the 

335 



336 A HEAVY STEAM WAGON 

work in hand. The wheels are of the military type, the rear wheels 
being 42 inches in diameter while the front are 36 inches. The boiler 
is carried in the front and is fired with coke, 500 pounds being re- 
quired for a working day of twelve hours. The water tank capacity 
is about 120 gallons, sufficient to cover twelve miles with full load. 

This particular vehicle has been used in running to and from 
Dunecht quarries, a distance of fourteen miles. The roads in that 
vicinity cannot by any means be called good for wagons at all. This 
lorry, however, takes an average load of five tons out and in, equal to 
ten tons, in between seven and eight hours. This includes time to 
load and unload, while a man with a two-horse wagon, carrying three 
tons, occupies fourteen hours altogether to come and go, returning 
with an empty wagon. So far, the company has every reason to be 
satisfied with the performance of these wagons, and has received quite 
a number of orders for them. 



Senator Piatt's bill, permitting the carriage on ferry boats of gas- 
oline has become law. Never since the beginning of the fight has 
there existed any anxiety as to the final result. It is a distinct victory 
for owners of automobiles, and everywhere devotees of the new sport 
will be more than pleased at the news. It was not expected that 
any thoughtful man would take exception to the provisions of the bill, 
and such was the case. The fact, however, that the bill has become 
law should not exempt automobilists from exercising the utmost care 
while crossing on ferry boats when carrying gasoline. For the sake 
of the manufacturers, and owners as well, it is to be desired that all 
necessary precautions on the part of drivers be taken. At this stage 
no one can afford to be so careless as to cause even himself or his 
machine to be considered a nuisance. The unanimous passage of this 
bill shows at least that some notice is being taken of the unreason- 
ableness of some laws which tend to operate against the more general 
adoption of the automobile. 



A New " Packard" 

WE illustrate herewith the latest production of the Ohio Auto- 
mobile Company, of Warren, Ohio. This is an especially 
powerful carriage, and in it have been incorporated the re- 
sults of last season's hard road use and experiments on their standard 
carriages. The company is especially pleased to be able to state that 
it has not found it necessary to make any change whatever in the gen- 
eral system of their carriage, that is in the type of engine, gearing, 




The New "Packard" 

frame, etc. This new carriage is provided with 34-inch wheels with 4- 
inch tires all around. It is fitted with wheel steering of the worm and 
segment type. The steering pillar is arranged to swing forward out of 
the way to give easy access to the seat and when brought back to po- 
sition, is in the most convenient possible place. This is an advantage 
which will be greatly appreciated by experienced drivers. The engine 
is the company's standard four-cycle single-cylinder type, provided 
with automatically timed jump-spark ignition and spring-connected 
transmission. This automatic spark regulation and spring transmis- 
sion give the remarkable smoothness of running for which the Packard 
carriages have become noted. 

337 



338 A NEW PACKARD 

The company's standard system of gear pump and coolers which 
contain 60 feet of cooling surface, is provided. It is claimed that no 
changes whatever of cooling water are required, the heating being dis- 
sipated as rapidly as generated. Gasoline and oil tanks sufficient for 
a run of 180 to 200 miles are provided. A spur gear differential is 
used and an improved form of rim brake is fitted. These brakes act 
on auxiliary brake rims on the rear wheels and will hold the carriage 
in either a forward or backward direction on any ordinary grade. 
They also form a very effective safety device as they are operative 
even if the driving chain and rear axle itself are broken. By apply- 
ing brakes separately to each rear wheel, the tendency to sluing on 
slippery pavements, which has been the dread of many an automobi- 
list, is entirely overcome. The engine is rated at 12 horse-power and 
may be depended upon to drive that when necessary. The standard 
gearing is for 22 miles per hour, although a much higher gear can be 
fitted if desired. 



A letter received from one of the pioneers in automobile work, 
says : "It has been a surprise to the writer that the public has been 
so slow about taking hold of the automobile, and a further surprise 
that it has apparently taken hold of the worst features first. There 
is an old saying in the mechanical world that ' the most complicated 
forms come first, ' but it would seem that an intelligent public should 
be able to appreciate a good thing if offered them, and yet history has 
shown this not to be the case. They refused to take light bicveles 
when first offered. The telephone went begging. The sewing ma- 
chine was not believed in, and many labor-saving devices have been 
destroyed by angry mobs who thought their bread and butter was be- 
ing endangered. We built better machines in 1895, 1896 and 1897 
than many people are making to-day, but the public then were not 
ready. We are building to-day a very light, high-powered machine, 
and still find that many buyers prefer more iron for their money, 
which, coupled with less power, means a less efficient machine." 



The Boston Show 

THE abandonment of the Boston Automobile Show just when the 
day of its commencement was so near was the cause of more 
or less disappointment. Various reasons for this abandonment 
have been put forth and it is difficult for one to form a right opinion 
in the matter. Be that as it may, there are a great many who believed 
and still believe that had the show been held it would have been suc- 
cessful in a financial way at least. However, it is probable that the 
industry will be able to stand the shock. Shows, even automobile 
shows, become stale in time, and since last fall there have been quite 
a number, all in the East, too. Two in New York in November, 1900. 
First one in Philadelphia in January, and another in the same city in 
February. Then comes the Chicago show in March. It would be 
hard for anyone to argue that manufacturers have not had opportunity 
enough to show their products during the past few months. 

To condemn and say shows are not worth the money put into 
them is unwise. They are good things when not carried to excess. It 
is the opinion of a great many that this, however, has been done as 
far as the automobile is concerned, and it is hoped that some arrange- 
ment can be made which will give us the happy medium in this respect. 



Hotel Guide 

THE Long Island Automobile Club has a board hung up in its 
rooms, which at first strikes one as a harmless, useless sort of 
thing. This board nevertheless serves an excellent purpose 
and is on the other hand quite useful. 

For instance should any club member take a ride out to Rockville 
Center, L. I., and there find a comfortable hotel, one which was satis- 
factory from an " automobilist point of view," he is supposed to make 
it his business to get the card of the proprietor of that hotel, giving 
rates, accommodations, etc. If the hotel man cannot furnish a card, 
then the club member is supposed to write down on a piece of paper 
information as referred to above. On his next visit to the club room 
he will tack on the board referred to the card or piece of paper giv- 
ing information concerning the particular house at which he put up. 

339 



34© A HOTEL GUIDE 

If, some time afterward, another member has for some reason 
to visit Rockville Center he will look at the various cards on this 
board, all of which are classified according to letter, and so be guided 
to a comfortable and satisfactory hotel. If a member so wishes he 
can make such additional notes on his card as he thinks necessary for 
the benefit of fellow members. 

This is a good scheme and might be followed with profit by other 
clubs. 



In a letter recently written by Mr. A. J. Balfour to the London 
Browning Settlement on improved means of locomotion as a cure for 
the housing of London's working classes, he said : 

' ' What I am anxious people should bear in mind is that trains, 
railways and ' tubes ' by no means exhaust the catalog of possible 
improvements in transit. What I should like to see carefully thought 
out by competent authorities would be a system of radiating thorough- 
fares confined to rapid (say, fifteen miles an hour or over) traffic, and 
with a surface designed not for carts or horses, but for some form of 
autocar propulsion. If the local authority which designed and carried 
out such a system chose to run public autocars along them, well and 
good. It is, of course, obvious that the present difficulty of locomo- 
tion in our streets is almost entirely due to want of differentiation in 
the traffic. We act as the owners of a railway would act if they 
allowed luggage trains, express trains and horse-drawn trains to run 
upon one pair of rails. The radiating causeways, as I conceive them, 
would be entirely free from this difficulty. Neither traffic of cross 
streets nor foot passengers, nor slow-going carts and vehicles, would 
be permitted to interfere with the equable running of fast cars. There 
would be no danger and no block. No doubt the cost would be 
great. ' ' 



The advent of the automobile makes most people believe that it is 
a new power vehicle, but it is not so considered in some countries. A 
report of the county surveyor of Kent, in England, says that there 
are 122 licensed engines and 314 registered engineers in the county, 
the former being almost constantly upon the roads. Most of them are 
hauling very heavy weights, which makes their pressure very destruc- 
tive to the roads. 



Endurance Test Under Auspices of Long 
Island Automobile Club 

THE arrangements for the endurance contest to be held under 
the auspices of the Long Island Automobile Club have been 
practically completed. This event is to take place some time in 
April, and it is expected that it will stimulate great enthusiasm, not only 
among those who already own vehicles, but also those who are con- 
templating the purchase of automobiles. The Long Island Club has 
gone at this matter in a business-like manner, and great credit is due 
to the members who had the drawing up of the following rules. It 
requires a great amount of intelligent planning to arrange for a con- 
test of this character in such a way as to insure fairness to all contest- 
ants. Again, the test is sure to be of value to Long Island roads, 
which are recognized all over the United States for their excellence. 

For convenience in judging, it has been decided to divide the 
motive powers into classes. For each of these classes there will be 
three judges, each group to be composed of one member of the Board 
of Governors of the Long Island Automobile Club, one from some 
other automobile club, and a member of the press. Each of these 
judges are to have no entries or interest in the class in which they are 
judging. It is understood also that contestants are to be judged solely 
on the duration of stops, regardless of cause. The maximum speed 
limit will be 15 miles per hour, and the course (100 miles) must be 
covered within 12^ hours. There will be no restriction as to operation, 
but no change of drivers will be permitted after a start is once made. 
The committee has adopted 500 minutes as a basis of computa- 
tion in the matter of time. Timekeepers must take time from the ac- 
tual stop to the actual start of wheels. The total time will be deducted 
from the unit chosen (500 minutes) and from this the percentage of 
efficiency will be calculated. All contestants are to provide their own 
fuel, water and battery relays, and vehicles must be stopped when 
taking on supplies or refilling tanks from detached containers. Every 
vehicle must carry its full complement of passengers, and entries will 
be confined to self-propelled vehicles, so built as to allow at least two 
passengers to sit side by side. It is distinctly understood that no time 
will be charged against a vehicle for stops made in compliance with 
the requirements of personal or public safety. 

34' 



342 ENDURANCE TEST 

All vehicles completing the contest within the time limits named 
below will be entitled to an engraved certificate, showing their exact 
standing in the competition, and divided into classes as follows (Cer- 
tificates and seals to carry ribbons of corresponding colors) : 



PER CENT 


CLASS 


MAXIMUM DURA- 


MAXIMUM 
PER CENT. 


DUR. J 






TION 


OF STOPS 




TION 


OF 


STOPS 
















f 90 50 


Minutes 


IOO 


Blue Ribbon 









U 


1 80 55 




" 


99 1 

98 j 


Red " 




5 
10 


Minutes 

1 i 


> 


<{ 88 60 
1 87 65 




a 














t 86 70 




1 1 


97) 






15 


i t 






1 






96 I 


Yellow " 




20 


' ' 






r 85 75 




" 


95 J 






25 


i i 






84 80 




( 1 


94 ) 






30 


i i 







j 83 85 
1 82 90 




' ' 


93 I 
92 f 

9i J 


White " 




35 






X 




" 






40 








1 81 95 

[ 80 IOO 










45 


1 ' 








" 




Note — V. 


H. 


C. 


Very Highly 


Commended. 








H. 


C. 


H: 


ighly 


Commended. 







Each time-keeper will be provided with a schedule on which is to 
be entered by him in detail the length and character of all stops, giv- 
ing the actual time of start, duration of each stop, and time of com- 
pletion of full course. Each time-keeper to compare his watch with 
those of the judges immediately before and after the contest. Time- 
keepers and passengers can assist the driver only when the vehicle is 
stopped and the time penalty is being enforced. This means that the 
driver cannot relinquish even the steering apparatus to another while 
giving any attention to the carriage, such as replenishing water, mak- 
ing repairs, etc. , while running. All stops must be timed irrespective 
of cause, and the cause shown on the schedule by the time-keeper. 

These rules, it would seem, ought to cover all points likely to 
come up in the carrying out of such a contest. The outcome will be 
watched closely by automobilists in all parts of this and other coun- 
tries. This seems to be about the best way of convincing the skep- 
tical public that the automobile of to-day is something more than a 
toy ; that when it starts out for a certain point it may be relied upon 
to reach it with as much certainty as the horse-drawn carriage. This 
is what people want to know, and this effort of the Long Island Auto- 
mobile Club cannot help but be of decided value in that direction, if 
carried out in accordance with the rules outlined in this article. 



Pat's First Motor-Car 

Pat Murphy made a motor-car, one of the petrol type, 
Four wheels were on the highway and many out of sight; 
Four seats the car provided, two 'fore and two aft, 
Not sideways, but both frontways, and that's what caused a 

laugh. 
Full many a patent to that car the trustful Pat now added, 
Band brakes, free-wheels, pneumatic tires and cushion seats 

well padded; 
Electric lamps to light the way when he went record breaking, 
And silent engines, so that all could hear each other speaking. 
Said Pat, ' ' If engines one do twenty miles an hour, 
Well, surely two will doable that, and two I'll have for power. ' ' 
So two were added to the car, and two ignition tubes 
Were placed beneath the foremost seat connected by a fuse. 
Pat, ready for to try the car, sent post-cards to three friends 
To join the festive party " for a fly down to Land's End." 
The day arrived, the party too, all in tarpaulins clothed, 
Four cans of petrol and of gin were in the car soon stow' d, 
Pat saw his mates were seated before he manned the wheel, 
And then he turned a tap, and the wheels began to squeal. 
"Pip-pip" sang out the signal horn, "Phut-phut" the 

engines cried; 
A violent jerk! a mighty plunge! and all the riders sighed. 
The car proceeded not upon the journey mapped, 
Nor did Pat leave the levers until the brake had snapped. 
Then once again the levers were pushed and pulled and turned, 
And Pat gazed at the works to see if the petrol burned, 
But not an inch that car would move, because of imperfections, 
For it is true, the engines two, worked in opposite directions. 
Eustace B. Beesley, in Motor- Car Journal. 



We were sorry to read in the papers the other day that the Olds 
Motor Works, of Detroit, had been visited by a lire which coming as 
it does at the opening of the season must to some extent cripple the 
work of this go-ahead concern. There cannot be any doubt, how- 
ever, that soon the company will be on its feet again. At least it is 
hoped so. 

343 



Automobile Construction 

IT would seem that a move on the part of our institutions of learning 
toward more specific instruction in those subjects which relate to 

the construction and operation of automobiles would be welcomed 
by a large class of men who are looking forward to employment in 
that branch of engineering. Some of those helpful institutions, the 
correspondence schools, might with great benefit not only to them- 
selves but also their students, in some way pay more particular attention 
than they now do to questions involved in the application of gasoline 
and steam engines to road vehicles. Then again, the different evening 
educational classes held in our large cities could do some work in this 
direction. 

There can be no doubt that as the automobile becomes more pop- 
ular the demand for technical training in matters pertaining to it will 
be greater than ever, and the management of all kinds of institutions 
of learning would do well to consider the matter at least. 

Every thoughtful automobilist will make it his business to learn 
all he can about the various parts of an automobile and their functions, 
and classes for the study of these things would seem to be an excellent 
means for imparting this knowledge. 



A Test for Rubber 

AGOOD test for rubber is as follows : Good rubber should not 
show any signs of surface cracks after being bent for five hours 
at an angle of 180 degrees in a closed air chamber at a tem- 
perature of 257 degrees Fahrenheit. Rubber containing about 50 per 
cent, of metallic oxides should stretch five times its length without 
breaking. Pure rubber containing just enough sulphur to vulcanize 
it should stretch seven times its length. 



The St. Louis Automobile & Supply Company, Twenty-third and 
St. Charles Streets, St. Louis, Mo., desire to announce that they now 
have the following representatives in New York, Chicago and Hartford: 
Messrs. Chas. E. Miller, 97 Reade Street, New York; Ralph Temple, 
291 Wabash Avenue, Chicago, 111., and Messrs. Post & Lester, Hart- 
ford, Conn. 

344 



New Club House of the Automobile Club 
of New England 

By O. L. STEVENS 

CLUB-HOUSE talk has been rife among Boston automobile 
organizations ever since the two principal clubs came into 
being eight or nine months ago, but it was not until Washington's 
Birthday this year that a house was formally opened. The Automobile 
Club of New England was the owner, and it did itself proud. It found 
a place out in the country section of the aristocratic town of Brook- 
line, in the midst of a delightful district and with fine roads extending 
in all directions ; and best of all, an estate which had already been 
adapted to the needs of a driving club. Horses, not automobiles, were 
the former interest, to be sure, when the old Suburban Club held the 
property ; but the approaches and stables required comparatively little 
alteration to make them thoroughly in keeping with automobile requi- 
sitions, and the house itself — well, it was a club house, and as such 
was as well adapted to automobile drivers as to those who held reins 
over the backs of horses. 

This club got its charter in January of this year. The incorpo- 
rators were Mr. Arthur W. Stedman, a West Roxbury man in business 
with George A. Alden & Company, Boston ; Mr. George E. McOues- 
ten, a prominent lumber merchant, of Brookline ; Mr. Knight Neftel, 
manager of the Electric Vehicle Company's Boston station ; Mr. C. 
L. Edgar of Brookline, president of the Edison Electric Illuminating 
Company ; Mr. Carl L. Morgan, assistant purchasing agent of the 
Edison Company ; Mr. Francis R. Hart of Milton, vice-president of 
the Old Colony Trust Company ; Mr. M. S. P. Williams ; Mr. Jere 
Campbell, of the Metropolitan Coal Company ; Mr. Royal R. Sheldon, 
Brookline, of the Chelmsford Foundry Company ; Mr. Walter A. 
Underwood, a well-known banker, of Brookline ; Mr. Henry Howard, 
superintendent of the Merrimac Chemical Company ; Mr. F. E. Stan- 
ley of "Locomobile" fame, Newton; Mr. Spencer C. Crane, of 
Boston ; Hon. George L. Meyer, now Ambassador to Italy ; Mr. F, 
O. Stanley, of Newton, and others. Mr. Stedman was made presi- 
dent, and as he and other of the incorporators were also members of 

345 



346 



NEW CLUB HOUSE 



the Country Club of Brookline, the most exclusive organization for 
outdoor sport near Boston, and one which has more love for the horse 
than almost anything else, the effect was to balance the new automo- 
bile club very nicely against the Country Club. This was emphasized 
by the fact that the Country Club grounds were entered from Clyde 
Street, almost opposite the estate of the automobile club. Mr. Hart 
was made vice-president, Mr. McQuesten secretary, Mr. Sheldon 
treasurer and the executive committee, which practically runs the 
club, now consists of Messrs. Underwood, F. E. Stanley, K. Neftel, H. 
Howard, C. L. Edgar, George T. Dexter and j. A. Burnham, Jr. 




Fig. 



i. Club House of Automobile Club of New England, Brookline, Mass. 

Courtesy of Boston Herald 



By the time the articles of incorporation had been made out, some 
of the leading members had secured control of the estate, which is now 
the club headquarters ; and by dint of considerable hard work, the 
place was ready for the housewarming on February 22, Washington's 
Birthday. Invitations were sent out to all who had a friendly interest 
in the organization, and all the afternoon and evening of the holiday 
an electric 'bus was kept running between the nearest station of steam 
and electric cars, a mile or two distant and the club house, for the ac- 
commodation of guests. A snow storm interfered somewhat with the 
evening's pleasure, but forty or fifty persons visited the house and 



NEW CLUB HOUSE 



347 



enjoyed the good cheer provided there. Supper was served in the 
evening. What everybody wanted to see was the house itself, and it 
was all lights from piazza to roof. As one enters from the broad ver- 
anda he finds himself in a long hall extending through to a door at 
the farther end, and promising cool breezes on summer nights; on the 
left, doorways at each end open into the large reading room or loung- 




Fig. 2. Ladies' Parlor on Second Floor 

Courtesy of Boston Herald 



ing room for members, tastefully carpeted, and furnished with heavy 
oak tables and comfortable easy chairs, a small table or so in the pleas- 
ant bay windows, and in front of the cheery open fire two big leather- 
upholstered settles, in themselves an imitation to comfort and case. 
Few pictures have yet been placed upon the walls of this or the other 
rooms, but Mr. Charles J. Glidden has presented a picture of his new 



34S NEW CLUB HOUSE 

Napier machine, which he is to bring back from abroad with him this 
season, and other souvenirs and symbols of automobiles and automo- 
bilism will gradually be gathered to adorn the vacant spaces. 

Across the hall from the lounging room is the main dining room. 
The bar of the former club still survives, but the present club 
makes no use of it, since as a club it will serve no liquors. Be- 
yond the dining room, however, a passageway leads to a locker room, 
where each member will have a locker ; and farther still, toward the 
wing of the house, is to be found a smoking room, retiring room, and 
finally a pantry and kitchen, fitted with a fine grill and range, suitable 
for providing luncheon whenever a hungry group of members put in 
an appearance. Up stairs, ihe room over the members' lounging 
room is comfortably transformed into a parlor for ladies, and is wholly 
separated from the other rooms. The rest of that floor is cut up into 
smaller rooms, which will be used for private dining rooms, or cham- 
bers. Lavatories on this floor and on the floor above are of the most 
modern sort and finished in marble. The chief room on the third 
floor is a large billiard room, with several smaller rooms available for 
sleeping apartments. 

The side door on the ground floor of the house leads by a short 
path to the sheds and stables, which form a line of buildings more 
than twice the length of the house, and sitting slightly lower. A large 
double shed, with earth floor, is counted on for storage of carriages at 
the time of special gatherings in summer ; and just beyond these is the 
main shed, floored with wood, and affording standing room for a dozen 
or fifteen carriages. There were two or three li Locomobiles, 1 ' as 
many more electrics, and a new gasoline runabout there rhe evening 
of the opening. This shed has furnace heat, and does away with all 
trouble incident to low temperature. It contains also the water supply 
tank, a big drum raised to the height of the ceiling at one end, and 
supplied with a big two-inch hose and special stop-cock, so that a car- 
riage tank may be filled in a trice without overrunning. A special 
gasoline tank is also provided, which measures the gasoline as it pours, 
so that each member knows just when he's got enough and how much 
he is to be charged for. 

Adjoining the main shed is a small stable, where three or four 
stalls have been allowed to remain, in order that members who wish to 
drive to the club and then take out their automobiles for an extended 
spin may put up their horses meantime. Little of this kind of business 
is expected, however, for one end of the little stable is set off for the 



NEW CLUB HOUSE 



349 



small engine which runs the recharging apparatus for electric vehicles. 
There are spacious lofts above for repair shop and supplies. 

An interesting thing about the club, in its relation to the Country 
Club across the way, is that whereas the latter, some time ago, after a 
little controversy between its automobile members and the strictly 
"horse" men, decided that only horse-drawn rigs should approach 




Fig. 3. Hall on Ground Floor 

Courtesy of Boston Herala 



the club house by the main drive, and that automobiles should go in 
only by the drive leading to the stables and side-door, the Automo- 
bile Club exactly reverses this. Beside the old-fashioned swing sign 
which marks the entrance to its main drive is a sign stating that only 
automobiles may use that entrance, and that horses will be allowed to 



35o 



NEW CLUB HOUSE 



enter only at the stable entrance around on the other road. It is a 
little circumstance that is causing some amusement. Perhaps it is sig- 
nificant, too, for as the membership of the two clubs seems to be rather 
closely interrelated, it may be that in time the Automobile Club will 
absorb all of the strictly automobile interest from both organizations, 




Fig;. 



4. Members' Lounging Room 

Courtesy of Boston Herald 



while the Country Club does the same thing for horses. There are 
reasons for believing that this would be an agreeable arrangement for 
both organizations. 

The New England Club is planning to make its new house the 
center for a number of long and short-distance tours and competitive runs 



NEW CLUB HOUSE 351 

this summer, for club members, and it will probably see also many in- 
formal gatherings for swift rides over the delightful roads of the district 
in which it is situated. Incidentally it makes a pleasing and handy 
starting place, for both house and stables are provided with telephone, 
and at the stables members are provided with all supplies, repair im- 
implements, the best lubricating oils, and expeit attendance, while the 
service in the house is such as to offer rest and refreshment at all times. 
The club expects to hold its annual open track race at Newport, as a 
feature of one of its club runs. It has already announced that some 
suitably inscribed trophy will be given as a prize in this and each of the 
other events. 

Much of the credit for getting the new club quarters in order so 
acceptably is due to the house committee, consisting of Mr. George E. 
McQuesten, Mr. Walter A. Underwood and Mr. George T. Dexter; 
while in planning and preparing the stable fittings a committee consist- 
ing of Mr. Knight Neftel, Mr. Henry Howard and Mr. F. O. Stanley 
has proved itself commendably efficient. 



At a recent meeting of the Rhode Island Automobile Club, Mr. 
Joseph P. Manton, one of the members, entertained his hearers with a 
description of a steam carriage which he built in 1866. This was the 
first horseless carriage seen in Providence, and it is claimed had a 
speed of 15 miles an hour. It was not very practical as sufficient fuel 
could not be carried to run it any great distance. The coal was carried 
under the seat. A large boiler was used and required considerable 
coal and water. The carriage was used for some months by Mr. Man- 
ton, but the great difficulty was the unsurmountable fuel arrangements 
which rendered the carriage unfit for everyday use. 



The Trinity Cycle Manufacturing Company, of Keene, N. H., 
has sold its plant and business to the Steamobile Company of America. 
who will continue the repair department and in a small way the manu- 
facture of cycles in connection with their main business, which is the 
making of steam motor vehicles. Mr. E. P. Wells is the President 
and manager of the new company, which was recently incorporated 
with an authorized capital of $500,000; $150,000 of which was paid in. 



Which Tire Shall I Use? 

THE question of the efficiency of pneumatic tires as generally prac- 
tical for automobiles is one which has been discussed quite 
thoroughly in the automobile press. There are those who 
claim that the pneumatic tire is just the one, while others think differ- 
ently. As argument against pneumatic tire, men bring up the many 
delays caused by punctures. In doing so they do not condemn the 
pneumatic tire so far as comfort of riding is concerned, but merely in 
the matter of annoying delays caused by punctures. 

This has naturally caused an increased tendency to the use of 
solid tires as the only means of relief. The intent of this article is not 
to draw comparisons between different makes or styles of tires but 
merely to show that pneumatic tires can be and are in fact being made 
which free the operator from the troubles arising from punctures, 
chafing, etc. 

The automobile public from the beginning has demanded cheap 
tires, and this has resulted in the manufacturers turning out just what 
was demanded of them. The automobilist might as well understand 
now as any other time, that a good, reliable and satisfactory pneumatic 
tire cannot be made at the prevailing market prices. If the automobile 
owner desires to get tires which will not cause the annoyance so inci- 
dental to tires in the past, he must put himself into such relation with 
the manufacturer as to lead the latter to ask himself the question, 
"not how cheap, but how good shall I make my tires?" All the 
blame must not be put on the manufacturers. 

There can be no doubt whatever that for touring and country 
riding so far as economy and comfort are concerned the pneumatic tire 
is the ideal one. If, however, a more satisfactory form of pneumatic 
tire is desired, more material must be used, and a resultant increase in 
price. 

Then, again, it is to be feared that too much stress has been laid 
upon ' ' resiliency ' ' and not enough about the correct distribution of 
weight of vehicle. There are probably numerous builders who would 
get better results from the tires if more care were given to this point. 

To be satisfactory a pneumatic tire should have in it more rubber 
and fabric and less air than is now generally used. Should such a 
tire be cut there is much less liability of being stalled on the road, 
and we must not forget that every automobile stalled by the roadside 
is an argument in favor of the horse. The tire problem is a hard one, 
yet if a more liberal use of material was made and less air, better 
results would be sure to follow. 

352 




( We desire those interested in both the manufacture and operation of Auto- 
mobiles to send in for use, in this department, whatever they think may be of 
interest to us or our readers. — Editors. ) 



The Stanley Burner 



REFERRING to the article in your March edition, by Hugh 
Dolnar, entitled "The Final Automobile," I note on page 285 
mention is made of the Stanley burner for steam boilers, which 
burns kerosene. Kindly advise where I may obtain more information 
upon this subject, also if there is a place in this city where such a 
burner may be seen, and oblige yours truly, 

Brooklyn, N. Y. R. E. Taylor, M.E. 

[Mr. Dolnar informs us that the only concerns who could sell a 
Stanley burner are Stanley Brothers, Newton, Mass. ; Mobile Com- 
pany of America, Kingsland Point, Tarrytown, N. Y. ; and Locomo- 
bile Company of America, whose New York office is 1 1 Broadway. 
He states, however, that it is doubtful if either of these companies 
would be willing to sell a burner to anyone not a buyer of a Stanley 
wagon. — Eds.] 



Frankness of Discussion 

AT a recent gathering of automobilists, both manufacturers and 
owners, the meeting resolved itself into a sort of experience 
meeting. Different ones related their joys and troubles. Some 
of the laymen present declared in no uncertain terms that the machines 
as turned out did not begin to give the service claimed for them by 
the builders. The remarks were not directed at any particular machine. 
A prominent manufacturer protested against such remarks regarding 
the automobile, saying that such discussion could not possibly bo of 
benefit to the industry, but would rather operate against it. 



354 CORRESPONDENCE 

Such a protest on the very face of it does not appear correct. If 
the merits and demerits of different carriages are to be discussed at all 
there is no more fitting place than in just such gatherings as these. 
There may be of course times when disagreeable things will be said 
regarding certain vehicles, but frankness is necessary in the automo- 
bile business as well as in other branches of industry. There is scarce- 
ly anything more harmful to any business than a disappointed custo- 
mer. If manufacturers and users can get together and discuss the 
relative merits of the different machines from their respective points of 
view much good will be accomplished. 

As one user remarked : ' ' There is such a fascination about run- 
ning a carriage that motes that we would all want one if it gave twice 
the trouble that it does. ' ' 

New York. H. A. Wilson. 



A Question of Tires 



WILL Mr. George E. Greenleaf kindly tell us what make of tire 
he used on his carriage after he discarded the pneumatic ? 
Hoping to hear from you in the next issue of your paper, I 
beg to remain very respectfully yours, C. H. D. 

[We referred this inquiry to Mr. Greenleaf, and in reply that gen- 
tleman wrote : 

Replying to your favor, it gives me pleasure to advise you that 
the tire of which I wrote is known as the New York vehicle tire, and 
is made by the New York Belting and Packing Company, 25 Park 
Place, New York, N. Y. It is my belief that your correspondent's 
trouble will end if he adopts that tire. They are a little more difficult 
to apply to the rim than the ordinary pneumatic tire. If your cor- 
respondent cares for it, I shall be pleased to advise him of the easiest 
method I have found for putting them on. It may save him consid- 
erable annoyance that I had when applying the first tire. Yours very 
truly, George E. Greenleaf. Eds.] 



Large vs. Small Wheels 

THE writer has been a student of wheel construction since the 
early days of the cycle and has fully believed in small wheels, 
having tried to introduce 24-inch wheels for cycles, believing 
that a small wheel and large tire was better than the reverse. The 
cycle public, however, would not accept in any quantity, wheels small- 
er than 28-inch and this fact coupled with the other fact that although 
many sizes of vehicle wheels have been used, horse vehicles are to-day 
built with wheels averaging nearly four feet, seems to indicate that this 
theory of small wheels is wrong. Even if this should not be true, the 
fact that they refuse to buy smaller wheels settles the question without 
argument and manufacturers must supply what the public wish. 

If the voice of the public means anything on these two classes of 
vehicles, it indicates that the motor vehicle wheel should be of large 
diameter. The pneumatic tire will permit a smaller wheel than the 
common horse vehicle wheel but the greater weight and higher speeds 
indicate a necessity for larger wheels, so we believe that motor vehicle 
wheels cannot be greatly smaller than those used on other vehicles. 

Since we began constructing motor vehicles in 1891, we have used 
wheels ranging from 50 inches down to 30 inches and are now using 
30-inch front and 36-inch rear, with 3-inch diameter tires, having the 
greater portion of their section above the rim, which arrangement is 
the most satisfactory we have yet found and is appreciated by the pub- 
lic so far as shown. We seldom or never have calls for smaller wheels 
but do have calls for larger from the rougher parts of the country, which 
indicates, in a small way, the feeling of the public on this subject. A 
large wheel requires less power to propel, causes less vibration, has 
more tire contact on the ground and is generally more advantageous 
than the small wheel, except in the matter of strength and weight. 

The ordinary wooden wheel, however, has been brought to such 
perfection of workmanship and material that we find no difficulty in the 
matter of strength, while our wheels are lighter, we believe, than 
many wire wheels of smaller size and equal strength. We believe 
firmly in the wood wheel because of its long life, ease of cleaning and 
generally good appearance and the facility with which it may be re- 
paired by wagon makers throughout the country. 

Reading, Pa. Chas. E. Duryea. 

355 



Automobiles in Our Cities 

WE have all heard — and dreamed — of the time when the clatter 
and thud of the horses' feet upon our pavements, its dust 
and its din, should be relegated with the ox-cart to the past, 
and the automobile should spin upon pneumatic tires over smooth 
asphalt pavements like a bird floating on air. The recent automobile 
shows have done more to fix the status of the automobile in the public 
mind upon a practical footing than anything since their introduction. 
The people are awakening to its practical side, its great pleasure and 
economy, and are ready to adopt it. 

It goes without saying that the change would be a great improve- 
ment in all that stands for advanced civilization — refinement, cleanli- 
ness, sanitation, etc. Naturally, we are led to inquire how we may 
best facilitate this change. It appears almost certain that the first 
general or considerable adoption of the automobile will be in the city 
and for pleasure purposes. A system similar to that employed to 
secure the adoption of wide-tired wagons upon the country highway 
may well be brought to bear in favor of the automobile. First the 
taxes upon the machines themselves may be remitted or even a larger 
amount may be deducted from the taxes of the owners. Then when 
the number of automobiles shall be increased sufficiently to warrant it 
the horse may be wholly excluded from the boulevards, pleasure drives 
and parks. 

But before this could be brought about there would most likely 
come a grand ' ' kick ' ' from the horse owners. Now let us see if there 
be any warrantable cause of complaint or anyone really injured thereby. 
Have we not already excluded heavy and unsightly traffic from our 
boulevards ? Imagine a man who should presume to keep a yoke of 
oxen and drive them upon a fashionable boulevard. Since our boule- 
vards are created solely for purposes of pleasure, can horse owners 
under such an advanced and superior system of transportation claim 
any more rights than the undesirable classes of traffic now excluded ? 
Furthermore, in cities pleasure turnouts are not kept by the poor nor 
by any that could not readily adopt the new mode of conveyance, so 
that it would entail hardship upon no one, while all would be gainers 
by the improved sanitary conditions, less room required, greater econ- 
omy, etc. And once having the horse entirely removed from the 

356 



AUTOMOBILES IN OUR CITIES 



357 



boulevards we should have asphalt pavements of perfect smoothness 
with no horses to stamp their feet into the asphalt, and then the auto- 
mobile would spin with that extreme smoothness and freedom from 
interruption otherwise impossible. 

Now do you take in the full possibilities — a system of transporta- 
tion upon our streets, smoother, more perfect and refined than the 
finest palace car ; no horses to impede, to clatter and pound, or 
frighten and become unmanagable ; nothing to cause dust or dirt upon 
the street, and everything moving in clean, silent, untrammeled, per- 
fect smoothness ? Then we should have a better condition of things, 
without any act more stringent or arbitrary than those we have already 
adopted to make our boulevards what they are. What an object les- 
son some of our large cities with well laid driveways could evolve in a 
few years ! Other cities would hasten to imitate and emulate. It would 
be worth more than any amount of argument and theorizing to secure 
the speedy and general adoption of the automobile. This is not to say 
that a high development of automobilism is impossible without the 
total exclusion of the horse, but simply looks to its final perfection, 
and the proposition when rightly judged is not a discrimination, but 
simply recognizes the fact that the automobile facilitates a larger vol- 
ume of traffic, is cleaner, and causes less wear and destruction of 
pavements, and gives to each credit according to their deserts. 

The pleasure drives from their very nature simply offer the 
easiest and most effective place to inaugurate this system, and bring 
automobilism to its fullest perfection. And with the establishment of 
an all automobile traffic and its great advantages upon the boulevards 
would come a popular demand for the same thing upon the other 
streets. While the substitution of automobile-' buses for surface cars, 
and the restriction of rails to the elevated and underground lines 
would be only another step in the transformation of our cities. 

Burr Oak, Mich. H. C. Waite. 



We have received a copy of ' ' The Construction of a Gasoline 
Motor Vehicle," by L. Elliott Brookes. This gives complete details 
regarding a vehicle built by the author. Working drawings are given. 
The subject is treated in an interesting manner and the book ought to 
be of interest to those interested in the construction and operation of 
gasoline motor vehicles. The book is published by the Motor Age } 
Chicago, 111. 



E. R. Thomas Motor Bicycles 

THERE can be no doubt that the motor bicycle fills a want. There 
is much to commend it to those who enjoy a ride through the 
country, and one of the leaders in the manufacture of these 
machines is the E. R. Thomas Motor Company of Buffalo, N. Y. This 
concern has made most conclusive experiments, and has succeeded 
in turning out a most satisfactory motor bicycle. Each motor is 




The Thomas Motor Bicycle 

thoroughly inspected and tested at the factory, and thoroughly proves 
its efficiency before shipment. 

The various departments are in charge of gentlemen who have had 
quite a large and varied experience in their various lines. The com- 
pany reports that large shipments are being made to many foreign 
countries. Anyone capable of riding an ordinary wheel can, with 
very little effort, learn to manipulate the motor bicycle. 



The Automotor Journal, of London, recently published a list of 
the principal limited liability companies engaged in automobile man- 
ufacture which have been wound up voluntarily or dissolved during 
1900. The total was thirty, only six of which are likely to be recon- 
structed. 

358 



An Early Steam Wagon 

THE following letter taken from the Canadian Electrical News, 
of February 25, may be of interest from an historical point of 
view : 
Editor Canadia?i Electrical News : 

Dear Sir: In looking again at yours of the 3d inst. , in relation 
to my paper on " The Progress of the 19th Century," I find that you 
are kind enough to say that you were interested to learn I was one of 
the original inventors of the steam vehicle, and would be pleased if I 
would give a more detailed description of the apparatus. You go on 
to add that in view of the recent development in this direction, a de- 
scription and illustration of my invention would be interesting. 

Now, Sir, I have at present time but a faint remembrance of Tre- 
vethick's steam coach for common roads, and I suppose you would 
like to know in what I declare my vehicle to be an improved one com- 
pared to his. It is this, if I remember well, that while Trevethick's 
motor was a single engined one without a fly-wheel to get it over the 
' l dead points ' ' when it happened at an impediment in the roadway, 
my machine was a double cylindered one, whereby, the cranks on the 
axle being at 90 apart, the dead points were got over by one of the 
the pistons being only half way on its travels, while the other was at 
the turning point and thus capable of exerting a force necessary to 
overcome any inequality in the paving or macadam. The twin engines 
were of the ordinary ' ' working beam ' ' type, with parallel bars at one 
end engaging the cross-head of the piston rod working in guides as 
usual, while a connecting rod at the opposite end of the oscillating or 
working beam engaged the crank on the axle or shaft of the vehicle on 
which the wheels of the automotor were mounted, while a third wheel 
of less diameter, and capable of running in under the carriage to which 
it was attached by a bar twining or a swivel, was used to steer the 
wagon and turn it when required end for end in a radius of a few feet. 

This vehicle, as stated, I built in 1844, working at it after hours 
and on holidays, as I was then a pupil in the Quebec Seminary. I was 
helped at it by another boy, one Federick Holt since burnt at the fire 
of an old Quebec theatre, and whose father, a German, was for several 
years organist of the French Cathedral, now the Basilica, Quebec. 

It may be foolish now to say so, but I was ever so much pleased 

359 



360 AN EARLY STEAM WAGON 

when on letting steam into the cylinders for the first time, I found I 
had placed the eccentrics so exactly as not to require their position to 
be altered in the least to admit and cut off steam at the absolute mo- 
ment of time necessary to prevent any loss of power whatever by back 
pressure. The two engines were built entirely by ourselves, including 
the drilling of every hole and the making of every screw, bolt and nut 
in the whole concern ; while all we got done by outsiders were the 
boiler, a horizontal one, some two feet in diameter and 3 feet long with 
a 15-inch fire flue within it, and the three wheels, which we had made 
by a regular wheelwright. 

The cylinders were, I believe, about 3 inches inside . diameter or 
less, and some 8 to 9 inches long, the pair developing under steam at 
30 lbs. pressure about 1 horse-power or more, which drove us along 
the road at from 8 to 9 miles per hour, the weight upon the driving or 
bearing wheels being hardly more than 1,200 to 1,500 lbs. all told, 
or with from two to four persons in the vehicle. I need hardly add 
that, of course, it was in no way comparable to the automobiles of the 
present day. Chas. Baillairge. 

Quebec. 

Upon seeing this letter, we corresponded with Mr. Baillairge, and 
in reply, he says ; 

Dear Sir : Many thanks for your kind appreciation of my efforts 
of 1844 ; but as photography was, at that early date, hardly known 
in Quebec, am sorry I cannot oblige. The wagon was nothing but a 
rectangular box-like construction of some 4 feet wide and 6 feet in 
length ; the boiler at center and the twin-beam engines on either side 
of it. The boiler so raised that the crank-shaft and axle of the wagon 
rode beneath it from wheel to wheel. A standard with cross-head 
rose from the front wheel for steering. Yours, C. Baillairge. 




Of Passing Interest. 



{Readers will confer a favor upon the editors of this magazine 
by sending in any interesting item of news suitable for this depart- 
me?it. ) 

Vulcanized India rubber to be used in making tires will float in 
water if it is not adulterated. 



Mr. Wm. Rockefeller has recently purchased one of the Ohio 
Automobile Company's new " Packard" machines. 



The De Dion-Bouton Motorette Company informs us that Mr. 
Maurice Loeb no longer represents them in Philadelphia. 



F. E. Towle, Jr., delivered an interesting talk on Wednesday, 
March 13, before the Long Island Automobile Club on the handling 
of a steam carriage. 



Mr. A. W. Chamberlin, formerly with the Winton Motor Car- 
riage Co. , is now representing the Automobile Company of America, 
with headquarters at 57 West Sixty-sixth Street, New York City. 



As showing the rapid increase in the use of the automobile, it may 
be interesting to note that since Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, opened 
its gates to automobiles in 1900, no fewer than 6,693 horseless vehicles 
have entered the famous pleasure ground. 



From present indications automobile activity will this spring and 
summer be much more pronounced than ever before. Letters recently 
received at this office from automobile club officials are just brimming 
over with anticipation of a very busy season. All along the line ar- 
rangements are being made for runs, tours and races. 



Recently a trial of electric vehicles was held in Berlin in which 
the battery taking first honors weighed only 121 pounds per kilowatt 
hour. There were thirteen vehicles participated. It is stated that in 
nearly all instances it was demonstrated that electrically-propelled 
vehicles should be driven at their highest speed consistent with public 
safety, if the best results are to be obtained. 

361 



362 OF PASSING INTEREST 

Now that many people are beginning to look into the automobile 
with a view to purchase, there are a great many who are hoping that 
horseless vehicles during 1901 will be reduced in price. There is at 
present, however, very little indication that horseless vehicles generally 
will be cheaper than in the year just closed. There is rather a general 
tendency on the part of manufacturers to increase their prices. 



The Herald Square Automobile Exchange is the name of a new 
storage station and general automobile salesroom to be soon opened at 
147-15 1 West 35th Street, this city. H. F. Blake, late of the Man- 
hattan Automobile Station will be manager. The establishment will 
be fitted up with smoking, dressing and waiting rooms, lockers, etc. 
Competent machinists will be on hand. The place will have a floor 
space of 70,000 square feet. 



There is a considerable amount of genuine interest being mani- 
fested in the heavy motor wagon, whether propelled by steam, gaso- 
line or electricity. Reference is here made to the heavy wagon with 
a load capacity of from three to five tons. It is not to be supposed 
that very extensive use will be found for trucks with much greater 
capacity than five tons, not only from an economical standpoint, but 
because of the effect such a weight would have upon city streets. 
Judging by the inquiries received at this office for information as 
to the progress along these lines, there ought to be much business 
in this end of the motor vehicle industry. 



The Automobile and Cycle Parts Company is the name of a new 
company recently organized, with head officers at Cleveland, O. 
The authorized capital stock is $5,000,000. The offices of the new 
company are as follows : President, A. L. Garford, Elyria, O. ; Vice- 
President, M. B. Johnson, Cleveland, O. ; Treasurer, F. N. Smith, 
Elyria, O. ; Secretary, F. E. Lytle, Cleveland, O. Mr. Johnson was 
also chosen to act as chairman of the executive board. The directors 
are as follows : A. L. Garford, J. D. Clime, Windsor T. White, M. 
B. Johnson, E. H. Bourne, J. C. Hill. Mr. Garford has held the 
position of treasurer of the American Bicycle Company since its organ- 
ization two years ago, and recently resigned to organize the new com- 
pany. It is the intention of the new company to engage heavily in 
other forms of manufacture than those having strict relation to the 
bicycle industry. A start will be made with automobile parts, which 



OF PASSING INTEREST 363 

will be manufactured in such variety and volume as to greatly expedite 
the production of motor carriages. 



One thing which the French automobile manufacturers enjoy is 
the support given them by members of their government. That the 
industry is fully appreciated and fostered by men of authority in 
that country is evidenced by the remarks of President Loubet, 
made upon the occasion of the Automobile Salon, recently held in 
Paris. He said : "I know that races are necessary ; we do not for- 
get that, you may rest assured, and we know also that races when well 
organized, are not dangerous. All that is wanted is to forewarn the 
public that a race is about to take place. Do not believe, whenever 
you make a request to us on this subject, that we shall refuse you per- 
mission. We will grant it, on the contrary, with pleasure." 



The following figures show the French imports and exports for the 
past three years so far as cycles and automobiles are concerned : 

Imports. 

1898. 1899. 1900. 

Automobile carriages, at 10 frs. the kilog. 395,070 472,650 509,000 

Cycles and motocycles, at 18 frs. the kilog. 8,925,320 7,942,050 5,536,800 

Carriage work 864,318 749,820 612,000 

Exports. 

Automobile carriages 1,749,350 4,259,330 9,410,000 

Cycles and motocycles 10,654,000 10,153.530 7,919,000 

Carriage work 2,157,295 4,274,039 3,053,596 

It will be seen that while both the import and export of cycles and 
motorcycles have decreased, the automobile figures have steadily gone 
U P- 

Across the Desert 

(Foreign Notes in Automobiling) 

A CAIRO correspondent writes that he has recently met a man to 
whom a commemorative tablet should be erected for having 
first demonstrated a practicable route across the desert to 
Suez. This enterprising Frenchman, accompanied by Prince Aziz, 
cousin of the Khedive, has just successfully traveled this route in an 
automobile ! 

The desert is narrow — not over 170 miles as the crow Mies — 
intersected by a trail hardened by the sun and the eternal passing of 
the years, along which a few unfortunate pilgrims toil toward Mecca, 
at rare intervals, under the parching sun. Over it once passed Bona- 
parte on one of his expeditions — camping one yule-tide at the foot of 



364 ACROSS THE DESERT 

the sacred tree of Hamra, sole product of the desert, covered with 
signs and objects of Arabian worship — and arriving at Suez after a 
three days' march, five days being the accustomed time consumed by 
pilgrims across these sands, till, at last, it has been abandoned as too 
fatiguing, until this new method of overcoming time and space by 
means of the automobile has reopened possibilities for travel. 

This first voyage is described as picturesque and original in its 
developments, and was accomplished in ten hours. Almost immedi- 
ately after entering the desert the groom was attacked by a Bedouin 
and stripped of everything in his possession, even his badge of the 
Touring Club ! 

At one point they were obliged to harness themselves to the 
vehicle for the purpose of hoisting it over an embankment formed by 
the railroad that once crossed the desert, but which is now as forgotten 
and deserted as ihe trail. 

Flying onward between sand hills, they leap a pass, reach a large 
open plain, strike into the old mail-post track of the Indes, and Mt. 
Moutala looms before them ; this is crossed at full speed and, passing 
the old fort, they come to a sudden halt : night has fallen ; canals 
intersect the route, and the machine must be left on that side. 

So, after this halt, they have reached Suez and the journey is 
accomplished. The route has then been proven difficult but practic- 
able and, at length, the awesome solitude of the desert has been vio- 
lated and overcome, and projects are already on foot for constructing 
special machines with flattened wheels adapted to this sand track. 

It's not too sanguine to expect that by next Winter, therefore, 
two trips a week, across the desert from Cairo to Suez, will be run on 
schedule time at, say, about twenty dollars for the round trip ! 

By this route the long swampy depression that borders Egypt, 
with its swarming, crowding mass of humanity, will be avoided ; this 
valley, beautiful doubtless, but humid, and beautiful in like manner as 
any agricultural district, overhighly cultivated, with its fields forever 
green and always producing three crops per year, unvaried, without 
woods, meadows, flowers, brooks or rocks — charmingly monotonous. 

For long years, encroaching upon the vastnesses of desert and 
forest solitude, they have contemplated building a village at the foot 
of the Pyramids with sanitariums for utter rest and repose in this 
bosom of silence and light. It now becomes a dream which may be 
realized by every Egyptian if the automobile succeeds in replacing the 
caravan as the tramway has dethroned the pack-mule. A. L. 



Automobile Club Directory 

Under this heading we shall keep a record of the motor vehicle 
clubs both of this and other countries, and we hope to have the 
co-operation of club officers in making it accurate and complete. 

Corresponding clubs of the Automobile Club of America are 
designated thus *. 



Automobile Club of America, Mal- 
colm W. Ford, Secretary, 203 Broad- 
way, New York ; representative on In- 
ternational Racing Board, Clarence 
Grey Dinsmore ; Substitute, John H. 
Flagler. 

Automobile Club of New Jersey, 
Secretary, Dr. H. Power, Mont- 
clair, N. J. 

Automobile Club of Baltimore, W. 
W. Donaldson, Secretary, 872 Park 
Avenue, Baltimore. 

Automobile Club of Brooklyn, Sec- 
retary, C. Benton Dix, Hotel Claren- 
don, Brooklyn. 

* Automobile Club of Columbus, O., 
C. M. Chittenden, Secretary, Broad 
Street. 

Chicago Automobile Club, Secre- 
tary, H. M. Brinkerhoff, Monadnock 
Block, Chicago. 

Indiana Automobile Club, Indianap- 
olis, Ind. Secretary, August Kabich. 
Long Island Automobile Club, 
Secretary, Charles W. Spurr, Jr., 552 
State Street, Brooklyn. 

Automobile Club of New England, 
Secretary, Geo. E. McQuesten, Brook- 
line, Mass. 

^Cleveland Automobile Club, L. H. 
Rogers, 357 Amesbury Avenue, Sec- 
retary, Cleveland, O. 

*North Jersey Automobile Club, E. 
T. Bell. Jr., Secretary, Paterson, N. J. 

* Automobile Club of Rochester, 
Frederick Sager, Secretary, 66 East 
Avenue, Rochester, N. Y. 

Massachusetts Automobile Club, 
President, J. Ransome Bridge ; Treas- 
urer, Conrad J. Rueter ; Secretary, L. 
E. Knott, 16 Ashburton Place, Bos- 
ton, Mass. 

Pennsylvania Automobile Club, Sec- 
retary, Henry J. Johnson, 138 No. 
Broad Street, Philadelphia. 



^Philadelphia Automobile Club, 
Frank C. Lewin, Secretary, 250 No. 
Broad Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Automobile Club of Bridgeport, 
Secretary, Frank W. Bolande. 208 
Barnum Avenue, Bridgeport, Conn. 

Rhode Island Automobile Club, Sec- 
retary, Frederick C. Fletcher, P. O. 
Box 1314, Providence, R. I. 

San Francisco Automobile Club, 
B. L. Ryder, Secretary, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 

Columbia College Automobile Club, 
Lewis Iselin, Secretary, Columbia Col- 
lege, New York, N. Y. 

^Buffalo Automobile Club, Secretary, 
Ellicott Evans, The Lenox, Buffalo, 
N. Y. 

Worcester Automobile Club, Wor- 
cester, Mass., President, J. W. Bige- 
low ; Vice-President, Edwin Brown , 
Marshal, W. J. H. Nourse; Treasurer; 
B. A. Robinson ; Secretary, H. E. Shi- 
land. 

AUSTRIA. 

Budapest — Magyar Automobil Club, 
31 Musem Koriil. 

Innesbruck — Tiroles Automobil 
Club, Rudolph-Strasse 3. 

Prague — Prager Automobil Club. 

BELGIUM. 

Antwerp — Automobile Club Anver- 
soir, 34 r. Longue de 1' Hopital ; Presi- 
dent, Baron de Bieberstein. 

^Brussels — Automobile Club de Bel- 
gique, 14 PI. Royale ; Moto-Club de 
Belgique, 152 Boul. du Nord ; Touring 
Club de Belgique, 11 r. des Yauniers. 

Charleroi — Automobile Club de 
Charleroi, Hotel de Esperance. 

Ghent — Automobile Club de Flan- 
dres. 

Liege — Automobile Club, Liegeois, 
2 r. Hauial. 



3$5 



3 66 



AUTOMOBILE CLUB DIRECTORY 



FRANCE. 

Amiens — Automobile Club de Picar- 
die, 36 r. de La Hotoie. 

Avignon — Automobile Club de 
Avignon. 

Bordeaux — L' Automobile Bordelais. 

Dijon — Automobile Club, Bourguig- 
nors Cafe Americanie. 

Lyon — Bicycle et Automobile Club 
de Lyon ; Motor Club de Lyon, 3 pi. 
de la Bouise. 

Marseilles— Automobile Club de 
Marseilles, 61 r. St. Fereol. 

Nance— Automobile Club, Lorrain, 
Thiers pi. 

Nice — Automobile Velo, Club de 
Nice, 16 r. Chauvain. 

*Paris— Automobile Club of France, 
6 pi. de la Concorde ; Motr-Club de 
France ; Touring Club de France, 5 r. 
Coq-Heron. 

Pau — Automobile Club, Bearnais 
Ave. de la Pau, President, M. W. K. 
Thorn. 

Perigueux — Yeloce Club, Perigour- 
din, Hotel de Commerce. 

Toulouse — Automobile Club, Tou- 
lousain Cafe Riche, pi. St. Etienne 
Societe des Chaffeurs du Midi, 25 r. 
Roquelaine. President, M. Gay. 

GERMANY. 

Aachen (Aix la Chapelle) — West- 
deutscher Automobile Club, Hotel 
Grand Monarque. 

Berlin — Mitteleuropaischer Motor 
Wagen Yerein, I. Universitatstrasse, 
Herr A. Klose ; Deutscher Automobil 
Club, Liusenstrasse, 43-44. 

*Deutscher Automobil Club, Lius- 
enstrasse, 43-44. President, S. D. 
Herzog, Victor von Ratilin. 

Dresden — Radfahrer-und Automobi- 
listen Yereinigung; Dresdener Touren 
Club. 

Eisenach — Mitteldeutscher Automo- 
bil Club ; Motorfahrer Club, Eisenach. 

Frankfort am Main — Frankfurter 
Automobil Club, Restaurant Kaiserhof. 



Munich — Bayer. Automobil Club, 33 
Findling Strasse. 

Stettin — Erster Stettiner Bicycle und 
Automobil Club. 

Strassburg — Strassburger Automo- 
bil Club. 

Stuttgart — Suddeutscher Automobil 
Club ; \Yurtembergischer Motor Wag- 
en Verein. 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

Birmingham — Motor and Cycle 
Trades Club, Corporation street. 

Edinburgh — Scottish Automobile 
Club. 

Liverpool — Liverpool Self-propelled 
Traffic Association, Colquitt street. 
Secretary, E. Shrapnel 1 Smith. 

^London — Automobile Club of Great 
Britain and Ireland, 4 Whitehall Court, 
S. W. Hon. Secretary, C.Harrington 
Moore. 

Nottingham Automobile Club, Sec- 
retary, A. R. Atkey, Nottingham, 
England. 

HOLLAND. 

Nimegue — Nederlandsche Automo- 
bile Club. 

ITALY. 

Milan — Club Automobilisti Italiani 
6 via Guilini. 

*Turin — Automobile Club dTtalie 
Via Vittorio Amedeo II, 26. 

RUSSIA. 

Moscow — Moskauer Automobile 
Club, Petrowka, Hauschnow. 

St. Petersburg — Automobile Club 
de Russe, President, M. Delorme. 

SPAIN. 

Madrid — Automobile Club de Mad- 
rid. 

SWITZERLAND. 

*Geneva — Automobile Club de 
Suisse, 9 boul. de Theatre. 



The Automobile 
magazine 

A Live Journal for all interested in Motor Vehicles 
Vol. Ill No. 4 NEW YORK, APRIL, 1901 Price 25 Cents 

Published Monthly by 

THE AUTOMOBILE PRESS, 

95 Liberty Street, New York. 

Telephone : 984 Cortlandt. Cable Address : " Loceng," N.Y. 

Angus Sinclair, President. Jas. R. Paterson, Secretary. 

Fred H. Colvin, Vice-President and Editor. Jas. J. Salmond, Associate Editor. 

Wm. H. Maxwell, Jr., Special Representative. 



Boston Office, 170 Summer Street. Philadelphia, The Bourse. 



Subscription Price, $3.00 a year in the United States, Canada and Mexico. Foreign Countries 
in the Postal Union, $4.00 (gold). Advertising Rates on application. 



Copyrighted, 1901. 
Entered at New York Post Office as second-class matter. 



For Sale by Newsdealers everywhere. 



Lights and Shades of Motoring 

ON another page of this issue will be found the first part of an 
article from the able pen of Mrs. M. E. Kennard, the well- 
known English automobilist and writer, who has covered 
thousands of miles in motor vehicles of different kinds, and knows 
whereof she speaks. Mrs. Kennard has made a thorough study of 
the subject and tackles the matter from a practical view point. 

In view of the proposed run from this city to Buffalo some time 
during the present year, her vivid description of incidents connected 
with the English Thousand-mile trial, held last year, will be read with 
interest by automobilists in this country. 

The article is replete with pithy, timely suggestions. We will 
only refer here to one or two : her references to the effect appear- 
ances of machines have upon prospective purchasers ; also the prone- 
ness of automobilists to blame the motor for much of the trouble, when 
as a matter fact the trouble lies not so much with the motor as with 
the failure to comply with the motor's demands. Numerous other 

367 



368 LIGHTS AND SHADES OF MOTORING 

points of interest are given in the article, and all who read it will, we 
feel sure, thoroughly enjoy it. Mrs. Kennard does not attempt to 
cover up bad points, and yet always shows a willingness to give credit 
where credit is due. 



Automobile Repair Stations 

THE repair of motor vehicles is work which should be done by 
skilled mechanics, and preferably by those familiar with the 
make of machine being repaired. In too many instances, as 
with bicycle mechanics, they are men who are not specially trained in 
any one branch, but pick up a few points and pose as experts. Many 
owners of machines know this to their sorrow when so-called repairs 
have had to be done over at the factory. 

As in everything else, it pays to do work right, and if the larger 
repair stations could secure men from the different factories, each 
would be a specialist in his own line, and the best of work secured. 
This would be economy for all concerned, for though the man would 
be paid a good salary he could handle a much larger quantity per day 
than the ordinary machinist, and the actual cost might easily be less. 
But the main feature is that the work would be done right and the 
customer satisfied. 



Prevent Disappointment and Misunder- 
standings 

THOSE who expect to get an automobile that will take care of 
itself, never give any trouble, be noiseless, odorless, and cost 
next to nothing to buy or run, are doomed to disappointment. 
Not that automobiles are necessarily troublesome or uncertain, but 
it must not be forgotten that they are machines, and as such require a 
reasonable amount of care and attention. They do not take care of 
themselves any more than any other machine, and the day of the " you 
press the button and it does the rest ' ' automobile has not arrived — 
nor is it likely to. 

We do not wish to discourage a single person from being inter- 
ested and enthusing over automobiling, but we feel that the best way 
to retain enthusiasts is to prevent their being disappointed. The 



PREVENT DISAPPOINTMENT AND MISUNDERSTANDINGS 369 

dealers who point out the difficulties as well as the pleasures of auto- 
mobiling will be the ones to retain the good will of purchasers and sell 
the most machines. It pays to be perfectly candid in all matters of 
this kind, not to make claims which you cannot live up to, or a little 
more, and not to minimize the possibility of trouble with the machine. 
We believe it is far better to point out possible difficulties and 
show the best way to handle them than to let a man who has no me- 
chanical instinct go out in blissful ignorance that anything can happen. 
It's the old story of the " ounce of prevention " being better than get- 
ting a horse to tow you home. 



N. A. A. M. and the Proposed Endurance Test 

THE National Association of Automobile Manufacturers has 
passed a number of resolutions bearing upon the proposed 
endurance test of the Automobile Club of America. In the 
first place, the manufacturers believe that judging should be based 
upon an average speed per hour ; that a carriage should maintain a 
certain average speed from control to control. It recommends also 
that carriages be divided by weight into four classes, A, B, C and D. 
Class A to be composed of vehicles of four wheels under 1,000 pounds ; 
Class B, vehicles of four wheels from 1,000 to 2,000 pounds ; Class C, 
vehicles of four wheels, weighing 2,000 pounds and over ; Class D, 
motor bicycles, motor tricycles and motor quadricyles. In counting 
the average speeds above required each vehicle can stop as many 
times as desired between controls for any purpose whatever. No 
manufacturer or individual should be allowed to enter more than three 
vehicles in each class. 



Book Review 

The Automotor and Horseless Vehicle Pocket Book for 1901. 
Copy of this has been received by us and contains the usual goodly 
store of information which automobilists and manufacturers want to get 
hold of. The book has been brought up to date and will be found of 
great value to both owners and builders. The work is bound in leather 
with gilt lettering and is sold for 2 shillings and 3 pence. An edition 
bound in boards is also published and sold for 1 shilling and 3 pence. 
It is published by F. King & Co., Ltd., 62 St. Martin's Lane, Lon- 
don, England. 



On the Operation of Gasoline Automobiles 

ON the evening of February 12, Mr. C. J. Field, Chairman of the 
Technical Committee of the Automobile Club of America, de- 
livered an address before the members of that organization on 
the " Operation and Care of Gasoline Automobiles." 

The speaker described the various operations of a hydro-carbon 
motor, and showed the differences between the two and four cycle, 
better known as the Otto cycle. He referred to the tendency of own- 
ers to get out of patience with their machines, owing to their failure 
to " mote" at times, gently reminding his hearers that if those who 
ran gasoline motors would spend 15 or 20 minutes each day in their 
inspection, much of their trouble would disappear. 

The various means of igniting the explosive mixtures were de- 
scribed in a clear and concise manner, and the speaker by his answers 
to the many questions put to him cleared up many points which had 
been the cause of much confusion in the minds of his hearers, and con- 
sequently of great annoyance. Mr. Field declared as his belief that 
90 per cent, of the trouble peculiar to explosion motors as used on 
automobiles was due to the ignition. In this he was corroborated by 
a number of those present. 

A model of the latest type of De Dion quadricycle was in the 
room, and on this Mr. Field demonstrated how the operator can con- 
trol the speed of the motor by the advancing and retarding of the 
spark. 

The address was listened to with great attention and at its close 
the speaker was accorded a hearty vote of thanks for his interesting 
and instructive talk. It was delivered in such a way as to be un- 
derstood by laymen as well as those who have to do with the design 
and construction of automobiles. After the lecture the House Com- 
mittee entertained the members at a supper. The whole meeting was 
suggestive and the points discussed were vital, both from the owner's 
and builder's standpoint. 

The next lecture will be delivered March 26 by Mr. A. L. Riker, 
who will talk on the subject of ' ' Operating and Caring for Electric 
Vehicles. ' ' 

37o 



About Breakages 

MANY people — a few of them builders — seem to think that there 
is no excuse for any part of an automobile breaking down" 
and that if breakages occur it is gross carelessness in con 
struction or poor material. It is possible to build a machine — on 
paper — with all strains and stresses nicely calculated and allowed for, 
which should not prove weak at any point, but with ' ' every part as 
strong as the rest ' ' should run until it falls all to pieces like the 
deacon's wonderful one-horse chaise. 

As a matter of fact this is neither possible nor desirable. We 
have been building carriages for several hundred years, and yet, as 
every driver knows, they are not free from breakage. The locomotive 
has had the careful attention of mechanics for nearly a hundred years 
and though it runs on a steel track and is looked after as carefully as 
a horse, it frequently breaks down in its various parts. Frames, axles, 
piston rods, cross-heads, cylinders and other parts fail when least 
expected, and yet no one claims that they are poorly designed or 
built. Strengthening a point that fails simply throws the next break 
to some other place, and all machine designers purposely make a 
" breaking point " which will give way before any part of the machine 
is damaged. This should, of course, be a part that is easily and 
cheaply replaced and should be considered the same as a safety valve 
on a steam boiler or a fuse for an electric circuit. 

Any machine will wear and sometimes break in spite of any theory 
that may be advanced, and it is far better to have a " breaking point " 
that will give little trouble or delay than to have the whole machine 
or any part of it liable to collapse when its limit of endurance was 
reached or before. No machine has ever been made or ever will be 
made that will not wear and also break at times. 



A safe working load for balls is about as follows : For balls 
^6-inch diameter, 125 pounds; 3/16-inch, 280 pounds; ^-inch. 5CK> 
pounds; 5/16-inch, 780 pounds ; 3 8 -inch, 1,125 pounds ; 7 16-inch, 
1,530 pounds ; J^-inch, 2,000 pounds ; S/g-inch, 3,125 pounds. 

37i 



Automobile Run to the De Dion-Bouton 

Works 

THE run of the Automobile Club of America on Saturday, March 
1 6, was a most enjoyable affair. Those who participated mus- 
tered in the plaza outside the club's new headquarters. About 
23 machines started from that place at 11:15 in the forenoon, the ob- 
jective point being the plant of the De Dion-Bouton Motorette Com- 
pany, Church Lane and Thirty-seventh Street, Brooklyn. There 
were gasoline, steam and electric carriages in the gay procession. The 
route was by way of Twenty-third Street Ferry, along Bedford Ave- 
nue and so out to Flatbush. 

Upon reaching the De Dion works a fine luncheon was served, 
after which those present inspected the plant. All present enjoyed the 
run, and we understand that this is the first run of a series to automobile 
factories in the immediate vicinity, details of which will be given later. 
This idea is a good one, as it enables owners and prospective owners 
so get some insight into the methods of manufacture. 



Ideas of Inventors 

( Copies of patents can be obtained 'from Patent Office, Washi?igton y 
D. C. , by sending Jive cents in coin. ) 

NEW forms of vaporizers for explosion engines are constantly 
being brought out, and one of the latest to be brought to our 
attention is that of Rasmus P. Hansen, of Denmark. It con- 
sists of a chamber formed in head of motor and divided in two parts 
by a partition. The lower part communicates with the combustion 
chamber, while the upper communicates with the air and with inlet 
valve. Patent No. 668,773. 



Various kinds of devices intended to do away with the necessity 
of giving gasoline engines a turn with a crank in order to start them 
have been devised. Walter A. Bradley, of Buffalo, has recently taken 
out a patent for an apparatus designed to store power in such a way 

372 



IDEAS OF INVENTORS 



373 



as to be possible to use it when it is desired to start carriage from the 
seat. Patent No. 668,768. 



John B. Mahand and Adrian A. Pompe, of Toledo, Wash., have 
just taken out a patent for a new vehicle tire. This tire has a number 
of inner sub-dividing tubes, each one of which is, when filled with air, 
equal in area in cross-section to the inner cross-sectional diameter of 
the outer tire. These inner tubes have beveled and lapping edges 
with a nipple at one of said ends and a slot at the other. A remova- 
ble box is carried on the inner side of rim for protecting the ends 
of nippers. Patent No. 668,994. 



That the War Department is interested in the matter of automo- 
biles for military purposes is evidenced by the sending out of circulars 
inviting bids for two automobile telegraph and repair wagons. These 
vehicles according to specifications must be capable of seating four 
persons, have motors of not less than twelve horse-power with a speed 
of fifteen miles per hour. The department asks for good hill-climbing 
qualities in the carriages, and the final paragraph reads ' ' while good 
appearance is desirable, utility and long life are the main features 
sought for in these vehicles. ' ' 





dtlrYehteles 

IN {Business 



**~* 



Operation of Electric Delivery Wagons 

PART III 

AS has been said time and again in these columns the value and life 
of the motor delivery wagon will depend on the number of dollars 
it saves a year, directly or indirectly, over the operation of a 
similar horse equipment. The writer has made exhaustive researches in 
the books of hundreds of New York city merchants and believes that 
the actual average cost of operating a single horse vehicle is about 
$900 a year. Of course, this amount is variable, and concerns main- 
taining a large number of vehicles have done it at a smaller cost. 
Then again, there are firms which make absolutely no attempt to cur- 
tail expenses in their delivery wagon department. The sum above 
mentioned is estimated on about the most economical basis that can 
be obtained. It allows but little for interest charges on the invest- 
ment in the horse and equipment, and provides but small wages for 
the driver. The figure, however, is placed at this point to give the 
horse every advantage in the comparison. It makes no allowance 
for the chance of the horse dying, damage by runaways, or for acci- 
dent insurance. 

In New York and in other cities there are firms and individuals 
doing a good business in renting out delivery wagons — horse, wagon 
and driver for a certain specified sum each year. For this money the 
owner of the vehicles sends them to the respective lessees every busi- 
ness day in the year, and takes all the responsibility and bother of 
operating the service. The average charge for this service is over 
$1,200 for each horse, wagon and driver. This may be taken to be 
the fairest estimate of the actual cost of operating a horse delivery 
wagon. In every case where an assistant is required on a rented 
wagon to aid in delivering the goods, such assistant is paid by the 
lessee of the apparatus. The average wage paid a driver in New York 

374 



OPERATION OF ELECTRIC DELIVERY WAGONS 375 

city is $1 1 a week, and the average weekly pay of a boy assistant is 
. $5. It is extremely difficult to set a definite figure as to what is the 
real cost of operating a horse vehicle, for each prospective user has a 
different way of estimating the charges. One will say that the figure 
set is too low, and in all probability some very close Napoleon of 
Finance will loom up and tell you that his service costs him a hundred 
dollars or so less than you have figured the average cost. 

The actual cost of operating an electric vehicle is, however, fairly 
well defined. This, of course, depends upon the condition of the 
roads and grades, the average load carried, and the local price for 
electricity. If the vehicle is operated on an average of thirty miles a 
day, and electricity is sold at about the usual price of six cents per 
kilowatt, road and grade conditions being fairly good, the power 
charge will vary, probably running between eight and ten dollars per 
month. 

The amount to be written off each year for depreciation in the 
batteries and vehicle itself is subject entirely to the care given the 
equipment. M. Worby Beaumont, the author of ' ' Motor Vehicles and 
Motors," estimates the charges on an electric vehicle as follows : 
interest on the investment @ 4.%; depreciation on the vehicle @ 10%; 
depreciation on the battery @ 50%; battery renewals @ 15%; general 
repairs and renewals @ 10%; and tire renewals, rubber used, @ 2> T A%\ 
all percentages being taken on the net first cost of the vehicle's com- 
ponent parts. 

The cost of power, storage, insurance, cleaning, etc. , varies with 
each locality, and is to be added to the other amounts when they have 
been definitely determined. 

Some American students of the electric motor vehicle do not 
estimate the charges against a vehicle in this arbitrary manner, but 
after painstaking research they state that they are convinced that an 
electric vehicle can be run for a little more than a similar horse vehicle. 
With ordinarily intelligent care the writer believes that an electric 
wagon can be run for considerably less than a horse vehicle. Be that. 
however, as it may, all agree that a well made electric delivery wagon. 
used as it should be, can be operated and maintained for a figure 
varying anywhere from ten to twelve hundred dollars a year. Those 
figures are susceptible of proof at any time. 

Considered as a pure matter of expenditures we find that the 
electric goods delivery vehicle is operated at a cost not far above the 
same amount as the horse vehicle. 



376 OPERATION OF ELECTRIC DELIVERY WAGONS 

A close examination of the work done by the wagons of a large 
department store in New York City shows that about twenty-five and 
three-quarter miles a day is the maximum for a horse drawn vehicle. 
When it is considered that in the same time and over the same routes 
electric vehicles have made, day in and day out for a period of over a 
year, more than thirty-one miles, it is apparent that there is a very 
considerable saving per ton per mile in operating an electric delivery 
wagon. 

As to the methods of operating electric vehicles for commercial 
service all that can be said is that time alone can show which methods 
are the best. At present the electric delivery wagons seem to give 
better results when not required to cover as many miles each trip as 
are required from a horse vehicle of a similar design. This is not 
because an electric vehicle cannot make as long a trip on one charge 
of the batteries as a horse, but because of the modifications made 
necessary by the peculiarities of the storage battery. The cells seem 
to give better results when charged and discharged for a small part of 
their capacity each time. 

As in everything else along the line of mechanics and things me- 
chanical, the more care bestowed on the machinery the lower its cost 
to maintain. Common sense must be used in its operation, and such 
use is the only way to get the proper results from a storage battery — 
the horse of the delivery wagon. The time is coming when the elec- 
tric delivery wagon will supersede the greater number of the horse 
vehicles of similar design now operating in our cities. Electricity, 
gasoline and steam each have their field, and it seems to be a fact that 
the electric vehicle is more adapted to the conveying of loads of 4,000 
pounds or under than any other type of motor wagon. 

When the experiences of automobile users are published it seems 
as though the reporters thereof would do well to state all the conditions 
under which those experiences were gained. 

The writer has talked with a number of the owners of electric 
delivery wagons and in almost every case where the results have not 
been satisfactory there have been conditions to explain the failure to 
render the proper service. When, however, a wagon is declared 
to be more expensive to operate than a horse on evidence such as the 
following, the absurdity of such a statement is more than ridiculous: 
' '' We furnish our own current and so have no idea of the exact cost, 
but think the service is not cheaper than horses. ' ' Politeness does not 
permit of the proper characterization of such a remark. 



OPERATION OF ELECTRIC DELIVERY WAGONS 377 

A typewriter company finds the vehicles it uses expensive to 
operate, first because it does not use even ordinary business sense in 
making its arrangements for the care of the vehicles, and secondly 
because its men do not give the wagons the proper care in operating 
them. Their repair bills comprise accounts against the armature, 
burned out, repairs to battery, including a new one, repairs and 
renewals of the solid rubber tires. The same kind of abuse which 
caused the burning of the armature in all probability necessitated the 
renewal and repair of the batteries. In nine cases out of ten such 
repairs are made essential because of the ignorance of the drivers. 

The same may be said of most of the cases where the electric 
vehicle is claimed not to have been satisfactory. How different it is 
when we hear the results attained by such houses as the Gorham Manu- 
facturing Company and B. Altman & Company, both of New York 
City. The Gorham Company has had five wagons in use for over 
eighteen months, four being run continuously, and the fifth being held 
in reserve. All the vehicles are said to make over forty miles a day, 
being recharged at noon. 

The results attained in this case are not due to the hiring of any 
expert electrician, but are due to the care given the vehicles by their 
regular drivers. The original batteries are still in use, and bid fair to 
be continued in service for some time to come. 

B. Altman & Company were the first to use electric delivery 
wagons to any great extent in New York City. Their use has been 
so satisfactory that the equipment has been increased regularly until 
now B. Altman & Company have twelve wagons in service. 

In Chicago Marshall Field & Company and Siegel, Cooper & 
Company, both the New York and Chicago stores, have been more 
than pleased with the results they have attained by the use of electric 
vehicles, and have found them to be highly satisfactory in the rush 
season. Especially was this the case around the Christmas holidays. 

In Boston the New England Electric Vehicle and Transportation 
Company is doing most of the work. Houghton & Dutton use about 
twenty-five vehicles every day. Messrs. Cobb & Aldrich operate 
their own vehicle, and it has given very satisfactory results. 

The Wanamaker Stores in New York and Philadelphia have had 
good service from their equipment, which they rent from the Electric 
Vehicle Company. 

These experiences seem to show but one thing, and that is those 
owners who use common sense and ordinary care in the operation of 



378 OPERATION OF ELECTRIC DELIVERY WAGONS 

their vehicles get good results, while those who do not get only what 
they deserve. Machinery never yet ran smoothly without care, and 
to expect an automobile to do so is utter asininity. 



Horse vs. Electrical Equipment 

By H. M. UNDERWOOD 

MUCH has been said and written in the past relative to the com- 
parative cost of the present horse equipment as against the 
electric equipment, but in very few instances, if at all, have 
actual results and daily expenses been obtainable for publication. 

In the following case the figures are absolute, having been taken 
from the books of one of the leading Western firms in both instances, 
and can be relied upon as the result of one year's practical operation 
with 14 wagons and 24 horses, the other being 9 electric delivery 
wagons. These will give a very good idea of the advantages derived 
from the use of the automobile delivery wagon over the old method. 
It is to be regretted that permission to use the names of the parties 
giving these figures was refused for certain business reasons. 

Before giving the figures, it will be well to keep in mind that the 
average life of a horse in our large cities, is from two to three years, 
when used every day in covering from 15 to 20 miles, and which, by 
the way, is a good, hard day's work for any horse on paved streets. 
There are those who claim that a horse can travel from 25 to 30 miles 
per day, and do this in the space of from 8 to 10 hours, but it is a well- 
established fact that no horse can cover this mileage day after day, and 
live to see many days. In the United States cavalry it is figured that 
the mileage of a horse is not over 15 miles per day. 

In the first instance, the price paid for horses was under contract 
at $150 net, and every three years the old ones were replaced by new 
ones. The stable arrangements were well looked after in every par- 
ticular, and the utmost care taken in the wagon department. 

In the supplying of the current for the electric wagons there be- 
ing located on the premises an isolated lighting plant, the cost of the 
current was reduced to the lowest possible point. This plant was then 
supplying about 7,600 lights in the building. 

First Cost of Equipment — Horses. 

24 horses, at $150.00 each $3,600 00 

14 wagons " 125.00 each 1,750 00 

34 sets of harness at $38.00 each. . .' 912 00 $6,262 00 



HORSE VS. ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT 379 

Electric. 
9 electric wagons at $1,850.00 each. 16,650 00 16,650 00 

Operating Expenses — Horses— One Year. 

Interest on investment at 6 per cent $375 72 

Paint for horses barn per year 30 00 

Stall repairs per year 25 90 

Stable brooms per year, $1.60 per month 19 20 

5,720 bushels oats per year, at 35 cents 2,002 00 

104 tons of hay per year, at $11.00 1,14400 

6,500 pounds bran per year, at $2.25 cwt 146 25 

Shoeing 24 horses yearly at, $3.50 per month 1,008 00 

iMedicine for all horses per year 34 60 

Painting and repairing wagons per year 467 88 

Blankets per year, at $1.50 each 36 00 

Three hostlers at $17.00 per week all per year 884 00 

Halters for stable use 65 cents per year 15 60 

Lanterns on wagons per year 18 40 

Oil for lamps 9 00 

Barn lanterns 4 75 

Harness grease 6 70 

Wagon " 7 50 

Incidental expenses 79 40 

14 drivers at $12 per week, per year 8,736 00 

7 helpers at $7 " " " " 2,548 00 

Depreciation on wagons and harness at 10 per cent , . 266 20 

$17,865 10 $17,865 10 

Operating Expenses — Electric — One Year. 

Interest on investment $999 00 

Depreciation on equipment, at 10 per cent 1,665 °° 

Cost per day per wagon, at .1106 cents for 9 wagons per 

year of 313 days, including oil, waste, current, etc . 311 56 
Annual cost per wagon for batteries, guaranteed at 

$50.00 each per year 450 00 

Repairs and painting of wagons per year 680 20 

Incandescent lamps for wagons per year 13 60 

Incidentals 62 00 

Vaseline for wheels, ball bearing, per year ...... 8 10 

Nine operators at $12.00 per week, per year 5, 616 00 

Two helpers at $8.00 " " , " " 832 00 

One electrician at $60.00 per month 720 00 

Blankets for wagons, at $2.00 each 18 00 

$11^75^6 $ n,375 4 6 
^6,489 64 
For Three Years Operating — Horse. 

New horses $3,600 00 

Running expenses three years 19, 743 30 

Labor expense " " 33,852 00 

$57,195 3° $57,195 3° 
Electric. 

Running expenses three years $14,782 38 

Labor expense ! 9.344 00 

Two sets of rubber tires in three years, per wagon . . 3,600 00 

137,726 38 $37,726 38 
Saving of electric in three years over the horse equipment I1Q.40S oj 



380 HORSE VS. ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT 

In the foregoing figures there are one or two matters that must be 
taken into consideration on both sides. 

In the first place, it will be noticed that the number of vehicles 
differ somewhat. The horse delivery out-number the electric by five 
wagons, but when we take into consideration that the mileage traveled 
by the electric is somewhat more as a total, it will be understood why 
nine wagons will do the same work that the fourteen were doing. 

The reason that no bedding was figured in the barn expense in the 
above figures is, that shavings were used which cost them nothing, 
and, as these figures are actual, could not, therefore, make an item that 
did not show on the books, but, as a general thing, must be figured in 
the regular expense. 

In the operation of the horse equipment the average of 18 miles 
per day was made with 12 of the 14 wagons, the other two were used 
in heavier work, such as teaming to and from depots, etc. ; these two 
only averaged about 1 1 miles per day, two horses to each wagon. 

The work that the 12 wagons were doing required them to make 
from 60 to 100 stops each per day, and the load carried varied from 
450 to 1,500 pounds. The time covered in this work was 12 hours, 
allowing one and a half hours for meals. The weight of the single de- 
livery wagons was from 900 to 1,000 pounds each, and the two larger 
wagons about 1,300 pounds each. 

As to the electric delivery wagons, they made just about the same 
number of stops, but the mileage per day was somewhat more, being 
about 44 per day per wagon, as they were geared to run as high as 14 
miles per hour when the opportunity offered, and the time in this case 
based on 10 hours, a day's work. 

At noon time two hours was had for charging, while checking out 
packages and loading wagons, so it will be found practical for 9 elec- 
tric wagons to do the same work that 14 can do when operated by 
horses, and in this case showing an actual saving in three years' oper- 
ation of $19,468.92, or more per year than the first cost of the horses, 
wagons and harness equipment. The weight of the electric wagons 
was from 2,240 to 3,000 pounds each. 

The claim has been made by a very large Eastern firm operating 
a large number of wagons that one electric can do two and a half times 
as much work as the same size wagon can do when operated by horses. 

The item in the electric expenses for " Repairs and painting 
of wagons," there was an item of $134, caused by collision with an 
electric car, and while this might have occurred to the horse and 



HORSE VS. ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT 381 

wagon as well, it might tend to make the laymen think that the electric 
was much more expensive in ordinary wear and tear than the horse, 
while in reality it is not. 

There is another very important matter that must not be omitted, 
and that is the small amount of space required for the storage of the 
electric vehicle as compared with that of the horse and wagon, and if 
the rent consideration was figured in here, the showing would be very 
large in favor of the horseless vehicle. 

While these figures are the results of operating in two different 
cities, the general conditions were about the same, and it is only a 
matter of time when business will be done by the use of the automo- 
bile, particularly where the parties having the automobiles have their 
own plant for charging their vehicles, as in this case. 



Inquiries 

( 1 ) We have an inquiry for a cheap and practical motor carriage 
suitable for hotel and livery business. One capable of carrying about 
six passengers would fill the bill. 



The annual meeting and banquet of the Automobile Club of 
Bridgeport will be held April 1. The total membership of this club 
is now twenty-six. 




The Automobile Index 

Everything of permanent value published in the technical press of 
the world devoted to any branch of automobile industry will be found 
indexed in this depart7nent. Whenever it is possible a descriptive sum- 
mary indicating the character a?id purpose of the leading articles of cur- 
rent automobile literature will be given, with the titles and dates of the 
publications. 

Illustrated articles are designated by an asterisk (*). 



*Acid Solution for Storage Batteries — 

By Rudolf Henry, in Centralblatt 
fur Accumulatoren und Element- 
enkunde. An article in which is 
pointed out the great importance of 
seeing that acids used are free from 
all foreign matter. "Horseless 
Age," New York, March 6, 1901. 

Air, Dyalised — 

(See under Dyalised. ) 

^Bearing, Moffet Roller— 

A new bearing in which the rollers 
are hollow, being held in place by 
balls at either end. "Horseless 
Age," New York, March 13, 1901. 
(See under Roller. ) 

^Bicycle, Construction of a Motor — 

Continuations of a series of articles 
giving working drawings and dimen- 
sions. "English Mechanic and 
World of Science," London, Febru- 
ary 1, 8 and 15, 1901. (See under 
Motor. ) 

^Bicycling for Women, Motor — 

By Isabel Marks. An article in 
which is pointed out a number of the 
pleasures of motor bicycling for the 
gentler sex. "The Autocar," Lon- 
don, March 2, 1901. 

^Bicycles, Motor — 

Description of a large number of 
cycles. ' ' The Automotor Journal , ' ' 
London, February, 1901. 

Belt Protection — 

A number of letters from users of 
machines on which belts are used 
for transmission of power. These 
letters contain a number of very 
good suggestions as to how belts 
and chains may be protected from 
the dirt. "The Autocar," London, 
February 2, 1901. 



Carbureters Condemned — 

A criticism of a previous article 
appearing in the same publication, 
in which Hugh Dolnar condemned 
the use of carbureters as unneces- 
sary, claiming that the same results 
can be obtained by dropping the 
fuel direct into the cylinder without 
the intervention of outside mixing 
chambers. "The Autocar," Lon- 
don, March 2, 1901. 

"^Carbureters Condemned — 

Hugh Dolnar. In his article Mr. 
Dolnar argues against the use of the 
carbureters now on the market, 
claiming that they are wholly need- 
less complications. He asserts that 
all that is needed to burn liquid fuels 
perfectly in motor cylinders is to in 
some way deliver the liquid fuel to 
the incoming air charge so that the 
air charge shall act as a vehicle to 
carry the liquid fuel into the cylin- 
der. "The Autocar," London, Feb- 
ruary 23, 1 901. 

^Combustion, Fuels and — 

Hugh Dolnar. "Automobile Mag- 
azine," New York, March, 1901. 
*Decanville Carriage, 8 Horse-Power — 
Description of the vehicle which 
was run for 1,000 miles on the Crys- 
tal Palace track without a stop. 
"The Autocar," London, March 2, 
1 901. 

^Delivery Wagons, Operation of Elec- 
tric — 

W. H. Maxwell, Jr. Continuation 
of a series dealing with problems 
connected with handling of electric 
vehicles for this particular service. 
"Automobile Magazine," NewYork,, 
March, 1901. 



382 



THE AUTOMOBILE INDEX 



383 



*Dress Styles for 190J, Automobile- 
Article in which is described what 
is considered the correct style. 
"Horseless Age," March 13, 1901. 

*Duryea Carriage, Trie — 

Description of a carriage built in 
America. The designer is a pioneer 
in automobile construction. It is a 
well designed and beautifully fin- 
ished vehicle. "The Autocar," 
London, February 2, 1901. 

Dyalised Air — 

An interesting ciiticism of a 
scheme advocated by Count Re- 
cope, by which he proposes to sup- 
ply super-oxygenated air to the 
carburetor of gasoline motors. ' 'The 
Autocar," London, Febiuary 9, 
1901. (See under Air. ) 

^Electric Automobile, The Krieger — 

The motors on this carriage are 
mounted on the front. The batteries 
are of the Fulmen type. "La Loco- 
motion Automobile," Paris, Febru- 
ary 28, 1901. 

*Fuels and Combustion — 

Being the fourth article on "The 
Final Automobile," by Hugh Dol- 
nar. Discusses the various fuels 
suitable for automobile motors. 
"Automobile Magazine," New 
York, March 1901. (See under 
Combustion. ) 

Fuel, Foraging for — 

By I. B. Rich. A short story 
cleverly conceived. "Automobile 
Magazine," New York, March, 1901. 

^Gasoline Carriage, Design of a Light — 

First of a series of articles describ- 
ing a light vehicle. Contains working 
drawings and dimension figures. 
"Horseless Age," New York, March 
13, 1901. 

Gasoline, The Storing of — 

A short editorial on the storing 
and handling of gasoline. "Auto- 
mobile Magazine," New York, 
March, 1901. 

*Gear for Motor Vehicles, History of the 
Compensating — 

By Sidney Russell. An interest- 
ing article going into the history and 
development of this part of motor 



carriages. "The Automotor Jour- 
nal," London, February, 1901. 

^Governing, The Peugeot Method of — 
Description of a new plan for gov- 
erning the admission of air and gas 
for gasoline motors. "The Auto- 
car," London, February 9, 1901. 

■Lorry, The Benz Motor- 
Description of a one-and-a-half 
ton wagon fitted with a 6 horse- 
power motor. "Motor Car Jour- 
nal," London, February 2, 1901. 

*Lorry, The Panhard — 

These vehicles can be fitted with 

8, 12 or 16 horse-power engines, ac- 
cording to loads to be carried. These 
wagons took a conspicuous part in 
the recent French military maneu- 
vers. "Autocar," London, March 
2, 1901. 

*Millot Carriage, The- 

This vehicle may be equipped 
with either two or four cylinders. 
The peculiar feature of this carriage 
lies in the speed-changing gear. 
"Horseless Age," New York, March 
13, 1901. 

'Motor Bicycle, Construction of a — 

(See under Bicycle.) 

*Motor Carriage, The Hautres — 

Description of a typical French 
vehicle with tonneau body. Equip- 
ped with a 12 horse-power motor. 
"La Locomotion Automobile," 
Paris, February 14, 1901. 

*Paris, Motor Cars in — 

An article describing some of the 
well-known vehicles, in which the 
author endeavors to point out the 
evolution of the modern motor ve- 
hicle, based on the exhibits at the 
recent show held in Paris. "The 
Engineer," London, February 22, 
1901. 

x Paris Show, The — 

Description of the various motor 
vehicles shown at this exhibition. 
" The Autocar," London, February 

9, 1 901. 

^Pattern for Water-jacketed Cylinder — 
W. O. Anthony. A description 
of methods to be followed in making 
a set of patterns for a water-jacketed 



3§4 



THE AUTOMOBILE INDEX 



cylinder and head. "Horseless 
Age," New York, March 6, 1901. 

^Petroleum Spirit Car,The Nesselsdor f — 
The motor is of horizontal two- 
cylinder type, the cylinders being so 
arranged that the piston rods work 
onto a central crank shaft. Four 
speeds forward and a reverse mo- 
tion are provided. "Motor Car 
Journal," London, February 16, 
1901. 

Petroleum Spirit Motor t The Allard— 

Description of a motor fitted to a 
small car bearing the same name. 
Water cooling is used and the motor 
is said to be very efficient. ' ' Motor 
Car Journal," London, February 9, 
1901. 

*Pump, A Handy Tire — 

"Automobile Magazine," New 
York, March, 1901. (See under 
Tire. ) 

Racing Car, A French — 

Description of the Darracq 80 
horse-power carriage. "Automo- 
bile Magazine," New York, March, 
1 901. 

^Radiator for a J 00 Horse-power Motor, 

Description of a radiator designed 
by M. Loyal. It will be carried on 
the front of car. It has 170 feet of 
tube in it and i,coo gills. This 
tubing and gills had to be bent into 
a space 30 inches high by 12 inches 
wide, giving a total cooling surface 
of 82 square feet. " The Autocar," 
London, February 16, 1901. 

*Rochet Carriage, The— 

This is of the French construction 
and certainly has the appearance of 
a strong, well designed vehicle. Has 
the tonneau body peculiar to foreign- 
built machines, and is fitted with a 
6 horse-power motor. "La Loco- 
motion Automobile," Paris, France, 
February it, 1901. 

^Roller Bearing, Moffet— 

(See under Bearing. ) 

*Steam Car, The 12 Horse-power Ser- 
pollet — 

Description of a new carriage of 
this well-known build. The carriage 



body is directly at back of operator.. 
"Motor Car Journal," London, 
February 16, 1901. 

* Steam Carriage, One Season's Experi- 
ence with a — 

P. T. Rees. "Automobile Maga- 
zine," New York, March, 1901. 

*Tire Pump, A Handy — 

Description of a pump used by 
Mr. Kennard and fitted to his ' ' Sir 
Charles." "Automobile Magazine," 
New York, March, 1901. (See un- 
der Pump. ) 

*Voiturette, Panhard— 

This is a peculiarly constructed 
carriage and possesses some new 
points. The motor is set at an 
angle and is, practically speaking, 
an air-cooled engine with a water- 
jacketed cylinder. "The Autocar, ' r 
London, February 23, 1901. 

Voiturette, Suggestions on the Operation . 
of a — 

A reprint from "The Motor 
News," and written by R. J. Me- 
credy. "Automobile Magazine," 
New York, March, 1901. 

^Wagonette, The Searchmont — 

Description of a carriage which is 
an improvement over the voiturette 
style of body. Can be fitted with 
either a 5 or 10 horse-power motor. 
"Automobile Magazine," New York,, 
March, 1901. 

Wheels, Slipping of — 

An editorial calling attention to- 
the trouble caused by slipping. At 
present there does not appear to be 
any material sufficiently adhesive to 
prevent this. The article embodies 
a number of ideas on the subject 
held by Mr. A. Herschmann of the 
Adams Express Company. ' ' Horse- 
less Age," New York, March, 1901. 

Wheels, The Size of — 

Discussions as to the merits of 
wheels of large and small diameter. 
"Motor Car Journal," London,. 
February 23, 1901. 

Winton, Experiences with a — 

F. W. Manross. "Automobile 
Magazine," New York, March, 1901.. 




O "d- 

fa 

<v 



CO 
J! 

«-. o o 
^^ 



The Automobile 
magazine 



Vol. in MAY, 1901 

The Lights and Shades of Motoring, or Rem- 
iniscences of the Thousand-Mile Trial 

By MRS. M. E. KENNARD 
PART II 
On Friday, May 4, a long day of 121 miles was down on the of- 
ficial programme. The fifty odd cars that represented the survival 
of the fittest left punctually at 7 o'clock. But what a day ! It 
seemed as if Boreas were determined to detain us captive in the North- 
ern land. He howled, blustered, slapped and buffeted us, as if bent 
on barring our progress. Hats flew, showers of dust mixed with sharp 
pebbles were flung into our faces, rendering driving a most arduous 
task. The pebbles cut like knives. We settled our caps grimly on 
our heads, pulled up coat collars, and did our utmost to hurl defiance 
back in the teeth of that horrid old fellow, Boreas. He wrestled and 
fought with us in Trojan-like fashion throughout the day, and it was 
some small comfort to think we had managed to best him. Between 
Haddington, Dunbar and Cockburnpath, he was in his most vicious 
mood. Then his fury abated for a while, until it sprang forth again at 
the exposed headland preceding Berwick-on-Tweed. Although unable 
to conquer the motor-cars, Boreas delayed them considerably. As 
drivers, we all owed him a grudge for his ill manners. Individually, 
trouble beset us from the outset. We had happy days, but this was 
not destined to be one of them. Our De Dion would rush along 
splendidly for a couple of miles, then she took to missing tire badly, 
and finally came to an obstinate standstill. On restarting, she went 
with all her old dash for a short distance, but quickly resumed her 

387 



388 THE LIGHTS AND SHADES OF MOTORING 

bewildering and disconcerting tactics. We tried everything — battery, 
terminals, connections, trembler. Where could the fault lie? Sud- 
denly, I remembered seeing a bit of dirt float into the petrol tank 
while filling up. How about the supply pipe? Should we take it to 
pieces and investigate its condition? No sooner said than done. 
And behold, the author of our misfortunes lay revealed. The mouth 
of the supply pipe was clogged, thus preventing any petrol entering 
the carburetor. After standing awhile, a few drops managed to force 
their way through, which accounted for the car's short rushes. The 
mystery was solved to our no small satisfaction. But alas ! mishaps 
never come singly. We forged ahead and were rapidly overhaul- 
ing some of our companions, when a suspicious smell of burning 
greeted our nostrils. Once more we pulled up to ascertain the cause 
of this fresh trouble. It was but too apparent. The gear wheel pump 
had ceased working, with the result that our engine was rapidly heat- 
ing. We bared her to the wind to let her cool, and set to work to 
detach the pump and, if possible, remedy the evil. But it proved past 
a road-side repair. The cogs of the wheel were completely worn 
away. How enviously we looked upon the stream of cars hitherto in 
our rear, but which now passed us in rapid succession. At length 
the disagreeable conviction stole upon us that we were last, absolutely 
last in the long procession. Nevertheless, we did not despair. We 
carefully re-examined the interior economy of the pump, but without 
deriving consolation from the scrutiny. We next put it together 
again, screwed it in its place, inserted a new pin and made a fresh 
start. All too soon our noses gave warning that that blessed pump 
was suffering from a fit of inactivity. The situation was vexatious to 
say the least of it. Slowly, very slowly, with repeated stoppages by 
the way, we succeeded in accomplishing ninety miles and got to 
Alnwick. It was now past 6 o'clock, and we agreed it would be 
very unwise to push on to Newcastle in the circumstances. We there- 
fore bowed meek heads to the Inevitable. We are wont to talk dis- 
respectfully of the Inevitable, but really what a lot of trouble it saves 
us. The Inevitable decreed we should stay the night at Alnwick and 
relieved us from all throes of indecision. We simply obeyed its man- 
dates like children. We at once went in search of a competent cycle 
repairer and asked him to turn us a new cog wheel for the pump, made 
of gun metal. And although he could not do it himself, he said he 
knew somebody capable of undertaking the job, and that answered our 
purpose equally well. He promised us we should have it early on the 



THE LIGHTS AND SHADES OF MOTORING 



339 



morrow, and so, after an exceedingly harrassing day, we betook our- 
selves to a humble hostelry and chewed the bitter cud of motor 
shadows in ignominious depression. But by the next morning sleep 
had put them all to flight. The shades had departed and we basked 
triumphant in the sunshine of Hope. We refitted the pump, watered 
and lubricated the car, and were enabled to start for Newcastle by 
10:30. And, as if to make amends, the De Dion went like a bird, 
flying uphill and down, stopping at nothing. 

We blessed her then, even as we had cursed her at eventide, and 
blamed ourselves for the harsh judgments we had previously passed 




Fig. 4. The Practical Side of Automobiling 



upon her. Dear little De Dion ! Thou wert restored to favor. But 
one point impressed itself strongly on our minds in connection with 
this celebrated tour. Engines have seldom failed their owners. They 
have played their part right bravely and inspired universal confidence. 
But where manufacturers should turn their attention towards improve- 
ment is in the direction of tires, pumps, gear, transmission, brakes and 
accessories. Both on the Critchley, Daimler and the De Dion, the 
pump proved the cause of trouble. In the one case it was friction 
driven, in the other gear driven. Neither was satisfactory and in the 
event of failure some means should be devised bv which water could 



39© THE LIGHTS AND SHADES OF MOTORING 

be brought to the engine. It is in the details of a motor car, rather 
than in its general construction, where for the present exists the great- 
est scope for advance. Springs, axles, brakes, efficient transmission, 
reliable pumps, trustworthy steering, improved methods of ignition, 
and smaller consumption of petrol are all points worthy of the closest 
consideration. Tires, too, leave much to be desired, and to render the 
horseless vehicle an article of real utility the puncture fiend must be 
abolished and with it its brother spectre, side-slip. These and many 
similar lessons were taught by the Thousand-mile Trial. That the 
tour has given an immense impetus to the industry is undoubted. 
Intelligent manufacturers have since done their utmost to correct 
weaknesses which have manifested themselves. It was gratifying to 
find that the 8 horse-power Napier — a car of English build through- 
out — bore herself in the forefront of the fray, and succumbed only to 
the superior horse power brought against her by the 12 horse-power 
of the Honorable C. S. Rolls. The experts pronounced unanimously in 
her favor, and she proved herself one of the big successes of the tour. 
Buyers need no longer go to France. A move has been made in the 
right direction. 

Sunday, May 6, proved a trying day to the ardent autocarist. 
It pelted religiously with rain, and as the Exhibition was closed, the 
solace of inspection was denied him. The next morning broke dull 
and wet, and the roads were in a fearful state of black, greasy mud. 
The conditions were unfavorable in the extreme and when we started 
for Leeds at the usual matutinal hour of 7 a.m. the cars waltzed 
around in the most unpleasant fashion. During the earlier portion of 
the day steady steering and slow going were imperative. Luckily, 
matters improved somewhat after Darlington was passed, and most of 
the cars reached Northallerton in fairly good time. Our De Dion was 
now behaving magnificently and running up to her very best form, 
when we perceived the noble Napier brought to a standstill by a badly- 
punctured back tire. Her small attendant — young Cusins — a most 
promising motorist aged fourteen, had failed to notice the casualty 
when first it took place. Consequently the inner tube was hopelessly 
nipped. A new one was substituted, and in spite of a delay of 
three quarters of an hour, the Napier reached Leeds at 4:17, running a 
dead heat with Mr. Holder's 12 horse-power Daimler. The first ar- 
rival was Mr. Rolls at 3:45, followed at 4 by the Ariel tricycle with 
Whippet trailer. Previous to this, we stayed over an hour at York, 
where the cars were on show in the beautiful gardens of the principal 



THE LIGHTS AND SHADES OF MOTORING 



39' 



hotel. A very large concourse of well dressed gentlemen and ladies 
assembled to see them. The afternoon turned out fine and the fair 
town looked its fairest in the sunshine, with its stately Cathedral tower- 
ing as a landmark over the gray, old city walls and smoothly-flowing 
river. In spite of such bad roads at the start, the day's run was highly 
successful, and nearly all the cars arrived at their destination between 
6 and 7 p.m. No fewer than forty-nine put in an appearance at 
Leeds. This must be considered an excellent result, considering the 
many hundred miles already traversed. To quote a pressman, who 
accompanied us throughout, ' ' I mount a motor car with the same 
degree of confidence as I would enter a train." 








Fig. 5. Raising the Dust 



Yorkshire is proverbially the home of the horse. Perhaps, for 
that reason we encountered more restive animals than on any previ- 
ous stage of the journey. If horses fear motor cars, motor car drivers 
heartily reciprocate the sentiment. A nervous creature whose move- 
ments cannot be anticipated is the autocarist's worst enemy. Often, 
he allows the car to approach within a few yards ; then suddenly he 
wheels round, and either backs right into it or commences to lash out 
with his hind heels. Both proceedings are equally disagreeable, but 
of course, it is always the car that is blamed. 

On Tuesday, May 8, the good people of Leeds were afforded an 



392 THE LIGHTS AND SHADES OF MOTORING 

opportunity of viewing the travel-stained equipages in the Drill Hall — 
a chance of which they availed themselves freely. The hall, however, 
was small and failed to display the cars to full advantage. Owing to 
want of space, they were crowded together. We were getting tired 
of exhibitions. 

Wednesday, the 9th, the weather was distinctly unfavorable. 
Heavy rain during the night and early morning left the roads in a 
most unpromising state for pneumatic tires. Greasy mud lay inches 
thick in depth, a high wind blew straight in our teeth, and it was cold 
as winter. Nevertheless, the cars left Leeds punctually at the custom- 
ary hour, their departure being witnessed by comparatively few people, 
the elements doubtless keeping them at home. Those who under- 
took the Thousand-mile Tour had made up their minds from the first 
that it would not be all child's play, and on the present occasion the 
veterans displayed commendable fortitude. Nobody grumbled, sur- 
prising to relate. One and all were determined to endure to the bitter 
end. Although the slippery roads were attacked with extreme cau- 
tion, they utterly failed to bar the onward progress of the expedition. 
Side-slips were numerous, and several of the cars had narrow escapes, 
but fortunately no serious accidents took place. The entry to Harro- 
gate was heralded by an unusually steep hill. Many of the inhabitants 
had congregated here, in order to witness the various vehicles attempt 
the ascent. The,. majority got through the ordeal triumphantly, but a 
small percentage shed their passengers, while one or two even ha# 
recourse to manual assistance, so steep was the gradient. From Har- 
rogate on to Bradford there were hills enough to satisfy the veriest 
glutton, and what with the heaviness of the roads, their treacherous 
surface and a strong head wind, the cars were put to a severe" test. 
Owing to a combination of natural and climatic conditions, the whole 
journey to Sheffield was a peculiarly hard one. Once more the self- 
propelled vehicles displayed their reliability and hill-climbing powers. 
The big manufacturing towns through which we were passing were 
not interesting from the driver's point of view, and we came to the 
conclusion that this day was the least enjoyable of any we had hitherto 
spent. We had left the fair open country, and it was replaced by a 
never-ending series of straggling villages paved with the vilest of 
cobbles, and ornamented by the tallest and dirtiest of chimneys. 
Round Sheffield itself hung a pall of heavy gray smoke, which rend- 
ered the approach to the City of Cutlers anything but attractive. 
The Drill Hall made handsome atonement, however, when it opened 



THE LIGHTS AND SHADES OF MOTORING 



393 



its hospitable and spacious doors to the mud-bespattered cars, and 
housed them safely for the night in the vast building which they 
guarded. They — the cars — needed no encomium from their owners. 
Their presence spoke for itself. The weakly had long ago been 
weeded out, and none but the stoutest and best remained. Their 
weather-worn appearance testified to deeds of ' ' derring do. ' ' This 
was no dilettante motoring, but motoring in dead earnest. 

A rest on Thursday, the ioth, was acceptable for once, and we 
tolerated the Exhibition with a better grace than usual. Save for the 
intense cold, the following day was a most enjoyable one. We left Shef- 
field with few regrets and gradually emerged into a purer atmosphere. 




Fie. 6. Tire Trouble 



The roads were dry and in excellent order, and the cars wended 
their joyous way through the stately parks of the Dukes of Newcastle 
and Portland. Sunshine was requisite to do full justice to their beau- 
ties, and this unfortunately was lacking. Phoebus declined to show 
his face. At Welbeck, a mile speed race with flying start had been 
organized. To reach the chosen spot necessitated a wide detour of 
some eight and twenty miles. A large proportion of the cars prefer- 
red to go straight on to Lincoln, but personally, we desired to see the 
fun, and, our De Dion continuing in a good mood, did not mind the 
extra distance. So we accompanied the racers. The drive through 



394 THE LIGHTS AND SHADES OF MOTORING 

Welbeck Park alone repaid us for our enterprise. Beautiful were the 
trees, the sylvan glades, the stately stags and far-reaching vistas of 
shadowy avenues. It only wanted sunlight to give warmth and 
color to the scene. Arrived at our destination, each entered car 
started a few seconds after the leader. It was a sight to see Mr. 
Rolls come tearing along on his Panhard at the rate of an express 
train, sitting crouched over the steering wheel, yet guiding it with un- 
erring skill. The Napier followed next, then a Daimler and numerous 
lesser lights, their time being accurately taken. Nothing could be 
more exhilarating. The spectacle possessed all the fascination of horse 
racing. The proceedings over, we made haste to rejoin our com- 
panions at Lincoln, where the Mayor most kindly entertained us to a 
sumptuous luncheon. Never did a meal prove more welcome. The 
road on to Newark and Nottingham was in grand order, and the cars 
fairly flew along their level surface. Only one drawback existed to 
our enjoyment in the shape of the positively Arctic temperature. To 
keep warm was an impossibility. 

The last day of the Tour, Saturday, May 12, we hardly knew 
whether to be glad or sorry. Many of us were very weary, for long 
days and short nights began to tell after three weeks of travel. And 
of late, the weather had been anything but kind. Pluvius apparently 
determined to take farewell of the expedition, and once more the 
roads were reduced to a sea of mud. The going was very disagree- 
able, not to say dangerous, and the Leicester tramlines w r ere nego- 
tiated with excessive caution. At Northampton, Mr. Mulliner liberally 
entertained the company to lunch, and the inner man thus fortified, 
the drivers remounted into their seats. And so, the long procession 
wound its way through Newport, Pagnell, Dunstable and St. Albans. 
To several of the small, low-powered cars this proved a toilsome jour- 
ney, but all stuck to their task, until at length London was gained. 
So ended the great event, rendered a trifle less brilliant, a thought 
more sober towards the finish, by inclement atmospheric conditions, 
but with the autocarist's enthusiasm glowing as keenly as ever. The 
general opinion was that the cars had covered themselves with glory 
and earned a right no longer to be regarded as the rich man's toy or 
fad. They had demonstrated their reliability and entirely eclipsed the 
staying powers of their equine opponents. As previously stated, the 
English-made Napier gained golden opinions, although Mr. Roll's 
Panhard proved the flier of the party. Throughout the tour, the 
Daimlers went steadily and well. The same remark applied to the 



THE LIGHTS AND SHADES OF MOTORING 



395 



Benz division, which, if not conspicuous for speed, seldom failed their 
owners in an emergency. Of the small cars, nothing went better than 
the Wolseley, the De Dion, the Gladiator and Triumph. That so 
many of the voiturettes should have come through such a crucial 
ordeal was a great surprise, and intending purchasers need no longer 
stand aloof after the Thousand-mile Trial. Everywhere, the people 
saw with their own eyes what autocars can do. The simple country 
folk marvelled at their swiftness, their tractability and convenience, 
and were astonished at their hill-climbing powers. Prejudice has been 
overcome to a certain extent, old-fashioned conservatism broken 
down, pre-conceived notions modified. All this was highly gratify- 
ing. When the autocarists repaired to their respective homes, they 
had the pleasing consciousness strong upon them that they had not 
endured the dust and the dirt, the heat and the cold, the wind and 
the rain in vain. As pioneers of an enjoyable and useful movement, 
they deserved well of succeeding generations. 




An Object Lesson in Stopping 

ONE of our friends who isn't noted for being especially careful of 
a machine, was speeding along the other day when he was 
held up by two blue coated guardians of the law. 

"It's goin' too fast ye are," says one. 

" Kape her down ter ate miles er we'll run yer in," said the 
second. 

' ' But my friends, I wasn' t running fast at all — and then you know 
we have great control of these machines, too. Why, we can stop in 
our own length." 

" Gwan wid yes — yer can't pull de wool over our eyes dat way, 
see?" 

"Well, I'll tell you what. Just climb up behind here — both of 
you — and I'll show you how." 

After much persuading this was accomplished and they started 
down the road at a lively rate. Suddenly and without warning the 
operator reversed the engine and threw on both brakes. It was like 
hitting a stone wall and the air seemed filled with blue cloth and 
policemen. 

" Didn't I tell you I could stop her quick." 

" Bedad yer did, and if 'twasn't fer phat the sargint wud ask me 
phat I was be doin' in the automobily I'd run ye in. Yer can sthop 
all roight, but the landin' av yer passengers is more suddint than 
illigant. If I get a chance ter run yer in for spheding I'll do it — so 
kape yer eyes peeled. ' ' 

The stopping quality is a great point for safety — both of riders 
and pedestrians — but it is hard on a carriage to submit it to any such 
strain unnecessarily. 



Our English neighbors who are owners of automobiles seem to be 
having a hard time in the police courts over there. The number of 
court cases in which automobilists are mixed up seems to be on the 
increase. Most of the proceedings are instituted on the grounds ot 
furious driving. There can be no doubt that the attempt to run at 
high speeds is too common among automobilists, but it is very 
doubtful if the interests of the automobile will be furthered by this 
kind of thing. 

396 



A. New Petroleum Motor 



THE accompanying illustration is that of a new petroleum motor, 
designed by Mr. Henry Sutton, of Melbourne, Australia. It 
is of course well known that for years men have been trying 
to design and build a motor which would use petroleum satisfactorily 

instead of gasoline.' The 
petroleum motor does pos- 
sess certain advantages over 
the gasoline motor and in 
America especially where 
petroleum is so cheap, such 
type of motor would find 
many friends. 

The engine shown gives 
about 6-brake horse-power 
when making 640 revolu- 
tions per minute. The bore 
is 4^ inches, while the 
stroke is 6 inches. The par- 
ticular feature of interest 
about this engine, however, 
is the fact that it uses 150 
flash test heavy oil. The 
inventor claims that it starts 
from the cold within one 
minute. There is no visible 
exhaust, either when starting 
or during operation, and fur- 
thermore the claim is made 
that the combustion is so 
perfect as to cause no odor. 
If this engine does what 
Sutton Kerosene Engine its inventor says it will there 

ought to be little trouble disposing of a large number of them. How- 
ever, Mr. Sutton's researches along these lines are valuable, and if 
he has not solved the problem connected with the building of a 
satisfactory petroleum motor he has gotten very near to it. Let us 
hope he has. We are indebted to the Autocar for the accompanying 
illustration and particulars. 

397 




A Hill Climbing Experience 

By FRANK W. BOLANDE 

A PERSON has never run the full gamut of a season's automo- 
bile experiences until he sees his machine pitch headlong down 
a hill backwards. If he is aboard the vehicle it is probable 
that he is subject for the attentions of the wrecking crew from some 
hospital. If by good fortune he has jumped in time then his reflec- 
tions, as he watches his beloved automobile tear itself to pieces among 
rocks and trees, can be imagined. 

One gentle day last August I came upon the peaceful town of 
Chester, Mass. I had automobiled from Bridgeport and was on the 
way to Lenox. Everything had gone splendidly so far. The roads 
had been good, bad and indifferent ; some of the stretches of State 
roads in Massachusetts and Connecticut being particularly good and 
the intervening stretches being particularly bad. From Springfield 
that day the ride had been very enjoyable, especially over the hard 
macadam roads that led to Fairfield, Mass. The carriage was behav- 
ing beautifully, and it was with no thought of trouble that my wife and 
I bowled into Chester and were served with a coal scuttleful of gaso- 
line at the principal village store. 

At this town we heard with some little trepidation of the Middle- 
held hill, which, it was said by the villagers, had taken the measure 
of more than one automobile that season. It was three miles long 
and a series of steep rises. There seemed to be no way to avoid it, 
and accordingly w r e set out. Two and one-half miles from Chester 
we began the ascent, being sure that we had a full boiler of water. A 
few rises were taken all right and I was confident that we should ar- 
rive at the summit all right. 

At times the road was in such a position that we could look di- 
rectly upon the top of a passing train which circled the foot of the 
hill. When taking another rise, I noticed that the machine began to 
waver. I looked at the steam gage and saw that it indicated 140 
pounds of steam. I had no fear then but what we would go up in 
safety. But she hesitated, and when it was apparent that she would 
not go up, my wife and I, without saying a word, but by a sort of 
common instinct, both jumped. Our intention was to take hold of 

398 



A HILL CLIMBING EXPERIENCE 399 

the wheels and keep the machine there. I supposed that this would 
be an easy matter, as relieved of our weight it was my impression that 
the carriage would make the rise easily. What was our surprise to 
see the machine gather velocity and wrench itself loose from our 
hands. It ran at full speed backwards and leaping the two-foot stone 
wall at the side of the road plunged down the side of the hill into the 
trees and underbrush. 

About twenty feet down it caught in some trees. It was almost 
upside down and the wheels were buzzing terrifically. At first I stood 
still and whistled. My first impression was to walk away and leave it 
to its fate, thankful that we were not at the bottom of the hill with 
broken limbs or worse. I thought it would explode and burn up and 
did not care to take further chances. I had not gone far, however, 
when better sense prevailed and I returned, crawled down to the ma- 
chine and turned off the gasoline supply, putting out the fire and 
stopping the engine. I then noticed that the reverse lever was on a 
dead center, and it was evident to me that in some manner the lever 
had worked back and prevented the full power of the engine being 
exercised. The jar made by jumping from the carriage had probably 
thrown the reverse further back and caused the machine to go back- 
wards at good speed. 

We waited until a farmer came along and he kindly agreed to 
carry us back to Chester. The only two-horse team available was 
working on the road for the tdwn. By seeing the selectman I was 
able to get the team and three men. Armed with axes and ropes we 
went back to where the machine lay on its side. By dint of cutting 
away some of the underbrush we were able to haul the automobile 
out onto the road further down the hill. 

One axle and the wheels were badly sprung, the rear end of the 
body was smashed and the boiler was burned out. I sent it back to 
the factory and in a week it was as good as new. I am careful now to 
see that the reverse lever is good and tight. Besides, I have an im- 
proved lever and a brake that holds backwards as well as forwards. 



Manager of a Dime Museum : " Say ! One er you ducks run 
down ter the automobeel store and git a tire repairer ; some Smart 
Aleck's punctured the boer constrictor with his cane !" 



The Chicago Show 



THE first automobile show held in Chicago, extending from March 
23 to 30, was handicapped both by the weather and the fact 
that so many shows had preceded it within a few months. In 
spite of this there was a fair attendance of both exhibitors and visitors 
and the Motor Age deserves credit for carrying it through in the face 
of many difficulties. 

They had a novelty in the shape of a racing stand or machine, 
after the manner of the old ' ' home trainer ' ' of bicycle days. This 
consisted of wide- faced pulleys on which a carriage was mounted, and 
a dial arrangement run by belting showed the parts of a mile. Two 
hands were used — one for each machine so that the relative speed of 
two contestants could be watched. Miles were made in fifty-seven 
seconds on this and it obviated all the dangers of racing on a small 
track. 

The flower parade on the night of the 28th was very attractive, 
first prize being won by Mr. Shaw in a Mobile dos-a-dos. Mr. Cook 
in a Reading carriage also received much applause as well as the sec- 
ond prize. Some of the Motor Age employes rigged up a canopy 
and a cow bell on a wheelbarrow and called it a Push-a-mobile. 

Some of the exhibitors report satisfactory sales as a result of their 
exhibits and their efforts, all of which must be very gratifying to the 
managers of the show. 

Mr. Wridgway of the De Dion-Bouton Motorette Company was 
very much in evidence assisting their Chicago representative show 
the merits of these machines. Mr. Knox and his three-wheel runa- 
bouts attracted considerable attention and those who rode in the 
machines were highly pleased with the smoothness of operation and 
the convenience of the carriage. 

Both Mr. Starkweather and Mr. Donsman were kept busy ex- 
plaining and demonstrating the Milwaukee machines — both as to 
operation of the machines and such details as the burner and engine 
construction. They exhibited a racing machine, an express wagon 
and a five-ton truck in addition to their surrey and runabouts. 

The Woods Motor Vehicle Company had one of the largest 
exhibits and one that was exceedingly attractive. 

400 



THE CHICAGO SHOW 401 

The National Automobile and Electric carriages were liberally 
patronized and ran very smoothly. 

The Mobile Company and the Steam Vehicle Company of 
America both created a good impression in many ways. 

Among the other exhibitors were the E. R. Thomas Motor Com- 
pany (motor bicycles), Touring Manufacturing Company (electric 
runabouts), Shelby Steel Tube Company, Hewitt-Lindstrom Motor 
Vehicle Company, O. V. Bochelle (electric runabouts), Kelly Handle- 
bar Company (lighters for gasoline burners), American Roller Bearing 
Company, Munger Vehicle Tire Company, Moffett Vehicle Bearing 
Company, Porter Storage Battery Company, Badger Brass Company 
(lamps) and Veeder Manufacturing Company (odometers). 



Liverpool Trials of 1901 

MR. SHRAPNELL SMITH, the energetic secretary of the 
Liverpool Self- Propelled Traffic Association informs us that 
the entry forms for these trials are now ready for issue to 
intending competitors, a*nd any of our readers who may be interested 
can obtain full particulars from the gentleman named. 

The Council, upon representations that a number of vehicles 
will otherwise be debarred from competing, have decided to add a 
fourth class. In this new class, to be known as Class D, there are no 
restrictions upon the tare or platform area, and all the conditions pub- 
lished on June 13, 1900, apply. The minimum load to be carried is 
4 tons, but an excess may be declared as by Rule I. There are no 
alterations in Classes A, B and C, the specifications for which remain 
unchanged. 

Below are given particulars of this competition. The program 
of trials is as follows : Monday, June 3, hill climbing contest. Tues- 
day, June 4, run from Liverpool to Manchester. June 5, Manchester 
to Liverpool. June 6, Liverpool to Blackburn. A detailed account 
of these trials was given in our February number, and we can only 
again express the hope that America will be well represented. 



A 24 Horse-Power Napier Car 

A STYLE of vehicle which is growing more and more popular in 
Europe as well as in America is that shown in the accompany- 
ing half-tone. The car shown is now being constructed for 
Mr. Charles J. Glidden, of Brookline, Mass. , and will have four cyl- 
inders, giving 24 brake horse-power. As will be seen by the illustra- 




Chas. J. Glidden's 24 Horse-Power Napier Car 



tion, there is great strength and power in this automobile. Ic is capa- 
ble of carrying five passengers, having the favorite tonneau body. 

The maximum speed is about 40 miles per hour, and sufficient 
gasoline can be carried to run for 200 miles. The front wheels are 33 
inches in diameter, while the rear ones are 36 inches. The pneumatic 
tires on the front wheels are about 3)2 inches diameter, while the rear- 
tires are 4^ inches. The frame is of channel steel, and Mossberg 
anti-friction roller bearings are used throughout. 

Mr. Glidden expects this new car will be finished about July r. 
The gentleman named is a member of the Automobile Club of Great 

402 



A 24 HORSE-POWER NAPIER CAR 403 

Britain and Ireland, the Automobile Club of America and the New 
England Automobile Club. 

The car certainly is a strongly built and reliable vehicle, and its 
performances after it reaches these shores will be watched by our lead- 
ing automobilists. 



Storage of Gasoline 



THE proper storing and handling of gasoline is a question which 
is at times a vexing one, especially in the case of private 
owners. The letters which follow, being written by gentlemen 
who have had much to do with the storing and care of gasoline, will, 
we feel sure, be read with much interest. 

Never having had any sort of an accident with the gasoline I have 
carried I cannot from experience say what not to do. 

To avoid accident I should say that the individual operating a 
carriage in which gasoline is used should buy his gasoline in the five- 
gallon, air-tight cans sold by the Standard Oil Company. These cans 
come two in a wooden case which prevents their being injured in 
transit. By using gasoline from such cans the gasoline will be found 
to have its original strength when opened, and as most carriages have 
a storage capacity of more than five gallons the can may be entirely 
emptied when opened, avoiding the carrying of open vessels contain- 
ing gasoline and so the accumulation of gas in the room or house used 
for storage ; which, by the way, should be separated from all other 
buildings, and should never be allowed to accumulate empty cans or 
barrels or rubbish of any sort. 

This room should have ventilation around the bottom, as gasoline 
gas is heavier than air and it would so have an opportunity to escape. 

I think that the ruling of the fire underwriters that all gasoline 
storage houses should be ventilated from the top is a poor one. 

The gasoline should not be poured in a closed room in which 
there may be open lights. 

I think that all patent cans and arrangements are usually made to 
make a profit for the manufacturer and are apt to leak and so become 
dangerous on account of their poor construction and open parts. 
Understanding that gasoline gas when confined is explosive, 1 believe 



404 STORAGE OF GASOLINE 

that the automobihst will generally prefer to pour his gasoline in the 
open air and so avoid any possibility of accident. 

Yours very truly, Percy Owen, 

New York, N. Y. Eastern Mgr. Winton Motor Carriage Co. 

The storage and handling of gasoline is one of those things of 
which the public have not correct ideas, and as the unknown is always 
feared more than the known, so the imaginary dangers of gasoline are 
feared more than the real ones. It is a common idea that gasoline is 
explosive, but this is not true. It is quite inflammable, and if this one 
fact be kept in mind and caution exercised accordingly, no danger 
exists. The fluid should be kept in tight cans so as to prevent loss 
from evaporation and danger of fire from the ignition of the vapor. 
It should further be kept in a well-ventilated place so that any vapor 
may be swept away by the current of air. When handled no fire or 
lamps should be near it, and it should be kept in mind that at all times 
the vapor is heavier than air and settles to the ground, so that a flame 
near the ground is much more dangerous and liable to ignite the vapor 
than one placed above it. If gasoline vapor is allowed to mix with the 
air of a room in proper proportion, the mixture is explosive and very 
dangerous, but the same fact is true of ordinary illuminating gas and 
accidents do not frequently occur from that cause. The public have 
grown so accustomed, however, to the use of illuminating gas that they 
no longer think of it as dangerous, when as a matter of fact it is 
extremely so. 

Gasoline as a liquid cannot be exploded. It may be poured out 
of an ordinary can while burning with safety from explosion ; and 
dropping a match into a receptacle results only in setting fire to the 
slight amount of vapor escaping from the opening. The same test 
applied to a kerosene can would likely burst the can. The reason is 
that the gasoline vapor is too rich too explode ; while the kerosene, 
evaporating much more slowly, may form with the air in the can an 
explosive mixture. The fires in connection with the use of gasoline 
commonly termed ' ' explosions ' ' by the ordinary newspaper reporter 
are simply cases where gasoline vapor is ignited from some source of 
fire, and have not been explosions proper. Knowing these facts we 
store our gasoline in an outbuilding as required by the insurance laws 
and handle it in cans open only at the top. If by accident any gaso- 
line on the outside of said can caught fire it would simply burn off and 
unless the can became sufficiently heated to boil the gasoline contained 



STORAGE OF GASOLINE 405 

therein no fire other than a small flame at the mouth would result, 
whereas if the can had a spigot at the bottom, which leaked to any 
amount, the fire would continue to burn at the leak and probably 
cause trouble. 

We make our tanks as nearly seamless as possible and flange, 
rivet and solder the necessary seams, which arrangement secures a safe 
reservoir on our vehicle. We further place this reservoir at the lowest 
point of the vehicle so that any leakage will drop to the ground and 
not be liable to take fire from the muffler or motor. As a result, we 
have never had, in our ten years' experience, anything that could be 
called an explosion and only one fire, which was due to the overturn- 
ing of a partly finished vehicle not having a stopper in the gasoline 
tank. This allowed the liquid to spill into the motor and catch fire, a 
result which would likely happen if a kerosene lamp were overturned. 
When it is remembered that we have men of all degrees of careless- 
ness handling this liquid, it will be seen that the record is a good one. 
We have had leaky tanks, overturned vehicles and many odd experi- 
ences during the period mentioned, but having no pressure in our 
tanks a leak is generally observed before it becomes very large, and 
having no open fire it is almost impossible to get a flame from the 
motor to the gasoline. 

We further provide the filling aperture with safety gauze, so that 
looking into the tank with a lighted match to see how much gasoline 
there is, as is sometimes done (see Autocar, March 16, 1901, page 
248), is not necessarily dangerous. We are confident that with our 
arrangement and with remembrance that gasoline is quite inflammable, 
the handling and use of a gasoline vehicle is as free from danger as 
any vehicle can be. Duryea Power Company, 

C. E. Duryea, Vice-President. 

Reading, Pa. 

It has been said that ' ' a little knowledge is a dangerous thing. 
Perhaps this can be aptly applied to the common understanding of the 
handling and storage of the volatile product of petroleum known in 
the United States as gasoline and in England and on the Continent as 
motor spirits or petrol. 

The question of storage of gasoline, since the introduction and 
general use of automobiles, has been one toward which no small 
amount of attention has been directed, and is one which those 
using gasoline should fully understand. The dangers attending the 



4o6 STORAGE OF GASOLINE 

use of gasoline have been almost always exaggerated by the press and 
insurance companies, yet the subject of storage and the handling of it 
in quantities for the accommodation of users of automobiles is one 
which should receive careful and intelligent attention. If properly 
stored and handled, gasoline is as harmless as water. Insurance com- 
panies demand that where gasoline is kept in quantity it be stored in 
some place with low temperature. 

An accident occurred not long ago on one of our streets quite 
startling in its effects. Some workmen left a bright tin can rilled with 
gasoline standing on the sidewalk during a hot day in July with the 
sun's rays pouring down on it. The contents of the can exploded, 
with, however, no more serious results than the total absence of the can. 

One of the least considered, last thought of, and yet one which 
should be reckoned among the most dangerous of all the peculiarities 
of gasoline is the following : The tendency of this gas arising from the 
fluid during damp or heavy weather to bowl along the floor of a build- 
ing in vapor form, if any quantity of it be left exposed. In the days 
before gasoline was thought to be of any commercial value it was 
thrown away in vast quantities as a waste product, and small brooks 
of gasoline were to be found running into the East River from all the 
big refineries. An owner of one of these works told me that on damp 
days he could often see a gray ball of the gasoline vapor, almost invis- 
ible, rolling across the meadows. Boys' at times would leave a bonfire 
smoldering on the meadow, and once in a while a ball of this vapor 
would come in contact with a flame of fire and the result would be a 
serious conflagration. 

In any well regulated automobile storage and repair station you 
will find only electricity used for furnishing the light and power. Gas- 
oline can be stored in quantity with safety only by having a proper 
gasoline tank constructed, or simply storing in the barrels in which it 
is received. This latter method saves about 3 per cent. , which is lost 
if transferred to another receptacle. A faucet can be inserted in the 
barrel and the fluid drawn as the demand requires. There should also 
be a cover over this barrel. 

In the quiet old city of Philadelphia, ignorance on the part of a 
would-be chauffeur and two mechanics he had engaged to repair his 
automobile, resulted in the death of one and serious injury of the other 
two men. With incredible carelessness, a blow-pipe was used under- 
neath the gasoline tank in mending a leak, with the dreadful results 
above mentioned. 



STORAGE OF GASOLINE 407 

Practically, all the fires arising from gasoline used in automobiles 
have been in those vehicles in which gasoline was under pressure and 
the gas used for fuel to generate steam. We have yet to find a single 
fire caused by the use of gasoline in any of the ordinary types of well- 
constructed hydro-carbon or internal combustion motors. In some of 
the foreign types which employ hot tube ignition there is, of course, a 
slight element of danger, but in the best class of American-made gas- 
oline carriages there is no danger whatever. 

In several of the internal combustion motors the gasoline 
is fed by gravity, the amount being regulated by a needle valve 
into the carbureter. The electric cables are heavily insulated, there 
is no open fire or flame, and no possibility of causing fire or ex- 
plosion. 

Almost all municipalities have particular regulations regarding the 
care and storage of the volatile products of petroleum, and consider- 
ing the enormous use of the light petroleum oils, ranging in a thou- 
sand industries from the huge city gas works to the humble peanut- 
roaster on the sidewalk, it can be seen that with any reasonable degree 
of care, gasoline is a safe and most useful product. When under 
great pressure and mixed with the correct amount of air, it is, of 
course, highly explosive — hence its value in the automobile engine. 

The principal point to keep in mind in the storage and handling 
of gasoline is that it should never be brought near to an open flame. 
Even at a distance of many feet the invisible gas forming may ignite 
with disastrous results. It should be kept, if possible, in closed metal 
receptacles, and drawn off in quantities as required. Electric light 
only should be used for illumination where liquid gasoline is present. 

For use in motor vehicles the writer prefers to use the ordinary 
stove gasoline, put up by the Pratt Works in five or ten gallon tins, 
as these tins are hermetically sealed and the contents usually corre- 
spond with the ordinary vehicle tank ; thus at once furnishing a safe 
and convenient method of storing and handling. 

The rapidly increasing use of gasoline in automobiles has caused 
several forms of specially constructed metal tanks of convenient shape 
and design to appear on the market. As the public becomes more 
accustomed to the volatile nature of gasoline, methods of storing and 
handling will doubtless improve, until the fire risk will lie reduced to 
a minimum. 

New York City. A. Warp Chamberlin. 



4o8 STORAGE OF GASOLINE 

In regard to the storage of gasoline, there is but one thing to be 
done and that is to have an hermetically sealed vessel placed outside 
of your building in some manner. This could be arranged with a 
pump or a faucet, which has to be opened with a key to prevent inter- 
ference. L. B. Smyser. 

Jersey City, N. J. 



The New York World had two styles of delivery wagons on trial 
for four months with instructions to give them as hard a test as they 
could be put to. At the end of that time the ' ' Mobile ' ' Company 
offered to release the World from its contract if it so desired. The 
statement was made to them : 4 ' You know now as much about these 
wagons as the ' Mobile ' Company does. If you take them you must 
take them entirely at your own risk and without any guarantee of any 
kind. You are at entire liberty to break the contract if you wish to 
after this trial." The reply of Mr. Seitz, the business manager of 
the World, was : ' ' How quick can you deliver them ? Rush them 
without a moment' s delay. ' ' 

This company has from the first opened its factory to the public 
and has offered to pay for any information from experts that would 
lead to the use of better material or a suggestion for better workman- 
ship. It has said, in the full belief that it was uttering strict truth, 
that if a purchaser came to the factory and offered $5,000 for a car- 
riage the company could build no better carriage than that which it 
ordinarily turns out. A curious demonstration of this was recently 
made. Mr. Kilpatrick, the one-legged bicycle rider who rides down 
the stairs, which are hoisted to the top of Madison Square Garden, in 
the show there, after long investigation recently came to the factory 
and ordered a ' ' Mobile. ' ' The general superintendent, Mr. Haddow, 
simply gave instructions to go out into the stock room and take out a 
machine and paint it white. It is needless to say that every possible 
effort would have been made to render this machine absolutely perfect 
as the man is to daily risk his life on it, and no pains or expense would 
have been spared on the part of the ' ' Mobile ' ' Company. The super- 
intendent' s action simply confirms the statement which the company 
has repeatedly put forth. 



Among the Clubs 



(Secrrtaries of clubs and chairmen of committees are requested to 
send in items of news for use in this departmerit. ) 

BOSTON, MASS. 

THE following is part of a letter recently received from the secre- 
tary of the Automobile Club of New England, referring to 
their method of handling gasoline, and to which reference was 
made in our April number. 

I am afraid Mr. Stevens has given the impression in his article 
that our gasoline tank is quite an elaborate affair, whereas it is really 
quite simple. 

It is merely a tank open at one end, which holds, I think, two 
gallons, and has a valve at the bottom to allow the gasoline to run 
out, or to shut it off when a member has enough, and an arrangement 
so that different size pipes can be attached to the bottom, depending 
on how large an opening the gasoline tank has which is to be filled. 
The tank has marks embossed on the side so that the man can tell 
exactly how much gasoline has run out and charge accordingly. 
There is, of course, nothing to show when a member has enough, as 
it is only a question of giving a member all he wants. 

At present we store our gasoline in large iron tanks out in a field, 
but after the frost is all out of the ground, we hope to have an 
arrangement so that the tanks will be buried in the ground and then 
by putting on air pressure temporarily force the gasoline out through 
a flexible pipe until a member receives all he wants, then the air pres- 
sure will be taken off. By this arrangement the gasoline will not be 
kept under pressure. This method was used by the New England 
Electric Vehicle Transportation Company at Newport last summer 
quite successfully, I believe. 

Yours very truly, 

Geo. E. McOuesten, Secretary. 

PRINCETON, N. J. 

Our club has just been formed and is as yet in its infancy. There 
are a quite a number of men here who have automobiles, but have not 
brought them down as yet. Next year we hope to increase our mem- 

409 



410 AMONG THE CLUBS 

bership. We hope to have two runs this spring before college closes, 
one to Asbury Park and the other to Philadelphia. We may extend 
our second trip to Atlantic City. Yours truly, 

Charles H. Dugro, 
Secretary Princeton University Automobile Club. 

NEW YORK. 

The Automobile Club of America has already broken the ice in 
the matter of Spring and Summer runs, the initial one taking place 
March 30, the objective point being Westchester Country Club. About 
eighteen carriages took part, and the event was enjoyed by all present. 
Other runs are scheduled as follows : April 27, Babylon, L. I. ; May 
11, Hopatcong ; May 18, Morris Park (if satisfactory arrangements 
can be made) ; May 25, New Haven, Conn. ; June 8, Tuxedo, N. Y. 
The annual dinner of the club was held on the evening of Thurs- 
day, April 1 8, in the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel. 

ROCHESTER, X. Y. 

The first Spring meeting of the Rochester Automobile Club was 
held April 8, at the club rooms, Hotel Livingston, that city. Fred- 
erick Sager, Secretary. 

AUTOMOBILE CLUB OF NEW JERSEY. 

The Contest and Runs Committee of the Automobile Club of 
New Jersey, held the following runs during April : April 7, to The 
Kensington, Plainfield, N. J. ; April 14, to the Ruclere House, Ridge- 
wood, N. J.; April 21, to the Mandeville House, Pompton Plains, 
N. J. ; on Sunday, April 28, a run will be made to the Hotel Central, 
Perth Amboy, N. J. The club invited members of the North Jersey 
Automobile Club to participate in the Ridgewood run. On Memorial 
Day this club intends to hold what is termed a Spring parade. Par- 
ticulars regarding this will be published later. 

PROVIDENCE, R. I. 

The formal opening of the new rooms of the Rhode Island Auto- 
mobile Club took place Wednesday, March 13. It was voted that the 
sum of $100 be given to the fund of the Automobile Club of America, 
for the establishment of satisfactory guide posts along the public high- 
ways. The affair was arranged by a committee consisting of Dr. 
Hibbard, Prescott Knight, Jonathan Chase, Dr. Julian A. Chase and 
Charles O. Read. 



AMONG THE CLUBS 411 

BRIDGEPORT, CONN. 

The annual meeting of the Bridgeport Automobile Club was held 
April 1. In the absence of the President Thomas P. Taylor took the 
chair. The election of officers resulted as follows : President, Jona- 
than Godfrey ; Vice-President, Louis Cassier ; Secretary, Frank W. 
Bolande ; Treasurer, Thomas E. Griffin ; Consulting Engineer, Henry 
M. Hills ; Board of Governors (for one year), Clinton Barnum See- 
ley, John C. Spiers ; (for two years), Charles C. Godfrey, George W. 
Hills. The Board of Governors reported that Dr. Sydney Bishop 
and Gregory S. Bryan had been elected to membership. A cer- 
tain sum had been informally pledged to the Automobile Club of 
America to apply to the work of providing suitable sign posts for the 
highways, pointing out the best roads for automobiles. It was decided 
to appropriate the money to placing signs in the vicinity of Bridge- 
port and have the work done under the supervision of the club. Hart- 
ford automobilists will be communicated with in an effort to secure 
their cooperation. The headquarters for the coming season will be at 
the ' ' Locomobile ' ' Company's handsome new factory at Seaside Park. 
A vote of thanks was extended the company for the privileges accorded 
the club. If enough members desire to have their carriages cared for 
the same as in a livery stable a storage station will be established in 
the center of the city. The club now numbers twenty-six active mem- 
bers and looks forward to a season of rare sport. The Runs and Tours 
Committee, composed of Arthur K. L. Watson, Clinton Barnum See- 
ley and Thomas E. Griffin, are preparing a program of interesting- 
runs for the summer. It is expected that some of these will consume 
two or three days. 




Two Interesting Vehicles 

IT gives us pleasure to present herewith illustration of a piano wagon 
recently built by the St. Louis Motor Carriage Company, St. 
Louis, for the Jesse French Piano and Organ Company of the 
same city. 

The wagon has been in service about eight weeks, during which 
time it has covered about one thousand miles. It is driven by double- 




Gasoline Piano Delivery Wagon 

cylinder variable-speed gasoline engine of 15-horse power. The cost 
of operation has been very low, it having been demonstrated that one 
gallon of gasoline costing 9^ cents will run the wagon about ten miles. 
The rear wheels are 38 inches in diameter, while the front ones 
are 36 inches. Solid tires are used. The wagon is strongly built, 
and although the transportation of pianos is somewhat heavy work it 
stands up to it in an entirely satisfactory manner. All of the machinery 
is below the platform and the general arrangement gives the maximum 
amount of space for carrying. The capacity for work of this machine 
has been a surprise to many. It covers one day in actual service 

412 



TWO INTERESTING VEHICLES 



4i3 



delivering pianos, 69 miles. The weight of the wagon with sufficient 
water and gasoline for a 75-mile run is about 3,660 pounds. Twenty- 
five hundred pounds is supposed to be the load, but frequently more 
than three thousand pounds has been carried. The owners have 
already discovered that where two wagons were formerly used this 
wagon has been doing the same work, thus dispensing with the force 
of men who operated the other wagon. 

The wagon is intended to carry three pianos, and is operated by 
one man. 




Gasoline 'Bus 



The other illustration is that of a 'bus built by the same company. 
Fifteen passengers can be carried by this vehicle. It is fitted with a 
25 horse-power two-cylinder engine. It is capable of running at any 
speed up to 20 miles per hour. Its ability to climb hills has been a 
matter of pleasant surprise to all. The distance between Nashville and 
Lewisburg is sixty miles. 

One striking feature of both vehicles is the great wheel-base, a 
most desirable thing in itself, to say nothing of the other good points 
they possess. 



Graphite for Engine Slides 

A GENTLEMAN in Providence, R. L, writes as follows con- 
cerning the use of graphite for automobiles : 

" I have already given Dixon's Graphite Pipe Joint Com- 
pound quite a test and find it exceedingly satisfactory. I have taken 
the opportunity to recommend it to the Columbia Sales Department 
here in Providence for their automobile repair shop. I am also using 
Dixon's finely pulverized flake graphite, No. 635, mixed with cylinder 
oil in a sight- feed lubricator and mixed with engine oil for all parts 
of my steam carriage needing lubrication, and think it is just what 
I have been looking for. 

' ' I would call your attention to the fact that most steam carriages, 
notably ' Locomobiles ' and ' Mobiles, ' have vertical engine slides with 
absolutely no provision made for lubrication, excepting the occasional 
dropping of oil on them from an oil can. The vertical position of the 
slides and the motion of the cross -head together tend to work all the 
oil off the slide on to the ground in a very few revolutions of the en- 
gine so that the slides practically run dry all the time. This mechan- 
ical fault of construction will be largely remedied by the use of graph- 
ite mixed with engine oil. I expect that part of the graphite will be 
retained on the slides after all the oil has dropped on the ground." 

As flake graphite has a mechanical affinity for metal surfaces, 
there is probably no doubt that the expectations of the writer of the 
above will be fulfilled. We may add that any one interested in this 
subject can easily make test for himself, as the Joseph Dixon Crucible 
Company, of Jersey City, N. J. , will gladly send suitable samples to 
anv one interested. 



It is about time a little conservatism was let into the automobile 
business. The public is growing weary of the statements which have 
been made generally regarding automobiles. The public has from 
the very first been led to expect a great deal too much in the average 
automobile. Now that so many manufacturers are unable to practi- 
cally demonstrate claims made, a reaction seems to have set in. This 
is only natural, however, and inevitably follows such a condition of 
things as has characterized the automobile industry during the last 
year or so. 

414 



Lubricating Oils for Explosive Motors 

THE matter of proper lubrication of explosive motors is one 
which ought to greatly interest users. There seem to be so 
many automobilists who give so little attention to this that it 
is little wonder so much trouble is experienced. In this connection it 
gives us pleasure to quote from]. Veitch Wilson's excellent little book, 
called " Lubrication of Motor Vehicles and Cycles." In comparing 
the matter of proper lubrication of steam and gas engine cylinders, he 
says : ' ' The fundamental difference in respect to lubrication between 
steam and gas engines consists for the most part in the fact that in the 
former the presence of a trace of moisture due to the condensation of 
steam, provides in a slight degree for the reduction of friction in the 
cylinders and valves, while in the latter the intense heat of the suc- 
cessive and rapid explosions leaves the cylinder absolutely dry and 
entirely dependent upon the oil introduced for lubrication. 

" Fatty oils," he says, "when used for lubricating cylinders of 
explosive engines are so affected by the heat as to be partially decom- 
posed and resolved into their elements as stearic acid and oleic acid, 
and the conversion of these into pitch. This, of course, makes their 
use inadmissible. Mineral oils are not decomposed by heat, at certain 
temperatures they are converted into gas, but return to their liquid 
form without any chemical change as the temperature falls. The be- 
havior of mineral oils when exposed to heat varies greatly, not only 
in respect to their boiling or volatilizing point, but in respect to loss of 
body at high temperatures. It is obvious that any oil, the boiling point 
of which is in the neighborhood of the working temperature in which 
it is to be used, is useless as a lubricant, as, even should it in part re- 
tain the form of oil, its body must be so attenuated as to be valueless 
as a medium in the reduction of friction. But, although the boiling- 
point of an oil may be so high as to ensure its stability at ordinary 
working temperatures, it is still possible that its body may have been 
so much reduced at that temperature as to render it wholly inefficient 
for the purpose for which it is intended. It is, therefore, essential 
that the oil to be used in the cylinders of an explosive engine should 
not only have a boiling point well above that of the working tempera- 
ture of the cylinders, but at that temperature it should retain sufficient 

4i5 



416 LUBRICATING OIL FOR EXPLOSIVE MOTORS 

body to insure the presence of an effective film of oil between the cyl- 
inder walls and the piston. ' ' 

To insure satisfaction, lubricating oils for use in cylinders of ex- 
plosive engines should not be liable to decomposition with liberation of 
acids and production of pitch at working temperatures. If of mineral 
origin it must not volatilize to any great extent, nor emit offensive 
fumes at working temperatures, nor produce carbonaceous deposits in 
either cylinders or valves. The body at working temperature ought 
to be equal to that of a good steam cylinder oil at similar tempera- 
tures. It should be sufficiently fluid at normal temperatures to permit 
of its easy introduction to the cylinder or crank chamber by the ordi- 
nary appliances. There can be no doubt that to a great extent the 
offensive odors caused by the use of lubricating oils, which do not 
possess the proper elements, would be reduced if more care were ex- 
ercised in the selection of oils to be used. 



Book Review 

THE second annual edition of Lee s American Automobile Annual 
has been received. The first part of the work is devoted 
more particularly to a history of the automobile. The greater 
part of the work is devoted to information regarding the explosion 
motor as applied to horseless vehicles, though of course the steam 
and electric vehicles come in for their share of attention. The book 
contains numerous illustrations and is bound in leather, being of pock- 
et-book size. There are 270 pages, and to those interested in au- 
tomobiles the work ought to prove of value. Published by Laird 
& Lee, Chicago. 



The flash point of the various hydrocarbons cannot always be 
remembered off hand. Below is given a table showing the flash points 
of a number : 

Brandy, ..... 

Whisky, 

Gin, . ... 

Petroleum, .... 
Ordinary high-test petroleum, . 



Flash Point. 


Fire Point 


69 


92 


72 


96 


72 


IOI 


73 


IO4 


. 1 10-120 


140-160 



Endurance Contest of Long Island Auto- 
mobile Club 

THE Long Island Automobile Club's endurance contest which 
took place Saturday, April 20, was in all respects a decided 
success. The number of entries was quite encouraging, and 
the crowd which turned out to witness the event was sufficient evi- 
dence of the great interest taken in the automobile by all classes. 




Fig. 1. Willett's Point, L. I. 



The contest was designed primarily to demonstrate the practic- 
ability of the modern automobile and its ability to overcome any diffi- 
culties which might beset it when on the road. That the vehicles 
which entered clearly showed great efficiency was evidenced by the 
number of carriages which "got through." 

There could not be a more satisfactory method of proving to a 
sceptical public the practicability of automobiles than that adopted by 
the Long Island organization in this its first test. 

The object sought by the members was laudable and might well 

4T7 



418 ENDURANCE CONTEST 

be imitated by automobile clubs alt over the country. Races are of 
course good things for a certain class of automobilists, but the average 
man is looking for a motor vehicle which will ' ' get there ' ' with at 
least as much certainty as a horse-drawn vehicle. 

The drawing up of plans for this contest necessitated much work 
on the part of those who had the matter in charge. It was necessary 
to go over the route several times, take numerous photographs, 
measurement of grades, etc. 

The accompanying illustrations are reproduced from photographs 
taken by Mr. H. B. Fullerton while on one of these preliminary runs. 




Fig. 2. East Norwich, L. I. 

These will give some idea of the roads at different points along the 
course. 

Fig. i was taken at Willett's Point (near Bayside) on the North 
Shore. In the front carriage is President Adams and Mr. A. R. 
Pardington. In the second carriage, Treasurer Frederick Webb and 
Mr. Hopins. The first three are members of the Long Island Auto- 
mobile Club and Mr. Hopins is with the New York and New Jersey 
Telephone Company. In the last carriage — a surrey — is Mr. H. S. 
Chapin, of the Long Island Automobile Club and Captain Ford, of the 
U. S. Navy. This point is about where the East River meets the 
Sound. For many years it has been a favorite spot for riders, drivers 
and cyclists, and it will undoubtedly be extremely popular for auto- 
mobilists. 



ENDURANCE CONTEST 



419 



Fig. 2 is of East Norwich, on the road between Oyster Bay and 
Massapequa. This road runs through Jericho and Hicksville. The 
carriage is a Winton, owned by President Adams, of the Long Island 
Automobile Club. 

Fig. 3 is the beginning of the Jericho Pike, one of the oldest 
macadam roads on Long Island. This is an almost straight road from 
Jamaica to Jericho, running through Queens, Mineola and Westbury. 
The carriage is owned by Mr. H. S. Chapin, who with Mr. Adams, 




Fig. 3. Beginning of Jericho Pike 



occupies the front seat. On the rear seat is Mr. A. R. Pardington, of 
the^Long Island Automobile Club and Mr. William T. Wintringham, 
one of the oldest bicyclists in this country. 

In our next issue we will give additional facts regarding the race 
itself, with numerous other illustrations showing the various machines 
as they^appeared on the occasion of this interesting and instructive 
event. 



Uncle Jethro's Will 

By JOE LINCOLN 

u/\H, my poor nerves!" whined Uncle Jethro. "I'm a goner 
\^J this time, Luther. Be a good boy, and look arter Tabby, 
won't yer?" 

Luther Taylor, sitting beside the bed and holding Uncle Jethro' s 
hand, mopped his own bald pate ! and promised to be a "good boy," 
"But you ain't goin' ter die, Uncle," he added. " I've seen you 
sicker' n this afore now. ' ' 

"I ain't, hey? Who told yer I wan't? Don't yer s'pose I 
know whether I'm goin' ter die or not? Think everybody's a born 
gump jest 'cause you be?" The last question, which the invalid 
shouted at the top of his lungs, was followed by a fit of gasping, 
coughing and ejaculations. "Condemn this consarned phthisic!" 
groaned the sufferer. "Here I've spent fourteen dollars and aha' f 
on that fool doctor, and he ain't done me one mite of good ! I wisht 
I had him here ; he'd be a sicker man than I be, I tell yer that !" 
Mr. Taylor, evidently being used to his aged relative's outbursts, 
made no answer, but stroked his grizzled chin whisker meditatively. 
" Oh, my poor nerves !" wheezed Uncle Jethro. " Where's Tabby? 
Don't she know I'm goin' fast? 'Course she does," he added ; "but 
she knows I've left her the bulk of my money, and so she don't care 
how quick I git through. Where is she, anyhow?" 

' ' Last I see of her she was out in the stable talkin' ter McCue. I 
wouldn' t wonder if she was there yit. ' ' 

" See here, Lute ! You don't cal'late there's anything goin' on 
between them two, do yer ? Any sparkin' or nothin' of that sort ? 
Gals will be gals, yer know." 

"Tabby's goin' on forty year old," drawled the nephew, drily. 
"'Seems 'f she might be trusted ter look arter herself by this time, 
and not heave herself away on a stable boy. Guess there ain' t nothin' 
to worry about on that score. Wall," he said, rising, "I must be 
goin' out ter look arter the horse now. I'll tell Tabby yer want ter 
see her. Don't you worry about dyin', Uncle Jethro. You'll be 
feelin' a heap better in an hour or so. ' ' 

" I tell yer I won't, neither !" said the sick man, in a roar that 

420 



UNCLE JETHRO'S WILL 421 

ended in a wheeze. "I tell yer I'm pretty nigh through. Jest's 
likes not I'll be gone time you git back inter the house. Look out 
fer your sister Tabby, now? Don't " 

Uncle Jethro broke off here to rail at his phthisic, and Luther 
went out of the room and down the stairs, pondering deeply. Although 
he had pretended that his uncle's suggestion regarding Tabitha's love- 
making was absurd, he was not sure that it was so. Tabitha was a 
devout believer in the Swedenborgian creed, but she was anchored no 
more firmly to its tenets than to the belief that to be an ' 'old maid ' ' 
was the sum and substance of all earthly disgrace. Her brother knew 
this, and feared she would let no chance slip to escape the stigma. He 
would have been glad to see her the wife of some honest, sincere man, 
but he was far from certain that Mr. Roderick McCue came under 
that head. 

The latter gentleman hailed from New York, and was head groom 
at the stables belonging to Professor Brassey P. Lyndum, at that 
distinguished individual's summer estate on Cape Cod. We take it 
for granted that no further introduction of the illustrious Lyndum is 
necessary. It may be that the gentle reader is himself one of the 
" suffering millions who have been dragged from consumption's raven- 
ing jaws by Lyndum' s Lung Preserver." Perchance Lyndum' s Liver 
Lotion has lifted his foot from the brink of the proverbial grave and 
placed it upon a pleasanter resting place. At least we are certain that 
the professor's likeness, with one hand raised to heaven and the other 
pointing to a box of Lyndum' s Phcenix Pills, has more than once been 
spread before him on the front page of his morning paper. 

The great Brassey P., however, and the equally great Mrs. 
Brassey P., — who had once been Mademoiselle Vivian, the celebrat- 
ed lecturer on female beauty and the means of preserving it — were not 
occupying the Cape Cod mansion at the time of our story. It was 
now the first of October and the Lyndums had been for a month at 
Lenox. Luther Taylor and Tabitha were installed in the servant's 
lodge as caretakers, and Mr. McCue had remained to look after the 
horses and carriages until such time as the latter should been sent for. 
Uncle Jethro, in his chronically dying state, was the perpetual guest oi 
his nephew and niece and occupied the best chamber as a matter of 
course. The old gentleman, the reputed sum of whose wealth varied 
— according to the imagination of the person mentioning it — from 
$1,000 to $50,000, was known to have made a will leaving the bulk of 
his fortune to his niece. Mr. McCue had heard of the wealth and the 



422 UNCLE JETHRO'S WILL 

will, and it is barely possible that they, together with Uncle Jethro's 
ill health, may have helped to kindle the fires of love in his manly 
breast. 

When Luther reached the stable he found that Tabitha had gone 
on to feed the pigs and that Mr. McCue was cleaning the automobile 
surrey. Word had been received a few days before to ship the horses 
and carriages to New York at once and the animals and a part of the 
vehicles had already gone. 

" When's the go-cart goin ' ? " inquired Luther, who had a pro- 
found contempt for what he called a ' ' steam baby carriage. ' ' 

" Guess I'll ship her tomorrer ; " said Mr. McCue. " You don't 
seem ter be stuck on autofe. Got a grudge against 'em, haven't yer ? ' ' 

''They don't seem nateral ter me, somehow. I can understand 
that a carriageless horse might be some good, but I'm blessed if I can 
see the use of a horseless carriage. Long's I've got old Dexter 
there" — nodding toward his own ancient steed, who occupied a stall 
at the rear of the barn — "yer' 11 never catch me aboard one of them 
things. ' ' 

" How's the old gent ternight? " inquired Roderick, 

" Purty bad, I'm afraid. Cal'lates he's goin' ter die any minute, 
and I dunno but he is. Goin' now ? ' ' 

" Yep ; I'm going down ter the toolhouse." 

"Wall, if yer see Tabby tell her Uncle Jethro wants her; will 
yer ? ' ' 

Mr. McCue promised to do as he was requested, and, leaving 
the barn, walked in the direction of the toolhouse. We say in the 
direction of the toolhouse because he went only as far as the pigpen. 
There he saw Miss Tabitha, and, coming up behind her, put his arm 
about her maidenly waist. 

" Hello, my solitaire! " said Mr. McCue. 

Miss Tabitha gave a suppressed scream and turned quickly. 

"Oh, good gracious me! Roderick!" she exclaimed; "How 
you frightened me! I didn't know it was you." 

' ' Who did yer think it was ? There ain' t no other feller tryin 
ter cut me out, is there ? ' ' 

"Why, of course not! You know I wouldn't marry anybody 
but you. Not if a million men asked me, I wouldn't!" Miss 
Tabitha spoke as if the million men might happen along and propose 
at any moment. "Oh, don't!" she giggled, after a pause; "My 
brother might see you." 



UNCLE JETHRO'S WILL 423 

"He won't see nothin' ! He's up in the barn feedin' that old 
plug of his. By the way, have yer sounded him about our — well, 
about the probabilities of his havin' me fer a brother-in-law? " 

' ' I jest hinted at it once and he flared up perfectly dreadful. 
He'll never give his consent in this world and neither will Uncle 
jethro, I'm afraid." 

Mr. McCue reflected that, judging by what Mr. Taylor had just 
reported, Uncle Jethro would not remain in this world long enough 
to make his consent of much moment ; but he did not voice his 
thought. 

" That's what I was afraid of ! " he said gloomily ; " Well, have 
yer thought about my other plan ? ' ' 

" Oh, Roderick! I never could do it ! What would folks say? " 

"Ah, that's it!" exclaimed Mr. McCue, leaping to his feet, and 
standing, with folded arms and a savage scowl, the very embodiment 
of high tragedy ; " That's it! I expected it! You've thought it over 
and yer can't make up your mind ter marry a common groom. Oh, 
well! Never mind! There's a good deep well on this place and a 
common groom will make just as big a hole in the water as anybody 
else. Good by ! " 

The effect of this ferocious speech was to cause the adoring and 
alarmed Tabitha to throw her arms about the neck of the would-be 
suicide and promise to do or say anything — anything if he " only 
wouldn't." It required at least five minutes of this sort of thing to 
bring the determined tragedian to a point where he would consent to 
exist, but at length he did so, and, sitting down upon a log beside the 
lady of his choice, began a long and impassioned argument. Tabitha 
appeared to demur at first, but finally gave way and the conference 
ended thus : 

" Oh, Roderick! must it be ternight ? " 

" It must. Day after termorrow I've got ter go back ter N' York, 
so it must be ternight or never. And, if it's never, yer know what 
that means. ' ' Mr. McCue jerked his thumb significantly toward the 
well. 

" Good by then, dear, until twelve o'clock.' ' 

' ' So long, my onlyest. ' ' 

Miss Tabitha, after bestowing a beaming smile upon her knight 
and receiving a kiss tossed from the tips of his delicate fingers, tripped 
away to the bedside of her uncle. 



■414 UNCLE JETHRO'S WILL 

Roderick watched her until she passed round the corner of the 
barn. Then he chuckled. 

" Fifty thousand dollars!" he muttered ; "That ain't so worse, 
and the old guy liable ter die any minute! " 

At twelve-thirty that night, Mr. Luther Taylor tiptoed slowly and 
carefully down the hall leading from his chamber. He was lightly 
and airily attired, but was armed to the teeth. That is to say, he 
was in his nightclothes and carried a lamp in one hand and an old- 
fashioned Colt revolver in the other. Burglars were the game for 
which Mr. Taylor was in search, and he had been lured to the chase 
by several unwonted sounds, which, breaking upon the stillness of the 
night, had aroused him from his slumbers. 

The first of these sounds was the closing of the back door. While 
Luther was lying in bed debating as to who could have closed the 
said door he was again startled by the sound of wheels on the front 
drive. He jumped up and, looking out of the window, saw some sort 
of vehicle just going out of the front gate. Then he concluded it time 
to investigate, and, hunting up and loading the ancient revolver, 
started on his quest. 

He stopped at Mr. McCue's chamber, intending to rouse that 
gentleman, but found the door open and the room empty. Some- 
what surprised at this and with a dim suspicion of the truth beginning 
to form in his mind, he tiptoed on and cautiously descended the back 
stairs. No one was in the dining room, but some one had been there 
very recently for two plates and the remains of an apple pie were upon 
the table. Also there was a note, and, as it was addressed to himself, 
Luther opened it and read as follows : 

" Dear Brother Lute : 

I am going to marry Mr. McCue, and, as we knew it 
wasn't any use to ask for your consent we have had to elope. We 
have taken the horse and buggy and shan't be back until tomorrow 
noon. Give our love to Uncle Jethro and tell him to forgive us. We 
hope he'll last till we get back. Your loving sister, 

Tabitha. 

" P. S. — I am awful sorry to be married this way, for I wanted to 
have a real nice wedding, but you was so dreadful stubborn I had to 
run away. But I shall be married by a Swedenborgian minister just 
the same, and that's some satisfaction. T. " 

Five minutes later Luther entered the sick man's room. " Uncle 
Jethro ! " he said. 



UNCLE JETHRO'S WILL 425 

The invalid awoke with a start, and groaned deeply. " Oh, my 
poor nerves ! " he wailed. " What in time do yer mean by hollerin' 
at a poor dyin' critter like that?" Then, seeing the look on his 
nephew's face, he asked, " What's the matter? Is the house afire? " 

" Tabby's eloped," said Luther, quietly. 

"What?" 

" Tabby's eloped. Skipped off ter git married with that McCue 
feller. Here' s the note she left. ' ' 

Uncle Jethro listened to the reading of the note, and then sat 
straight up in bed. " Where's my clothes? " he demanded. 

" Where's what? " 

" My clothes ! My duds ! Are yer deef ? " 

' ' Why, Uncle Jethro ! What are you goin' ter do ? " 

" Do ! I'm goin' ter put a spoke in that feller's wheel ; that's 
what I'm goin' ter do ! S'pose I'm goin' to let that poor gal be took 
in by a chap that's arter her money? It's plain as the nose on your 
face, and the land knows that's plain enough ! He's heard I'm goin' 
to leave her cash, and so he wants ter git his claws on it. But /'// fix 
his flint ! Where' s my duds ? ' ' 

" Uncle Jethro, you git back ter bed ! You're awful sick ! Yer 
said yerself yer was dyin ! ' ' 

" I don't care ! I'd fix that hoss jockey if I was dead ! What in 
the nation are yer settin' there for? Why don't yer do somethin' ? " 
The ' ' dying man ' ' was hopping about the chamber on one leg and 
trying to pull on a sock. 

" But there's nothin' we can do. We don't even know where 
they've gone." 

" Luther Taylor, if I was you, I'd swap my head for a punkin. 
Tabby says she's goin' ter be married by a Swedenborg'in, don't she? 
Wall, where' s the only Swedenborg'in minister on the Cape ? " 

" That's so ! The only one's at Ostable. But we can't git ter 
Ostable ternight. They've took the horse and buggy, and I'd have 
ter walk a mile to rout folks outer bed and borrer another team. And, 
besides ' ' 

" Oh, be still ! You're wuss'n the seven years' itch ! Ain't that 
steam cart out there in the barn ? That — that — oug hter-mow-some- 
thin'-or-nuther? Didn't yer tell me that thing would go twelve miles 
an hour, and won't twelve mile an hour git yer ter Ostable 'fore that 
old hoss can git there ? ' ' 

When Mr. Taylor pushed the automobile surrey out of the stable 



426 UNCLE JETHROS WILL 

and went into the house to say good-bye to Uncle Jethro he was far 
from comfortable. In the first place, he knew very little about run- 
ning the new vehicle. He had seen Professor Lyndum operate it sev- 
eral times, and the professor had condescended to explain something 
of its mechanism, but Luther was not sure that he remembered much 
of the explanation. He knew enough, however, to be certain that 
there was but little gasoline in the tank, certainly not enough to pro- 
pel the machine to Ostable, and that he should have to buy some when 
he reached the village. Uncle Jethro met him at the door. The lat- 
ter was fully dressed, even to an old straw hat and a tippet tied over 
his ears. 

' ' Are yer all ready fer us to start ? " he inquired. 

" Us ?'*. gasped Luther. 

" Sartin ! that's what I said." 

" Butyoti're not goin' — you, a dying man ! " 

" Goin' ! I guess I'm goin' ! " Uncle Jethro climbed up to the 
back seat of the surrey and planted himself thereon. Luther knew his 
relative too well to offer any further objection. The events of the 
night were rapidly becoming so bewildering that a man's stepping 
back from the brink of the grave to take a ride in an automobile did 
not seem anything extraordinary. He took his seat in front. 

" Now we're going to start," he said. " Let's see ; which is the 
thing yer pull ? I guess this is it. Here she goes ! ' ' 

She did go, for he had pulled the throttle wide open and the 
machine started with a jerk that bent Uncle Jethro across the back of 
his seat like a jacknife and sent Mr. Taylor's feet into the air. He 
had just time to grasp the steering bar as they shot through the front 
gate. 

Down the road they flew. Luckily the moon had risen and it 
was now light enough to see the way clearly. Uncle Jethro was rub- 
bing his back and gasping for breath. Luther fumbled for the brake 
but didn't find it, and they went down the long hill beyond the Lyn- 
dum estate at record-breaking speed. 

"Say!" panted Uncle Jethro; "this ain't no twelve mile an 
hour, it's a hundred mile an hour, and it looks ter me as if it 'twould 
fetch us ter the hereafter instead of Ostable. ' ' 

Mr. Taylor answered not, but clung for dear life to the steering 
gear as the surrey went round Perkins' corner on two wheels. Mr. 
Perkins' dog, who had rushed, a perfect whirlwind of barks, to the 



UNCLE JETHRO'S WILL 427 

road, saw the approaching juggernaut and departed for the back 
pasture. At length they whizzed into the main street of Orham. 

"Say, Luther! I want ter stop a minute!" shouted Uncle 
Jethro. 

"So do I," answered his nephew ; " but I dunno how." 

Just at this moment, however, he discovered the brake, and Uncle 
Jethro's desire was granted. The surrey stopped with such sudden- 
ness that the old gentleman shot half way onto the front seat and 
Luther dropped to his knees with a thump. He rose, groaned, ex- 
plained to his relative the necessity of procuring some gasoline, and, 
bidding the latter sit where he was, sprang to the ground and 
limped off. 

Josiah Brackett's store was the only place in town where the 
needed fuel could be obtained, and Josiah Brackett had sought his 
more or less downy couch some five hours before. Luther's thumps 
and kicks at last brought a frowsy head to an upper window and a 
voice demanded to know what was wanted. The thumper made 
known his need. 

" Go on ! " said the voice. " This ain't no 'pothecary shop. I 
don't keep vaseline." 

1 ' Who said anything about vaseline ? ' ' howled Luther, now thor- 
oughly out of patience. " Gasoline's what I want. G-a-s gas, 1-e-a-n 
line, gasoline ! D'yer understand that?" 

It may have been the phonetic spelling which impressed Mr. 
Brackett, but, be that as it may, he came down stairs after a time, 
procured the gasoline and offered to help Luther carry the can con- 
taining the same over to the automobile. When they arrived there 
Luther was alarmed to find that Uncle Jethro had disappeared. He 
began to shout the old man's name, and was relieved when his hail 
was answered. Soon the missing passenger appeared, accompanied, to 
his nephew's wide-eyed amazement, by a companion. This companion, 
who looked about half awake, was a superannuated old justice of the 
peace, who had formerly been one of Uncle Jethro's bosom friends. 

"Luther," said Uncle Jethro, "this ere's Jedge Bean. He's 
goin' 'long with us." 

"But I tell yer I can't go, Jethro ! " expostulated Mr. Bean. 
"I'd git my death of cold ridin' way over ter Ostable ternight ! " 

" Rubbish? I guess if I can git up off a sick bed, and a mighty 
sick bed at that, you can stand it. See here, Laban Bean ! Didn't I 
git you made Sheriff of this county in '51 ? " 



42S UNCLE JETHRO'S WILL 



Yes, Jethro ; I admit you- 



" And didn't yer say then : 'Jethro Parker, if there's any favor 
I ever can do fer you, jest let me know.' And ain't this the fust favor 
ever I've asked of yer?" 

" Yes, Jethro ; I know it is, but " 

" Then, don't say another word. Git in ! " 

The unwilling justice hoisted himself into the vehicle and Uncle 
Jethro followed. Luther, who was having some difficulty in evading 
Mr. Brackett's questions as to the reason for the nocturnal excursion, 
climbed to his seat and grasped the lever. 

"Look out when she starts, Laban !" advised Uncle Jethro. 
il She's a hoosier when she staris ! " 

But she started much less violently this time, for Luther had 
learned by experience. Also the brake helped him, and their descents 
of the various hills were not such hair-raising experiences as the first 
had been. They left Orham and took the wood road to Harniss, the 
next town. Luther, whose entire attention was given to his steering, 
had but a vague idea of what his companions were doing. He knew 
that the occupants of the back seat were deep in animated conversa- 
tion, and a hasty backward glance showed him that Uncle Jethro was 
holding a lantern, which he had insisted upon bringing from the house, 
and that Mr. Bean appeared to be trying to write something, and was 
finding it difficult. It was nearly four o'clock when they came out upon 
the macadamized State road, which runs directly through Ostable. 

' ' How much further is it? " inquired Uncle Jethro. 

"Only about three mile," answered Luther. "We're on the 
State road now, and I can let her out. 

" Think we've got ahead of 'em ? " 

" I cal'late so ; though the roads have been so bad that we ain't 
made twelve mile an hour, nor nothin' like it. Hold on ! What's 
that ahead ? ' ' 

They were passing over the brow of a hill and the road lay clear 
and white before them in the moonlight. There was a black some- 
thing upon it that moved rapidly. They listened and heard the sound 
of wheel and hoof. 

"It's them! " shrieked Uncle Jethro ; " Let her out, Luther! let 
her out! " 

And Mr. Taylor ' ' let her out. ' ' 

Down the hill like an avalanche came the surrey, to the accom- 
paniment of excited yells from L'ncle Jethro and his nephew and 



UNCLE JETHRO'S WILL 429. 

groans from the terror stricken Mr. Bean, who thought his last hour 
had arrived. Before Luther could collect himself sufficiently to apply 
the brake they shot past the buggy containing the eloping couple. 
Shouts, screams and then a crash came from behind. Mr. Taylor, 
suddenly awakening to a realization of his duties, put on the brake 
with all his force and went over the dash-board. He picked himself 
up and ran back toward the buggy, leaving Uncle Jethro gasping, 
with his chin over the back of the front seat, and Mr. Bean groaning 
dismally on the floor beneath. 

The buggy was overturned in the ditch beside the road and 
Dexter seemed to be trying to climb a tree. His staid old nerves had 
not been proof against the screaming hurricane that had just gone by 
and he had tried, for the first time in his life, to run away. Mr. 
McCue was helping the sobbing, but unhurt Tabitha to her feet when 
Luther came up. 

"What d'yer mean?" demanded the latter of the disheveled 
Roderick ; " Let that lady alone! Tabitha Taylor, ain't yer ashamed 
of yourself? Now you come home with me this minute! " 

" I shan't! " screamed the lady addressed. 

"Look here you!" said Mr. McCue, so suddenly that Luther 
jumped. ' ' What right have you got ter chase this lady and scare 
her nearly ter death ? She's over age and you ain't her guardeen, so 
she's got a right ter do jest what she pleases, and don't yer fergit it! 
Go home yerself , ' fore yer git inter trouble. ' ' 

Mr. Taylor was dumfounded. The idea that his sister could not, 
against her will, be compelled to leave her lover had not occurred to 
him before. He was mentally preparing an appeal to Tabitha' s good 
sense, when he was saved the trouble of delivering it. 

" See here, you hoss jockey! " said a voice behind them. 

■ ' Heavens and earth ! Uncle Jethro ! ' ' gasped Tabitha. 

" Good Lord! it's the dead man! " screamed Roderick. 

Uncle Jethro and Mr. Bean had come up unnoticed. The former 
carried the lantern and the latter had a paper in his hand. 

"You scalawag!" sputtered Uncle Jethro; " Mebbe I ain't so 
dead as you was hopin' I'd be. Now you listen, all of yer, ter what's 
goin' ter be read. This 'ere's Jedge Laban Bean, and him and me's 
been doin' a leetle lawyer bus'ness on the way down. Put on yer 
specs, Laban." 

Uncle Jethro held up the lantern and Mr. Bean, donning his 
spectacles and unrolling the paper, began to read as follows : 



430 UNCLE JETHRO'S WILL 

1 ' Last Will and Testament of Jethro Goodspeed Parker. ' ' 
"That's me, yer understand! me/" interrupted Uncle Jethro. 
"Whereas, I Jethro Goodspeed Parker, being of sound mind, 



and- 



Skip that, and git down ter business ! " commanded the "dying 



man. 



" Et cetera, et cetera," muttered Mr. Dean, hurrying down the 
page. ' ' Do hereby give and bequeath, at my death, all my worldly 
goods, namely, to wit : twenty-five acres of cranberry swamp, five 
acres of pasture land, situated in ' ' 

"Never mind itemizin'," said Uncle Jethro. "Read the last 
part. ' ' 

" Et cetera, et cetera, — ahem — said properties to be sold and the 
proceeds divided as follows : One-third to my nephew Luther Jackson 
Taylor, and the remaining two-thirds to my niece Tabitha Ann Tay- 
lor, provided " 

' ' Open yer ears, now ! ' ' shouted Uncle Jethro. 

' ' Provided that she does not marry the man known as Roderick 
McCue. Should she marry the said McCue, her portion shall revert 
to her brother, the said Luther Jackson Taylor, and she shall not re- 
ceive a cent. ' ' 

' ' Ah, ha ! " shouted the bequeather of cranberry swamps, danc- 
ing derisively before Mr. McCue. " How's that strike yer? Not a 
red cent ! ' ' 

Mr. Bean was proceeding to read the remainder of the will, sig- 
natures, etc. , but Tabitha broke in upon him. 

"Oh, Roderick!" she cried, rushing toward her prospective 
husband. " It shan't make one mite of difference. I'm jest as willin' 
ter marry you, even if I be poor. ' ' 

But Mr. McCue, whose expressive countenance had lengthened 
considerably, during the reading of the document, fended off the em- 
brace of his self-sacrificing sweetheart, and demanded ; "I say, old 
sport, is that straight ? ' ' 

"What, sir?" said Mr. Bean, who was somewhat offended at 
being addressed as ' ' old sport. ' ' 

' ' I say is that paper straight ? The real thing, yer know ? ' ' 

"If you mean to ask if the will you have jest heard read is a 
legal document, I answer yes. 

"Well!" said the philosophical Roderick, smiling cheerfully, 
" then I guess I'll have ter pass. You've got too good a hand for me, 



UNCLE JETHRO'S WILL 



43i 



old gent," he added, turning to Uncle Jethro, "and I will say that 
you' re the spry est dyin' man ever / struck ! " 

"Roderick!" shrieked the frantic Tabitha, "say you'll never 
desert me ! ' ' 

"'FraidI can't, m'dear. Long's yer had the cash comin' yer 
way I was willin' ter be 'yours forever,' but when uncle here has said 
it ain't ter be, why, it's ' farewell, farewell, me own true love.' Fact 
is, if I had ter marry fer love alone, I wouldn't be satisfied with any- 
thing short of a $10,000 prize beauty, and I'm 'fraid you ain't quite 
up ter the mark. 

Well, it was a harrowing scene. Tabitha fainted four separate 
times before she was placed in the buggy — which had been set on its 
wheels again — and started on her homeward way. Mr. Bean, who 
seemed to be a bit shy of the auto, volunteered to act as driver. 

Uncle Jethro and Luther took their places in the surrey. Mr. 
McCue had been left, swearing energetically, by the wayside. He 
had, at first, insisted on riding home with the others, but Uncle 
Jethro, to his nephew's admiring amazement, produced from his 
pocket the ancient Colt and its persuasive muzzle worked wonders in 
causing the groom to change his mind. 

When they were well on the homeward trip Luther remarked : 

"I'll never say another word agin horseless carriages. If we 
hadn't had this one we'd never have stopped that marriage in the 
world. But the whole thing was your notion, Uncle Jethro. You've 
been the smartest, spryest, liveliest " 

He was interrupted by a frightful groan from the back seat. 

' ' Consarn this everlastin' phthisic ! ' ' wheezed Uncle Jethro. 
" Oh, my poor nerves ! I say, Luther, if I don't last till we git home, 
see that there's some posies planted round my grave, won't yer?" 




Notes From Abroad 

MR. Mark May hew, a prominent member of the Automobile Club 
of Great Britain and Ireland, was recently elected a member 
of the London council. He canvassed his constituency in 
an automobile, and other members assisted him by allowing him to 
use their private machines. 



A club garage (storage station) for members of the Automobile 
Club of Great Britain and Ireland, is being got ready by Mr. Harring- 
ton Moore, in a building next to the Royal Aquarium, Westminster. 
Not only can motor vehicles be stored there, but repairs and cleaning 
will be attended to thoroughly at inclusive moderate prices, from 
8 A. M. until 12 midnight. The proposition in connection with this 
scheme is that the garage should be confined to members of the Auto- 
mobile Club, provided that 22 members take season tickets at 90 dol- 
lars per annum. 

Just now the subject of brakes is receiving great attention over in 
Great Britain, and already a suggestion has been made to prohibit 
carriages from entering the Automobile Club events, unless equipped 
with brakes which act both backwards and forwards. 



Arrangements are already in hand for the holding of an inter- 
national motor car exposition in the city of Turin, Italy, in the spring 
of 1902. 

Sir Courtenay Boyle had an article in the March number of 
Macmillarf s Magazine entitled "The Coinage of Words." He 
referred incidentally to the nomenclature of automobilism, and stated 
that "motor" is better than " automotor. " He also suggested the 
word " auto-kion " as a substitute for "automobile," "auto-car," or 
other means of designating a self-propelled vehicle. 



It was reported some time ago that Mr. Lemaitre would have built 
a 100 horse-power racing car. This, however, has been slow in coming 

432 



NOTES FROM ABROAD 433 

to the front, and now it is said that three of similar power are to be 
constructed by the Belgian Arms Factory of Herstal-les- Liege. These 
motor carriages will follow the Jenatzy system by using a motor in 
conjunction with a dynamo. When the carriage is at a standstill, or 
the full power is not required to drive the vehicle, the motor recharges 
a battery of accumulators, but when power is required in excess of 
that developed by the engine the dynamo is used as a motor, and as 
in the cars now being constructed the petrol engine develops sixty 
horse-power and the electric motor forty horse-power, it is easy to see 
what a tremendous force will be exerted when it is required to get up 
a high rate of speed or overcome any great resistance. The owners 
of the new vehicle are MM. Jenatzy and De Caters, and a French 
gentleman whose name is not given ; they are intended to take 
part in the Paris- Berlin and other important races in the coming 
season. 



The Sargent Company's Wrenches 

WRENCHES are very necessary to the automobilist, and in this 
connection we are pleased to refer to the product of the 
Sargent Company, of Chicago. This company has for some 
years been engaged in the manufacture of castings by what is known 
as the Tropenas process. Wrenches also are made by this process and 
are in every respect equal to forgings. They can be iriade as hard or 
soft as may be desired, and what is more, at considerably less cost. 
This company makes these wrenches of every size and style, and those 
interested will be given full information upon communicating with the 
company named. 



We have been somewhat surprised at the large number of — we 
were almost going to say absurd — claims which are sent into the Patent 
Office from time to time, for devices connected with the operation of 
automobiles, brakes, motors, etc. It would seem as though the num- 
ber of people who had unlimited confidence in the advent of the auto- 
mobile to find a field for all the freak devices which arc being devised 
was very great. 




( We desire those interested in both the manufacture a?id operation of Auto- 
mobiles to send in for use, hi this department^ whatever they think may be of 
interest to us or our readers. — Editors. ) 

Two Experiences Showing the Personal 

Factor 

1AM fully convinced that the majority of troubles which a great 
many automobilists have are their own fault — either from care- 
lessness or ignorance of the strains which material will safely 
stand. I have two friends — modesty prevents me citing my own 
case — both of whom have steam carriages, and their experiences have 
been exactly opposite. 

One is an insurance man, who has mighty little ideas on mechanics, 
and who hasn't the faintest idea why a piece of low carbon steel won't 
stand as much as the best steel made. He drives his carriage reck- 
lessly, takes curb stones at any speed he happens to be going, and — 
has breakdowns as a matter of course. He recently made a long trip, 
and swears that it cost him a dollar a mile — rather expensive traveling. 
My other friend is a mechanical engineer, has a machine of the 
same make, and they are as near alike as modern manufacturing 
methods can make them. He has had his machine nearly a year — 
has given it very little attention (the cleaning and care being all done 
by his stable man) and has not spent a dollar for repairs. 

He understands the strength of material — knows what it ought 
to stand, and avoids subjecting it to unnecessary strains, especially on 
bad roads. His experience has all been favorable to the steam car- 
riage, although I fully believe he would get along with any kind. 
It's another case of the ' ' personal factor ' ' being a very important one. 
Those who only hear of the experience of the first man will not 
be apt to buy an automobile, while those who know the latter are 
probably looking for one now. These personal experiences affect 
sales largely, and we ought to have both sides of the question. 

New York. Frank C. Hudson. 

434 



The Horse-Power of Carriages 

ONE of the most puzzling features of selecting an automobile is 
the question of horse-power. When the would-be purchaser 
finds a little machine with a 3 to 5-horse motor and a large 
machine with 8 to 1 2 horse-power, he begins to wonder what horse- 
power really means, and whether there isn't a big difference in the 
size of horses. The power of a motor depends both on its size and 
the speed at which it runs (leaving out the question of pressure in 
the cylinders) and the effective power depends on how much is lost in 
transmission. 

Assuming that all the driving mechanisms are equally effective 
and that the rated horse-power reaches the rim of the wheel, we can 
do a little calculating along locomotive lines — allowing, of course, for 
the difference in resistance to driving due to the roadbed. Locomotive 
traction on steel rails varies from 6. 5 pounds per ton hauled at 5 miles 
an hour to 10 pounds per ton at 30 miles. English figures give road 
traction on ordinary macadam at 50 to 60 pounds per ton, on best 
clay at 1 10 pounds and sand road at from 360 to 560 pounds per ton. 
Calling 200 pounds per ton as liberal allowance for any ordinary case 
we can figure a little on motors and weights. As it is easier to figure 
in hundred pounds than in tons we can call it 10 pounds per hundred, 
or 10 per cent, of weight in tractive power. Taking 10 miles an hour 
as our basis we have 880 feet per minute, and dividing 33,000 (be- 
cause 33,000 pounds raised one foot in one minute is the standard of 
horse-power) by 880 we have 37.5 pounds pull for every horse-power 
exerted. 

Taking a carriage which weighs 1,000 pounds with passengers, and 
at 10 pounds per hundred we have an allowance of 100 pounds pull. 
Dividing by 37.5 gives 2.6 horse-power as the required amount. Now, 
with a carriage weighing 2,000 pounds loaded, we see that just double 
this amount of power is necessary and that a 5.2 horse-power motor 
is needed to accomplish the same results. This lets a little daylight 
into the question for some of us laymen who get twisted. I had an 
engineering friend figure it out for me, and it cleared the problem con- 
siderably. Perhaps it will for others as well. 

Passaic, N. J. Henry Franklin. 

435 



A Recent Visit to Coventry 

THE well-known Daimler works were very busy, and it was a 
treat to walk through the vast sheds stocked with machinery 
and cars in every stage of construction. The first to claim 
attention was the splendid new 20 horse-power vehicle, built to the 
order of Mr. Talbot Clifton. This magnificent car is up-to-date in 
every respect and fitted throughout with roller bearings. The four- 
cylindered engine has both tube and electric ignition, and the work- 
manship throughout is of the finest description. The firm may well 
feel proud of turning out a car so far in advance of its predecessors. 

They have also made a new departure in the shape of a double- 
cylinder 9 horse-power motor, which will meet the public demand to 
a certainty. The Daimler Company has always been celebrated for 
the strength and solidity of its construction. Hitherto, they have, 
perhaps, rather erred in putting 5 and 6 horse-power engines on 
large cars weighing close on one ton. But this mistake they have 
now entirely overcome, and the tendency visible in the works is all 
towards increased power, combined with improved transmission and 
less weight. The new 20 horse-power cars ought to fill all automo- 
bilists with envy and admiration. 

We profited by the opportunity of being in Coventry to visit the 
Singer works, where we saw the Singer motor bicycle in action. It 
may be briefly stated that its ease of manipulation is undoubted. A 
gentleman who accompanied us and who was entirely unacquainted 
with motors got on the machine and at once rode it with the greatest 
ease. The bicycle possesses many points of ingenuity, which entitle 
it to favorable notice. But the placing of the motor within the driving 
wheel renders it very difficult to repair in case of a break down. A 
broken exhaust valve or spring would be extremely hard to tackle by 
the roadside. On pointing this out to Mr. Perks, the clever inventor, 
he admitted it was a weak point, and some means ought certainly to 
be devised for rendering the various parts get-at-able. The running 
of the bicycle apparently left nothing to be desired, but an extended 
trial is necessary to ascertain the merits and demerits of these and 
similar machines. The makers claim complete immunity from side 
slip, owing to the low center of gravity. In motors, as in everything 

436 



A RECENT VISIT TO COVENTRY 437 

else, theory is one thing, practice another. The Singer bicycle is 
certainly worthy of consideration, whether it prove merely an ingen- 
ious toy, or a formMable rival to the Werner and other makes. The 
Singer firm is also turning out tricycles, with the motor fitted within 
the front wheel and the driving wheels and frame similar to that of an 
ordinary tricycle. On some future occasion we hope to have the 
pleasure of trying one, when we shall be in a position to give our ex- 
perience as contrasted with the 2^ De Dion, which we are in the 
habit of riding. 

It is not given to everybody to ride on a 16 horse-power Napier. 
We had this privilege a short time ago. The car belonged to that well- 
known automobilist Mark Mayhew, Esq. When the leviathan got into 
her paces it was a treat. Steady, sure, swift, she well deserved the 
encomiums of the press and general public. Only when one glanced at 
the vanishing hedgerows did one realize the speed at which she was 
traveling. Strong as a lion, fleet as a greyhound, she had but one 
fault. She put us out of conceit with our modest ' ' Sir Charles ' ' 
boasting but 9 horse-power. Would that we were all Croesuses. Alas ! 
That cannot be. Rightly has Mr. Mayhew christened his splendid 
car ''The Great Northern." 

Market Harboro, England. Mary E. Kennard. 



Automobiles on the Installment Plan 

WE note in your March issue an article apparently favorable to 
the sale of automobiles on the installment plan and over the 
signature of Alfred Lamsdon, of Winchester, Mass., and I 
take the liberty of replying to the same in brief. 

Those who have been connected with the sale of any commodity 
from the point of view of a manufacturer, which article has secured its 
popularity through its sale on installments, are aware of the tremendous 
disadvantages to such manufacturer. This installment business permits 
the purchaser to purchase that which he cannot afford to pay for and 
in many cases that which he has no use for except in order to keep 
pace with some of his friends more fortunate in the possession of this 
world's goods. 

Furthermore, many disadvantages accrue to the seller by the 
marketing of an article used on the common roads when sold on the 



438 



AUTOMOBILES ON THE INSTALLMENT PLAN 



installment plan because of the loss necessary in the sale of such 
second hand article if it becomes the right of the seller to take such 
article from the purchaser for the non-payment of his installments. 
And the sale of automobiles on such a plan, would, in my judgment, 
redound to the tremendous injury of both the manufacturer and the 
dealer for the reason that even though these vehicles have come to 
stay, they are and always will be a machine and some users will un- 
derstand them better than others, so that the chances are that the 
dealer in taking an automobile back from a delinquent will find such 
vehicle in very bad shape and almost unsalable. 

James S. Holmes, Jr., 
Remington Automobile and Motor Company. 



A New Sparking Plug 



THAT much trouble incidental to explosion motors comes from 
poor ignition is well known. The more efficient the igniter 
can be made the better service will be given. The liability of 
the ignition plug to get out of order in many different ways is also 
patent to all automobilists, and any thing designed 
to lessen these troubles ought to be welcomed by 
them. 

In this connection it gives us pleasure to present 
an illustration of a new sparking plug, designed by 
Mr. E. T. Birdsall, of the Desberon Motor Car Com- 
pany, New Rochelle, N. Y. , and which he has just 
placed on the market. An interesting point about 
this plug is that no packing is used and it is an easy 
matter to repair it on the road, as spare pieces can 
be carried, and can be slipped in when necessary. 

The small porcelain is fully protected, while the 
larger piece is, owing to its large section, practically unbreakable. 

Mr. Birdsall informs us that he has used one of the plugs steadily 
for two months at a time without having to touch it once. They are 
patented in England, France and America, and are sold for one dollar 
each. 




Of Passing Interest 

{Readers ivill confer a favor upon the editors of this magazine 
by sending in any interesting item of news suitable for this depart- 
ment. ) 

Mr. A. L. Dyke, who was formerly manager of the St. Louis 
Automobile and Supply Company of St. Louis, has now embarked in 
business for himself and will continue to furnish engines, running gears 
and carbureters, and will also handle all kinds of automobile supplies. 
His office is located in the Linmar Building, St. Louis. All parties 
who are interested in automobile parts and supplies will do well to 
send for Mr. Dyke's new 1 6-page catalogue. We wish him success 
in his new venture. 



The city of Charleston, S. C. , is planning to hold an Exposition 
from December i, 1901, to May 31, T902, to be known as the South 
Carolina Inter-State and West Indian Exposition. The exhibition 
will be quite comprehensive in scope, and it is expected it will reveal 
to the world the remarkable development of the Southern States dur- 
ing the last twenty-five years of the just closed century. Many of the 
States have already signified their intention of erecting State build- 
ings and making State exhibits. 



Alexander Winton, who has already made some very successful 
long distance runs, contemplates an automobile trip between San Fran- 
cisco and New York. The experiences of such a journey will, to say 
the least, be full of vital interest to all automobilists, and its carrying 
out calls for the making of a great many plans for the obtaining of 
fuel, etc., and some time will be occupied in doing this. There are of 
course a number of routes, but any one of them presents almost insur- 
mountable difficulties to the automobilist. It is understood that Mr. 
Chas. B. Shanks will be Mr. Winton' s running mate. 



Recently George C. Clausen, president of the Department of 
Parks in this city, expressed his opinion of the Doughty automobile 
bill. Generally he commends the bill, but thinks it ought to be in the 
power of supervising bodies of the parks to say just what types and 
sizes of motor vehicles shall be allowed to enter. He said that the 
closest restrictions have hitherto been necessary to prevent dangerous 
and objectionable vehicles from entering the park, but as the Doughty 
bill makes no distinction as to size of motor carriages that may enter 

439 



44o OF PASSING INTEREST 

he fears they may be as large as street cars and even more dangerous, 
inasmuch as their line of route is uncertain. There does not appear 
to be any good argument why the automobile should be barred from 
any park. As a matter of fact the very horses which are driven 
through our parks are compelled to meet automobiles on the common 
thoroughfare, and if so then there is no reason for barring the motor 
vehicle from the parks on that score. 



The Peerless Long Distance Steam Carriage Company is the 
name of a new concern recently organized, and which will engage in 
the manufacture and sale of motor vehicles and supplies of all kinds. 
Among other things which this new and enterprising concern has pro- 
duced is an antomobile engine of the compound marine type, with 
cylinders 2^x5 inches with a 3-inch stroke. If desired, engines of 
larger dimensions may be obtained. In these engines the steam chests 
are cast in one piece with the cylinder. The material used is of the 
best quality and the workmanship is also of the finest. This same 
company is manufacturing a new compensating gear, in which spur 
gears only are used. All parts are held in a dust and dirt-proof cover- 
ing, which, when filled with vaseline, ensures perfect lubrication for an 
indefinite period. The Peerless Company is also marketing other 
devices, such as running gears, kerosene burners, etc. , and has entered 
the field under most favorable circumstances. 



The Electric Vehicle Company has obtained two Government con- 
tracts for automobiles. One is for the transmission of mails between 
the Pan-American Exposition grounds and the Buffalo Post-office. 
The other is for the distribution of books from the Congressional 
Library at Washington, D. C. For these services the company will 
use a Mark XI delivery wagon. 

Below is given a list of exhibits the company is going to have at 
the Buffalo Exposition : 

Mark III phaeton, Mark VII tricyle carrier, Mark VIII gasoline 
runabout, Mark XI delivery wagon, Mark XI wagonette, Mark XI 
six-passenger 'bus, Mark XII runabout with wooden wheels, Mark 
XII runabout with buggy top and wire wheels, Mark XII victoria 
with wire wheels, Mark XII victoria with canopy top and wooden 
wheels, Mark XVI extension front brougham, Mark XIX surrey, 
Mark XIX cabriolet, Mark XIX rear boot victoria and Mark XIX 
delivery wagon. 



OF PASSING INTEREST 441 

The De Dion-Bouton Motorette Co. has reduced the prices on the 
smaller sizes of genuine imported air cooled motors. 

The 1^ horse-power genuine De Dion air cooled motor which 
has always sold at $150.00 with accessories, will now be sold for 
$125.00 with accessories. This motor is particularly adapted to the 
requirements of motor bicycle manufacturers. It is none too power- 
ful for that work, and yet it weighs only forty-five pounds, thus mak- 
ing a very desirable power for cycles, etc. The speed of the 1^ 
horse-power motor averages from 1,800 to 2,200 revolutions a minute. 
At 1,800 it will develop its rated power. 

The 2^ horse-power genuine imported De Dion air cooled motor 
has been reduced from $200.00 to $150.00 with accessories. This 
motor is particularly suitable for tricycles, quadricycles, racing bicycles 
or motor tandems. When fitted to any one of these types it will not 
overheat under full load or speed. In fact this motor is used by prac- 
tically all of the motor tandem riders in the world. The average 
speed of this motor is from 1,500 to 1,800 revolutions per minute, at 
which speeds it will develop its full power. 



The Automobile Headquarters of Boston will soon have a new- 
building, the contract for this having been let. It will have five 
stories and basement, and will be located on Stanhope Street, near 
Trinity Place Station. 

There will be 5,500 square feet of space on each floor, which will 
be heated and lighted by a power plant located in the building. A 
power elevator large enough to accomodate anything in the automo- 
bile line from a giant Panhard to a De Dion ' ' quad ' ' will be one of 
the features of the building. It is proposed to brilliantly illuminate 
the front of the building to enable automobilists to locate it when 
approaching from any quarter. 

All the latest modern appliances for the proper storage and 
repair of automobiles of every kind will be used by this new establish- 
ment. 

P. G. Lewis, the present manager of Automobile Headquarters, 
33 Stanhope Street, will continue to conduct their business in the new 
establishment, which is an assurance that patrons will receive every 
possible attention. The motoring public of Boston are sure to find 
this new establishment a real luxury in its way. Automobiles will be 
delivered and called for, and the building will be open day and night 
the year round to accomodate transient as well as local custom. 



An Automobile Trip Through the Sahara 

IN our April number we printed an article entitled ''Across the 
Desert, ' ' in which reference was made to a Frenchman who had 
succeeded in driving an automobile across the desert to Suez. 
The writer of the article expressed an opinion to the effect that prob- 
ably soon it would be possible to travel from Cairo to Suez on sched- 
ule time at, say, about $20 for the round trip. 

The following story of a most interesting journey in South 
Algeria undertaken by Baron Crawhez and party comes very near to 
the hopes expressed in the article just referred to, and while the voy- 
age was not exactly from Cairo to Suez, it was nevertheless through a 
part of the globe in which an automobile had never been seen before. 
The effect the sight of a horseless carriage must have had on those 
men of the desert was, to say the least, unique. Truly, they must 
have considered the Baron and his party as nothing short of miracle 
workers. Baron Crawhez, from whom we received the accompanying 
photographs, is a member of the Automobile Club of Belgium, and we 
feel sure the pictures and accompanying description will be read with 
great interest. 

The fact that the vehicles were able to make the journey 
without very serious accident ought to be sufficient proof of the prac- 
ticability of the modern automobile, and give it a place in the cate- 
gory of efficient and satisfactory methods of transportation. 

The natives who were passed by the machines on the route are 
said to have appeared surprised and frightened, and ran away, shout- 
ing, "They are the devil's machines." 

By reference to some of the illustrations, it will be seen that such 
a trip must have been attended with peculiar interest outside of the 
practical demonstration of the automobiles' ability to make the jour- 
ney in the face of such adverse conditions. To travel in the Sahara 
in an automobile is suggestive of romance, to say the least. 

The party left Algiers February 4, starting toward Medeah. It 
followed the well-known and picturesque route through the Chiffa 
mountains. This road is noted for its beautiful scenery, though not 
at all one of the best for automobiles. However, the travelers ex- 
pected to encounter very unwelcome snatches as they went along, and 
so were not disappointed. 

442 



444 



AN AUTOMOBILE TRIP THROUGH THE SAHARA 




Gardhaia. Automobile Surrounded by Natives 



The following day Boghari was reached. The mountains in this 
section are covered with luxuriant forests. It was found extremely 
difficult to make the descent of Mount Grenot, and called for great 

caution on the part of 
those who operated the 
vehicles. To drive an 
automobile through a 
country such as was in- 
vaded by Baron Crawhez 
and his party calls for 
special caution. A man 
must be pretty well bal- 
anced to successfully nav- 
igate along such roads 
and down such grades as 
were encountered on the 
journey in question. 

On the second day out, 
February 6, a start was 
made at 9 A. M. for Djelfa, about 167 kilometers (103 miles), but the 
bad condition of the roads would not allow the vehicles to make more 
than about 15 kilometers, or 9 miles, an hour. 

The travelers now 

reached the Plains of 
Marabout and were favor- 
ed with a view of the 
beautiful rock, said to be 
composed of salt. 

The close of the follow- 
ing day, February 7, 
found the automobilists at 
Laghouat, 125 kilometers 
(77 miles) from Djelfa. 
Some parts of the journey 
it was very hard going — 
between Djelfa and Ain- 

Elibel this was especially The Stage 

so. The hubs of the machines were buried in sand in some places, 
and on more than one occasion was it found necessary to push the 
carriages along. 




• 



AN AUTOMOBILE TRIP THROUGH THE SAHARA 



445 




fyegli 




Arrival at Oasis of Berrian 



When the party entered Laghouat there was great commotion 
among the natives. A number of the city officials of the place ten- 
dered the travelers a very warm reception. What surprise must have 

been caused by the 
incoming of such an 
unusual — and to their 
minds unnatural — 
form of conveyance 
can be better imagin- 
ed than described. 

One week was spent 
in this, in many re- 
spects, remarkable 
city. Pleasant excur- 
sions were made to 
various points around 
the city. The view 
one can get of the Sa- 
hara from the tower of the city hospital is unique. 

A start was made for Gardhai'a on the morning of February 13. 
While on the way large numbers of carcasses of camels were passed — 
in fact it was a usual thing to encounter them. At last the famous 
oasis of Berrian was reach- 
ed. Here a halt was made. 
The party was especially 
interested in the peculiar 
method of washing 
clothes. This is done by 
simply banging them 
against stones. It does 
not seem at all probable 
that such a plan would 
tend to cause buttons to 
remain long. 

At Gardhai'a the inhab- 
itants were very hos- 
pitable. Some of the 
more " progressive" of them were bold enough to take a place in one 
of the " devil's machines." (See illustration. ) 

McZab was the next city visited. This is beautifully situated on 




A Snap Shop of No. 156 



446 



AN AUTOMOBILE TRIP THROUGH THE SAHARA 



the side of a hill, and presents a striking appearance when approaching 
it. From here also numerous excursions were made to surrounding 
towns. 

A return was made to 
Laghouat on February 1 8 ; 
thence to Djelfa. On the 
2 2d a start was made for 
Bousaada. Here the roads 
were good, but the city of 
Bousaada is merely a des- 
ert town. Aumale was 
reached on February 25, 
The following day a move 
was made for Algiers* 
where the travelers found 
a more advanced condi- 
tion of things. 

The result of this inter- 
esting journey showed 
conclusively that 80 per cent, of traveling expenses had been saved, 
besides securing about ten times the speed. The participants were 
not endeavoring to set up any new records. Altogether 400 miles 
were covered on the journey. 

The photographs kindly sent us by Baron Crawhez will be of in- 
terest, and he and his friends have by this most romantic experience 
demonstrated that the automobile, if properly built and operated, can 
be used to advantage wherever the horse or camel can. 




A New Chauffeur 



Automobile Plans for the Buffalo Exposition 

BUFFALO, with her beautiful tree-embowered streets and park- 
ways, will this summer be the Mecca of the Automobilists of 
the Americas. 
As a result of a conference held in Buffalo between William I. 
Buchanan, Director-General of the Pan-American Exposition, and a 
committee appointed by the Board of Governors of the Automobile 
Club of America, consisting of Albert C. Bostwick, Percy Owen and 
J. M. Hill, all of New York City, together with Thomas M. Moore, 
Superintendent of transportation exhibits, and the Sports and Athletics 



AUTOMOBILE PLANS FOR THE BUFFALO EXPOSITION 447 




A Street in Laghouat 



Committee of the Exposition, it was decided to hold a grand Interna- 
tional Road Race of two hundred miles from Buffalo to Erie and re- 
turn, as the culmination 
of a week of automobile 
sports at the Pan-Ameri- 
can Exposition. To ar- 
range and carry out the 
program of the tourna- 
ment, Director-General 
Buchanan has appointed 
a committee of automo- 
bilists to act in connection 
with the Sports and Ath- 
letics Committee of the 
Exposition. 

Mr. Malcolm W. Ford 
will be chairman of the 
special committee, and 
his associates will be Mr. 
J. M. Hill, who will rep- 
resent the electrical ve- 
hicle interests ; Mr. Percy Owen, representing the gasoline vehicle 
interests, and Mr. S. T. Davis, Jr., representing steam vehicle inter- 
ests. All four are mem- 
bers of the Automobile 
Club of America, and Mr. 
Davis is also president of 
the National Association 
of Automobile Manufac- 
turers. The fifth member 
of the committee is Dr. 
Truman J. Martin, presi- 
dent of the Buffalo Auto- 
mobile Club. 

Though the program 
of the tournament, which 
will be held in the Stadi- 
um, has not been arrang- Another Scene in Laghouat 

ed, it has been suggested that trials to test the mobility and economy 
of the various types of motor vehicles, obstacle and hill-climbing con- 
tests, brake contests, and pursuit races be included in it. 




448 AUTOMOBILE PLANS FOR THE BUFFALO EXPOSITION 

The tournament will take place during the week begining Sep- 
tember 1 6. It is intended that the International speed contest over 
the famous Buffalo-Erie course, shall rank with the famous long dis- 
tance automobile races held annually in France. This contest will be 
the feature of the week of automobile sports and tests, and will be 
open to self-propelled vehicles of all types and all countries. Large 
purses and valuable cups and medals will be presented to the winners. 

During the week preceding that of the Motor Vehicle Tourna- 
ment at the Pan-American Exposition, the Automobile Club of Amer- 
ica will hold a tour or endurance test from New York to Buffalo as a 
practical demonstration of the utility of motor vehicles. 

This run will not be a speed contest, as the object of the trip is to 
demonstrate the possibilities of the various types of motor vehicles 
under all conditions of weather and roads. 

The awards will be made on the following basis : 

First. — Vehicles making the fewest stops en route. 

Second. — Vehicles carrying the highest percentage of pay load. 

Third.— Vehicles requiring the least repairs. 

Automobilists of all countries are invited to participate and valu- 
able cups and medals are to be given as prizes. The course is to be 
up the Hudson to Albany and thence across the State to Buffalo, a 
distance of about 460 miles. The route to be followed will be definite- 
ly fixed by a committee appointed by Mr. A. R. Shattuck, president 
of the Automobile Club of America. 



Ideas of Inventors 

{Copies of patents can be obtained from Patent Office, Washington, 
D. C, by sending five cents in coin. ) 

Edward Y. White, of San Antonio, Tex. , has just invented a 
motor bicycle the engine of which has its shafts project from slots in 
the case. A chain drive is used. The engine is mounted within the 
casing. Patent No, 670,010. 



Patents for automobile running gear are frequently being taken 
out, and one of the latest is that of William Van Wagoner's, of Syra- 
cuse, N. Y. This consists of two rear cycle castings arranged in line 
with each other and held together by means of side frames. The 
front axle is fixed, having spherical knuckles fixed to it with longitud- 
inal flaring openings. Patent No. 670,121. 



Automobile Club Directory 

Under this heading we shall keep a record of the motor vehicle 
clubs both of this and other countries, a?id we hope to have the 
co-operation of club officers in making it accurate and complete. 

Corresponding clubs of the Automobile Club of America are 
designated thus *. 



Automob-'le Club of America, Mal- 
colm W. Ford, Secretary, 203 Broad- 
way, New York ; representative on In- 
ternational Racing Board, Clarence 
Grey Dinsmore ; Substitute, John H. 
Flagler. 

Automobile Club of New Jersey, 
Secretary, Dr. H. Power, Mont- 
clair, N. J. 

Automobile Club of Baltimore, W. 
W. Donaldson, Secretary, 872 Park 
Avenue, Baltimore. 

Automobile Club of Brooklyn, Sec- 
retary, C. Benton Dix, Hotel Claren- 
don, Brooklyn. 

* Automobile Club of Columbus, O., 
C. M. Chittenden, Secretary, Broad 
Street. 

Chicago Automobile Club, Secre- 
tary, H. M. Brinkerhoff, Monadnock 
Block, Chicago. 

Indiana Automobile Club, Indianap- 
olis, Ind„ Secretary, August Kabich. 
Long Island Automobile Club, 
Secretary, Charles W. Spurr, Jr., 552 
State Street, Brooklyn. 

Automobile Club of New England, 
Secretary, Geo. E. McQuesten, Brook- 
line, Mass. 

^Cleveland Automobile Club, L. H. 
Rogers, 357 Amesbury Avenue, Sec- 
retary, Cleveland, O. 

*North Jersey Automobile Club, E. 
T. Bell. Jr., Secretary, Paterson, N. J. 

^Automobile Club of Rochester, 
Frederick Sager, Secretary, 66 East 
Avenue, Rochester, N. Y. 

Massachusetts Automobile Club, 
President, J. Ransome Bridge ; Treas- 
urer, Conrad J. Rueter ; Secretary, L. 
E. Knott, 16 Ashburton Place, Bos- 
ton, Mass. 

Pennsylvania Automobile Club, Sec- 
retary, Henry J. Johnson, 138 No. 
Broad Street, Philadelphia. 



^Philadelphia Automobile Club, 
Frank C. Lewin, Secretary, 250 No. 
Broad Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Automobile Club of Bridgeport, 
Secretary, Frank W. Bolande. 208 
Barnum Avenue, Bridgeport, Conn. 

Rhode Island Automobile Club, Sec- 
retary, Frederick C. Fletcher, P. O. 
Box 1314, Providence, R. I. 

Princeton University Automobile 
Club, Princeton, N. J. President, P. 
Adamson ; Secretary, Charles H. 
Dugro. 

San Francisco Automobile Club, 
B. L. Ryder, Secretary, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 

Columbia College Automobile Club, 
Lewis Iselin, Secretary, Columbia Col- 
lege, New York, N. Y. 

^Buffalo Automobile Club, Secretary, 
Ellicott Evans, The Lenox, Buffalo, 
N. Y. 

Worcester Automobile Club, Wor- 
cester, Mass., President, J. W. Bige- 
low ; Vice-President, Edwin Brown , 
Marshal, W. J. H. Nourse; Treasurer; 
B. A. Robinson ; Secretary, H. E. Shi- 
land. 

AUSTRIA. 

Budapest — Magyar Automobil Club, 
31 Musem Koriil. 

Innesbruck — Tiroles Automobil 
Club, Rudolph-Strasse 3. 

Prague — Prager Automobil Club. 

BELGIUM. 

Antwerp — Automobile Club Anver- 
soir, 34 r. Longue de l'Hopital ; Presi- 
dent, Baron de Bieberstein. 

^Brussels — Automobile Club de Bel- 
gique, 14 PI. Royale ; Moto-Club do 
Belgique, 152 Boul. du Nord ; Touring 
Club de Belgique, 11 r. des Vauniers, 



449 



45o 



AUTOMOBILE CLUB DIRECTORY 



Charleroi — Automobile Club de 
Charleroi, Hotel de Esperance. 

Ghent — Automobile Club de Flan- 
dres. 

Liege — Automobile Club, Liegeois, 
2 r. Hamal. 

FRANCE. 

Amiens — Automobile Club de Picar- 
die, 36 r. de La Hotoie. 

Avignon — Automobile Club de 
Avignon. 

Bordeaux — L' Automobile Bordelais. 

Dijon — Automobile Club, Bourguig- 
nors Cafe Americanie. 

Lyon — Bicycle et Automobile Club 
de Lyon ; Motor Club de Lyon, 3 pi. 
de la Bouise. 

Marseilles— Automobile Club de 
Marseilles, 61 r. St. Fereol. 

Nance— Automobile Club, Lorrain, 
Thiers pi. 

Nice — Automobile Velo, Club de 
Nice, 16 r. Chauvain. 

^"Paris— Automobile Club of France, 
6 pi. de la Concorde ; Motr-Club de 
France ; Touring Club de France, 5 r. 
Coq-Heron. 

Pau — Automobile Club, Bearnais 
Ave. de la Pau, President, M. W. K. 
Thorn. 

Perigueux — Veloce Club, Perigour- 
din, Hotel de Commerce. 

Toulouse — Automobile Club, Tou- 
lousain Cafe Riche, pi. St. Etienne 
Societe des Chaff eurs du Midi, 25 r. 
Roquelaine. President, M. Gay. 

GERMANY. 

Aachen (Aix la Chapelle) — West- 
deutscher Automobile Club, Hotel 
Grand Monarque. 

Berlin — Mitteleuropaischer Motor 
Wagen Verein, I. Universitatstrasse, 
Herr A. Klose ; Deutscher Automobil 
Club, Liusenstrasse, 43-44. 

*Deutscher Automobil Club, Lius- 
enstrasse, 43-44. President, S. D. 
Herzog, Victor von Ratilin. 

Dresden — Radfahrer-und Automobi- 
listen Vereinigung; Dresdener Touren 
Club. 

Eisenach — Mitteldeutscher Automo- 
bil Club ; Motorfahrer Club, Eisenach. 



Frankfort am Main — Frankfurter 
Automobil Club, Restaurant Kaiserhof. 

Munich — Bayer. Automobil Club, 33 
Findling Strasse. 

Stettin — Erster Stettiner Bicycle und 
Automobil Club. 

Strassburg — Strassburger Automo- 
bil Club. 

Stuttgart — Suddeutscher Automobil 
Club ; Wurtembergischer Motor Wag- 
en Verein. 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

Birmingham — Motor and Cycle 
Trades Club, Corporation street. 

Edinburgh — Scottish Automobile 
Club. 

Liverpool — Liverpool Self-propelled 
Traffic Association, Colquitt street. 
Secretary, E. Shrapnell Smith. 

^London — Automobile Club of Great 
Britain and Ireland, 4 Whitehall Court, 
S. W. Hon. Secretary, C.Harrington 
Moore. 

Nottingham Automobile Club, Sec- 
retary, A. R. Atkey, Nottingham, 
England. 

HOLLAND. 

Nimegue — Nederlandsche Automo- 
bile Club. 

ITALY. 

Milan — Club Automobilisti Italiani 
6 via Guilini. 

*Turin — Automobile Club dTtalie 
Via Vittorio Amedeo II, 26. 

RUSSIA. 

Moscow — Moskauer Automobile 
Club, Petrowka, Hauschnow. 

St. Petersburg — Automobile Club 
de Russe, President, M. Delorme. 

SPAIN. 

Madrid— Automobile Club de Mad- 
rid. 

SWITZERLAND. 

^Geneva — Automobile Club de 
Suisse, 9 boul. de Theatre. 



The Automobile 
magazine 

A Live Journal for all interested in Motor Vehicles 
Vol. Ill No. 5 NEW YORK, MAY, 1901 Price 25 Cents 

Published Monthly by 

THE AUTOMOBILE PRESS, 

95 Liberty Street, New York. 

Telephone: 984 Cortlandt. Cable Address : " Loceng," N.Y. 

Angus Sinclair, President. Jas. R. Paterson, Secretary. 

Fred H. Colvin, Vice-President and Editor. Jas. J. Salmond, Associate Editor. 



Boston Office, 170 Summer Street. Philadelphia, The Bourse. 



Subscription Price, $3.00 a year in the United States, Canada and Mexico. Foreign Countries 
in the Pcstal Union, $4.00 (gold). Advertising Rates on application. 



Copyrighted, 1901. 
Entered at New York Post Office as second-class matter. 



For Sale by Newsdealers everywhere. 



We regret that it will not be possible to publish this month the 
next in order of Mr. Dolnar's interesting series on the " Final Auto- 
mobile. ' ' However, it is expected that in the June issue Mr. Dolnar 
will again favor us. 



Speed of Club Runs 



CLUB runs, especially in cities, should be "runs